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COMPOSITE MATERIALS

Matrix and Resin

COMPOSITE MATERIALS
Are a combination of two or more elements that create a material with different characteristics than
the elements that compose it.
They are commonly composed of a main mass referred to as a
matrix and strengthening agent that acts as a binder referred to as a
resin. Other materials can be applied to the matrix in order to provide
more stability in the composite. These layers create an envelope
around the matrix completely enclosing it and creating a much stronger material.
Composites fall within 3 categories:

Carbon Fiber

1. Polymer Matrix composites (PMCs)


2. Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs)

Carbon Nanotubes

3. Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs)

Ceramic Composite

1. Polymer Matrix composites (PMCs)


These are the most commonly found type of composites. They are
usually know as fiber reinforced polymers (FRP). They consist of a
fiber like carbon, glass and aramid as the reinforcement and a polymer based resin as the matrix.
They have the following characteristics:
-Fiber properties
-Resin properties
-Ratio of fiber to resin
-Geometry and orientation of the fibers.
2. Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs)
More commonly found in the automotive industry. They use a aluminum
core as the matrix and are reinforced with
silicon carbide fibers.
3. Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs)
Are commonly used in high
temperature environments. They use
ceramics as the matrix and are reinforced with
silicon carbide fibers and boron nitride.

Carbon Fiber

Carbon Nanotubes

Ceramic Composite

RESINS

They provide strength and adhesion capabilities to a composite material. They can also act as the
matrix in a fiber reinforced material.

1. Have good mechanical properties


2. Good adhesion
3. Toughness
4. And posses environmental degradation
The most common types of resins found are:
Polyester resins: do not require pressure to adhere to the matrix.
Vinylester: have higher resistance to water.
Epoxy: has great mechanical properties as well as great adhesion strength.

RESIN SYSTEMS
Polyesters

Advantages:
Easy to use
Lowest cost of resins
Available ($1.50-3/kg)
Disadvantages:
Only moderate mechanical
properties
High styrene emissions in
open moulds
High cure shrinkage Limited
range of working times

Vinylesters

Advantages:
Very high chemical/environmental resistance
Higher mechanical properties
than polyesters
Disadvantages:
Post cure generally required
for high properties High styrene content j
Higher cost than polyesters
($3-4.50/kg)
High cure shrinkage

Epoxies

Advantages:
High mechanical and thermal
properties
High water resistance
Long working times available
Temperature resistance can
be I to 140C wet / 220C
dry
Low cure shrinkage
Disadvantages:
Post cure generally required
for high properties
High styrene content j
Higher cost than polyesters
($3-4.50/kg)
High cure shrinkage
Disadvantages:
More expensive than vinylesters ($4.50-22.50/kg)
Critical mixing
Corrosive handling

FIBERS AND MATRIXES

FIBERS AND MATRIXES


FIBERGLASS

ARAMID FIBER

CARBON FIBER

By blending quarry products (sand, kaolin, limestone, ) at


1,600C, liquid glass is formed. The liquid is passed through micro-fine bushings and simultaneously cooled to produce glass fiber
filaments from 5-24m in diameter. The filaments are drawn together into a strand (closely associated) or roving (loosely associated),
and coated with a size to provide filament cohesion and protect
the glass from abrasion.
3 Types:
E-glass (electrical): lower alkali content and stronger than A glass
(alkali). Good tensile and compressive strength and stiffness, good
electrical properties and relatively low cost, but impact resistance
relatively poor. Depending on the type of E glass the price ranges
from about $1.50-3/kg. E-glass is the most common form of reinforcing fiber used in polymer matrix composites.
C-glass (chemical): best resistance to chemical attack. Mainly
used in the form of surface tissue in the outer layer of laminates
used in chemical and water pipes and tanks.
Rovings: a loosely associated bundle of untwisted filaments or
strands. Each filament diameter in a roving is the same, and is
usually between 13-24m. Rovings also have varying weights and
the tex range is usually between 300 and 4800. Where filaments
are gathered together directly after the melting process, the resultant fiber bundle is known as a direct roving.

FIBERS AND MATRIXES


FIBERGLASS

ARAMID FIBER

CARBON FIBER

Aramid fiber is a man-made organic polymer (an aromatic polyamide) produced by spinning a solid fiber from a liquid chemical
blend. The bright golden yellow filaments produced can have a
range of properties, but all have high strength and low density
giving very high specific strength. All grades have good resistance
to impact, and lower modulus grades are used extensively in ballistic applications. Compressive strength, however, is only similar to
that of E glass.
Carbon fiber is produced by the controlled oxidation, carbonization
and graphitisation of carbon-rich organic precursors which are
already in fiber form. The most common precursor is polyacrylonitrile (PAN), because it gives the best carbon fiber properties, but
fibers can also be made from pitch or cellulose. Variation of the
graphitisation process produces either high strength fibers (@
~2,600C) or high modulus fibers (@ ~3,000C) with other types
in between. Once formed, the carbon fiber has a surface treatment applied to improve matrix bonding and chemical sizing which
serves to protect it during handling.

CORE MATERIALS

Engineering theory shows that the flexural stiffness of any panel is


proportional to the cube of its thickness. The purpose of a core in
a composite laminate is therefore to increase the laminates stiffness by effectively 'thickening' it with a low-density core material.
This can provide a dramatic increase in stiffness for very little additional weight.

Polyurethane foam
PVC foams are widely used core materials in the marine, surface transport, aerospace, and wind
energy industries due to their consistent density, high moisture resistance, and excellent physical properties.

CORE MATERIALS
Honeycomb cores

Honeycomb cores are available in a variety of materials for sandwich structures.

Paper core

Wood cores

Aluminum core

Other, coremat and spheretex

OTHER COMPOSITES
Large particles
Concrete

SMART APPLICATIONS
Using carbon ber reinforced
lament for 3D printing.
Thinner structures allow for
more opportunities to enable
the facade to accommodate
an array of systems.
Opportunity to create a
composite smart materials.
E.G. Carbon ber and
photovoltaic cells.

CARBON FIBER
Carbon fiber is produced by the controlled oxidation, carbonization and graphitisation of
carbon-rich organic precursors which are already in fiber form. The most common precursor is polyacrylonitrile (PAN), because it gives the best carbon fiber properties, but fibers
can also be made from pitch or cellulose. Variation of the graphitisation process produces
either high strength fibers (@ ~2,600C) or high modulus fibers (@ ~3,000C) with other
types in between. Once formed, the carbon fiber has a surface treatment applied to improve matrix bonding and chemical sizing which serves to protect it during handling.

TYPES OF FIBER

CONTINUOUS TOW
CHOPPED
MILLED
FABRIC
WOVEN FABRICS
FELT

CARBON FIBER

CHARACTERISTICS

CARBON FIBER

APPLICATIONS

https://youtu.be/hjErH4_1fks

Automotive

https://youtu.be/RiPQpiE4_qY

3D printing

`Carbon fiber is formed the same way as fiberglass. Epoxy or


polyester resin is used as the binding agent. Since carbon fiber is
as easy to apply as fiberglass this composite becomes a highly
versatile material. Its hight strength to weight ratio make it ideal for
intense structural use. Its ability to be milled allows it to be used in
3D printing industries.

CARBON FIBER

Grades

Carbon fiber is the result of heating polyacrylanitrile fiber to intense temperatures that remove
the majority of its elements except the carbon. This process is called pirolyzing process. The
resulting fiber after this process has the tensile modulus of 33 million pounds per square inch
(MSI), this is also referred as the standard modulus. By processing the strand even further this
will yield a higher tensile modulus equal to 42 MSI. This intermediate modulus creates smaller
strands than the standard allowing for more fibers to be packed in thus creating higher stiffness. The high modulus fiber are the result of heating the fibers even more. This results in a
tensile modulus of 55 MSI and fibers much more denser and smaller than the standard modulus which makes the fibers more brittle and fairly more expensive.
Fibers are sold in bundles designated by a (K) which signfies thousands of fibers. The most
common denominations are: 1K, 3K, 6K, 12K, 24K, 50K. These bundles are then used for
weaving fabrics that can be later be applied in numerous applciations.

RESOURCES
Addington, Michelle and Schodek,Daniel, "Smart Materials and New Technologies For Architecture and
Design Professions", Massachusetts: Architectural Press, 2005.
Buckley, John D., and Danny Dale Edie. Carbon-carbon materials and composites. Vol. 1254. William
Andrew, 1993.
http://calfeedesign.com/tech-papers/grades-of-carbon-fiber/
Lee, Henry, and Kris Neville. "Handbook of epoxy resins." (1967).
https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=BRcdDu4bUhMC&oi=fnd&pg=PR13&dq=composite
+materials&ots=E2D4izG16Y&sig=O4XOB46nsHz2o5F2vEbVJqY6q30#v=onepage&q=composite
%20materials&f=false
http://www.som.com/news/worlds_largest_3dprinted_polymer_building_will_be_shown_at_international_builders_show
http://zoltek.com/products/panex-35/