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CHAPTER OUTLINE

31.1

31.2

Motional emf

31.3

Lenzs Law

31.4

31.5

31.6

Eddy Currents

OQ31.1

negative of the time derivative of the magnetic flux. We pick out the

steepest downward slope at instant E as marking the moment of

largest emf. Next comes A. At B and at D the graph line is horizontal

so the emf is zero. At C the emf has its greatest negative value.

OQ31.2

(i) Answer (c). (ii) Answers (a) and (b). The magnetic flux is

perpendicular to the loop of wire and zero when there is no

component of magnetic field perpendicular to the loop. The flux is

zero when the loop is turned so that the field lies in the plane of its

area.

OQ31.3

Answer (b). With the current in the long wire flowing in the direction

shown in Figure OQ31.3, the magnetic flux through the rectangular

loop is directed into the page. If this current is decreasing in time, the

change in the flux is directed opposite to the flux itself (or out of the

page). The induced current will then flow clockwise around the loop,

producing a flux directed into the page through the loop and

414

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Chapter 31

415

opposing the change in flux due to the decreasing current in the long

wire.

OQ31.4

Answer (a). Treating the original flux as positive (i.e., choosing the

normal to have the same direction as the original field), the flux

changes from

Bi = Bi A cos i = Bi A cos 0 = Bi A

to

Bf = B f A cos f = B f A cos180 = B f A.

B f A ( Bi A ) 2 B f + Bi A

=

t

t

t

( 0.060 T ) + ( 0.040 T )

2

= 2

( 0.040 m ) = 2.0 103 V

0.50

s

= 2.0 mV

= B =

OQ31.5

Answers (c) and (d). The magnetic flux through the coil is constant in

time, so the induced emf is zero, but positive test charges in the

leading and trailing sides of the square experience a F = q v B

OQ31.6

perpendicularly into the page away from you) = (force toward the

top of the square). The charges migrate upward to give positive

charge to the top of the square until there is a downward electric

field large enough to prevent more charge separation.

Answers (b) and (d). By the magnetic force law F = q v B : the

direction (velocity to the right) (field perpendicularly out of the

page) = (force downward toward the bottom end of the bar). These

charges will move downward and therefore clockwise in the circuit.

The current induced in the bar experiences a force in the magnetic

field that tends to slow the bar: (current downward) (field

perpendicularly out of the page) = (force to the left); therefore, an

external force is required to keep the bar moving at constant speed to

the right.

OQ31.7

from above, with its south end downward as shown

in the figure, the magnetic flux through the area

enclosed by the loop is directed upward and

increasing in magnitude. To oppose this increasing

upward flux, the induced current in the loop will

flow clockwise, as seen from above, producing a

flux directed downward through the area enclosed

ANS. FIG.

OQ31.7

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416

Faradays Law

by the loop. After the bar magnet has passed through the plane of the

loop, and is departing with its north end upward, a decreasing flux is

directed upward through the loop. To oppose this decreasing

upward flux, the induced current in the loop flows counterclockwise

as seen from above, producing flux directed upward through the

area enclosed by the loop. From this analysis, we see that (a) is the

only true statement among the listed choices.

OQ31.8

proportional to the rate of rotation. The rate of change of flux of the

external magnetic field through the turns of the coil is doubled, so

the maximum induced emf is doubled.

OQ31.9

just after the switch is closed. The secondary coil will oppose the

clockwise current I2 that goes to the right in the resistor. The upper

pair of hands in ANS. FIG. OQ31.9 represent this effect.

(ii) Answer (c). At steady state the primary magnetic field is

unchanging, so no emf is induced in the secondary.

(iii) Answer (a). The primarys field is to the right and decreasing as

the switch is opened. The secondary coil opposes this decrease by

making its own field to the right, carrying counterclockwise current

to the left in the resistor. The lower pair of hands shown in ANS. FIG.

OQ31.9 represent this chain of events.

OQ31.10

Answers (a), (b), (c), and (d). With the magnetic field perpendicular

to the plane of the page in the figure, the flux through the closed loop

to the left of the bar is given by B = BA, where B is the magnitude

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Chapter 31

417

of the field and A is the area enclosed by the loop. Any action which

produces a change in this product, BA, will induce a current in the

loop and cause the bulb to light. Such actions include increasing or

decreasing the magnitude of the field B, and moving the bar to the

right or left and changing the enclosed area A. Thus, the bulb will

light during all of the actions in choices (a), (b), (c), and (d).

OQ31.11

counterclockwise in the outer loop of the

figure produces a magnetic flux through the

inner loop that is directed out of the page. If

this current is increasing in time, the change

ANS. FIG.

in the flux is in the same direction as the

OQ31.11

flux itself (or out of the page). The induced

current in the inner loop will then flow

clockwise around the loop, producing a flux through the loop

directed into the page, opposing the change in flux due to the

increasing current in the outer loop. The flux through the inner loop

is given by B = BA , where B is the magnitude of the field and A is

the area enclosed by the loop. The magnitude of the flux, and thus

the magnitude of the rate of change of the flux, depends on the size

of the area A.

CQ31.1

path independent; thus, if an object moves so that it starts and ends at

the same place, the net conservative work done on it is zero. A positive

electric charge carried around a circular electric field line in the

direction of the field gains energy from the field every step of the way.

It can be a test charge imagined to exist in vacuum or it can be an actual

free charge participating in a current driven by an induced emf. By

doing net work on an object carried around a closed path to its starting

point, the magnetically-induced electric field exerts by definition a

nonconservative force. We can get a larger and larger voltage just by

looping a wire around into a coil with more and more turns.

418

Faradays Law

CQ31.2

The magnetic flux through the coil must be changing to produce an

emf, and thus a current. The orientation of the coil could be changing

relative to the external magnetic field, or the field is changing

through the coil because it is not uniform, or both.

CQ31.3

against turbine blades, transferring its energy to the rotor coils of a

large AC generator. The rotor of the generator turns within a strong

magnetic field. Because the rotor is spinning, the magnetic flux

through its coils changes in time as B = BA cos t. Generated in the

Nd B

rotor is an induced emf of =

. This induced emf is the

dt

voltage driving the current in our electric power lines.

CQ31.4

Let us assume the north pole of the magnet faces the ring. As the bar

magnet falls toward the conducting ring, a magnetic field is induced

in the ring pointing upward. This upward directed field will oppose

the motion of the magnet, preventing it from moving as a freelyfalling body. Try it for yourself to show that an upward force also

acts on the falling magnet if the south end faces the ring.

CQ31.5

To produce an emf, the magnetic flux through the loop must change.

The flux cannot change if the orientation of the loop remains fixed in

space because the magnetic field is uniform and constant. The flux

does change if the loop is rotated so that the angle between the

normal to the surface and the direction of the magnetic field changes.

CQ31.6

Yes. The induced eddy currents on the surface of the aluminum will

slow the descent of the aluminum. In a strong field the piece may fall

very slowly.

CQ31.7

given area of a loopeven though the field does not actually flow.

By changing the size of the loop, or the orientation of the loop and

the field, one can change the magnetic flux through the loop, but the

magnetic field will not change.

CQ31.8

produces an upward magnetic field that increases rapidly. The

increasing upward flux of this field through the ring induces an emf

to produce clockwise current in the ring. The magnetic field of the

solenoid has a radially outward component at each point on the ring.

This field component exerts upward force on the current in the ring

there. The whole ring feels a total upward force larger than its

weight.

Chapter 31

419

CQ31.9

magnetic field. Vertical flux through the ring, alternately increasing

and decreasing, produces current in it with a direction that is

alternately clockwise and counterclockwise. The current through the

rings resistance converts electrically transmitted energy into internal

energy at the rate I2R.

CQ31.10

(a)

the long wire flowing in the direction

shown in the figure, the magnetic flux

through the rectangular loop is directed

out of the page. As the loop moves away

from the wire, the magnetic field

ANS. FIG. CQ31.10

through the loop becomes weaker, so

the magnetic flux through the

loop is decreasing in time, and the change in

the flux is directed opposite to the flux itself (or into the page).

The induced current will then flow counterclockwise around

the loop, producing a flux directed out of the page through the

loop and opposing the change in flux due to the decreasing flux

through the loop.

(b)

Clockwise. In this case, as the loop moves toward from the wire,

the magnetic field through the loop becomes stronger, so the

magnetic flux through the loop is increasing in time, and the

change in the flux has the same direction as the flux itself (or out

of the page). The induced current will then flow clockwise

around the loop, producing a flux directed into the page

through the loop and opposing the change in flux due to the

increasing flux through the loop.

420

Faradays Law

Section 31.1

*P31.1

B ( B A )

=

=

t

t

( 2.50 T 0.500 T ) ( 8.00 104 m 2 ) 1 N s

1 VC

=

1.00 s

1 T Cm 1 Nm

= 1.60 mV

)(

I loop =

*P31.2

P31.3

(a)

1.60 mV

= 0.800 mA

2.00

tending to produce counterclockwise

current as the projectile approaches,

and then a pulse of clockwise voltage

as the projectile recedes.

d

1.50 m

=

= 625 m s

t 2.40 103 s

(b)

v=

(a)

V

0

t

V1

V2

= N = N B A cos

t

B f Bi

= ( 1)

r 2 ) cos

(

t

2

1.50 T 0

=

( 0.00160 m ) ( 1)

0.120 s

2

= ( 12.5 T/s ) ( 0.00160 m ) = 1.01 104 T

(b)

as seen from above

In case (a), the rate of change of the magnetic field was +12.5 T/s.

In this case, the rate of change of the magnetic field is

(0.5 T 1.5 T)/ 0.08 s = 25.0 T/s: it is twice as large in

magnitude and in the opposite sense from the rate of change in

case (a), so the emf is also

twice as large in magnitude and in the opposite sense .

Chapter 31

P31.4

421

= N ( BA cos ) = NB r 2

cos f cos i

2 cos180 cos 0

= 25.0 ( 50.0 106 T ) ( 0.500 m )

0.200 s

=

P31.5

+9.82 mV

With the field directed perpendicular to the plane of the coil, the flux

through the coil is B = BA cos 0 = BA . For a single loop,

=

=

P31.6

B B( A )

=

t

t

( 0.150 T ) ( 0.120 m )2 0

0.200 s

With the field directed perpendicular to the plane of the coil, the flux

through the coil is B = BA cos 0 = BA . As the magnitude of the field

increases, the magnitude of the induced emf in the coil is

B B

2

=

A = ( 0.050 0 T s ) ( 0.120 m )

t

t

P31.7

The angle between the normal to the coil and the magnetic field is

90.0 28.0 = 62.0. For a loop of N turns,

= N dB = N d ( BA cos )

dt

dt

= NBcos A

t

= 200 ( 50.0 10

39.0 104 m 2

T )( cos62.0 )

1.80 s

= 10.2 V

P31.8

d BA

0 Bi A cos

= N

= N

dt

t

20.0 103 s

= 3200 V

422

Faradays Law

The induced current is then

I=

P31.9

3200 V

= 160 A

20.0

or

B

dB

d

= N A = N ( 0.010 0t + 0.040 0t 2 ) A

dt

t

dt

= N ( 0.010 0 + 0.080 0t ) A

t = 5.00 s, suppressing units,

2

= 30.0 [ 0.0100 + 0.0800 ( 5.00 )] ( 0.0400 )

P31.10

sinusoidally in time: B = Bmax sin t, where Bmax = 1.00 108 T,

= 2 f , and f = 60.0 Hz. The loop consists of a single band (N = 1)

around the perimeter of a red blood cell with diameter

d = 8.00 106 m and area A = d2/4. The induced emf is then

= dB = N dB A

dt

dt

d

= N ( Bmax sin t ) A = NABmax cos t

dt

max = NABmax . Therefore,

max = NABmax

( 8.00 106 m )2

( 1.00 103 T )

= [ 2 ( 60.0 Hz )]( 1)

4

= 1.89 1011 V

P31.11

The symbol for the radius of the ring is r1, and we use R to represent its

resistance. The emf induced in the ring is

d

d

dI

(BA cos ) = (0.5000 nIA cos 0) = 0.5000 nA

dt

dt

dt

Chapter 31

423

where the field is strong:

[ (0.0300m)2 ]( 270A/s )

= 4.80

(a)

T m2 1 N s 1 V C

= 4.80 104 V

s C m T N m

counterclockwise, opposite to the current in the solenoid. Its

magnitude is

I ring =

(b)

10 4

Bring

0.000 480V

= 1.60 A

0.000 300

7

0 I ( 4 10 T m A ) ( 1.60 A )

=

=

2r1

2 ( 0.0500 m )

(c)

The solenoids field points to the right through the ring, and is

increasing, so to oppose the increasing field, Bring points to the

left .

P31.12

(a)

I ring =

d ( BA ) 1 d

1

dI

1

I

=

0 nI ) A = 0 n r22 = 0 n r22

(

dt

2 dt

2

dt

2

t

0 n r22 I

, counterclockwise as viewed from the left

2R t

end.

(b)

02 n r22 I

0 I

B=

=

2r1

4r1R t

424

Faradays Law

(c)

The solenoids field points to the right through the ring, and is

increasing, so to oppose the increasing field, Bring points to the

left .

P31.13

(a)

I

wire, the magnetic field is B = 0 .

2 x

The flux through a small rectangular

element of length L and width dx

within the loop is

I

d B = B dA = 0 Ldx:

2 x

h+ w

B =

(b)

0 IL dx

IL h + w

= 0 ln

h

2 x

2

= dB = d 0 IL ln h + w = 0L ln h + w dI

dt

where

dt 2

dt

dI d

= ( a + bt ) = b:

dt dt

4 10

= (

T m A )( 1.00 m )

2

0.0100 m + 0.100 m

ln

( 10.0 A/s )

0.0100 m

= 4.80 106 V

Therefore, the emf induced in the loop is 4.80 V .

(c)

P31.14

The long, straight wire produces magnetic flux into the page

through the rectangle, shown in ANS. FIG. P31.13. As the

magnetic flux increases, the rectangle produces its own magnetic

field out of the page to oppose the increase in flux. The induced

current creates this opposing field by traveling counterclockwise

around the loop.

The magnetic field lines are confined to the interior of the solenoid, so

even though the coil has a larger area, the flux through the coil is the

same as the flux through the solenoid:

B = ( 0 nI ) Asolenoid

Chapter 31

425

2

= N dB = N 0n( rsolenoid

) dI

dt

dt

7

= ( 15 )( 4 10 T m/A ) ( 1.00 103 m 1 )

( 0.0200 m ) ( 600 ) cos ( 120t )

2

where t is in seconds and is in V.

P31.15

100

B = 0 nI = ( 4 107 T m A )

( 3.00 A )

0.200 m

= 1.88 103 T

(a)

2

= 1.88 107 T m 2

(b)

When the current is zero, the flux through the loop is B = 0 and

the average induced emf has been

P31.16

0 1.88 107 T m 2

B

=

=

= 6.28 108 V

t

3.00 s

B = 0 nI = ( 4 10

The magnetic flux through one turn of the flat coil is B = BdA cos ,

but since dA cos refers to the area perpendicular to the flux, and the

magnetic field is uniform over the area A of the flat coil, this integral

simplifies to

B = B dA = B R

(

= ( 1.71 10

= 1.51 10

2

4

)(

) ( 0.0600 m)

N/m A ) ( 1 e

)

N/m A 1 e

1.60t

1.60t

426

Faradays Law

The emf generated in the N-turn coil is

the standard unit of seconds, the factor 1.60 must have the unit s1.

N m d (1 e

= (250) 1.71 10 4

A

dt

1.60 t

Nm

1 t1.60

= 0.042 6

(1.60 s )e

is in mV.

P31.17

Faradays law,

= N dB , becomes here

dt

= N

d

dB

BA cos ) = NA cos

(

dt

dt

B

= NA cos

t

The area is

A=

A=

B

N cos

t

80.0 10 3 V

600 10 T 200 10 T

50 cos 30.0o

0.400s

= 1.85 m 2

Each side of the coil has length d = A , so the total length of the wire

is

Chapter 31

P31.18

(a)

427

Suppose, first, that the central wire is long and straight. The

enclosed current of unknown amplitude creates a circular

magnetic field around it, with the magnitude of the field given by

Ampres law.

B ds = 0 I :

B=

0 I max sin t

2 R

on the wire. This field passes perpendicularly through each turn

of the toroid, producing flux

I A

B A = 0 max sin t

2 R

The toroid has 2 Rn turns. As the magnetic field varies, the emf

induced in it is

= N d B A = 2 Rn 0 Imax A d sin t

dt

2 R dt

= 0 I max nA cos t

This is an alternating voltage with amplitude max = 0 nA I max .

Measuring the amplitude determines the size Imax of the central

current. Our assumptions that the central wire is long and

straight and passes perpendicularly through the center of the

Rogowski coil are all unnecessary.

(b)

P31.17

magnetic fields on one side, but to correspondingly weaker fields

on the opposite side. The emf induced in the coil is proportional

to the line integral of the magnetic field around the circular axis

of the toroid. Ampres law says that this line integral depends

only on the amount of current the coil encloses. It does not

depend on the shape or location of the current within the coil, or

on any currents outside the coil.

In a toroid, all the flux is confined to the inside of the toroid. From

Equation 30.16, the field inside the toroid at a distance r from its center is

B=

0 NI

2 r

0 NI max

adr

sin t

2

r

NI

b + R

= 0 max a sin t ln

R

2

B = BdA =

428

Faradays Law

and the induced emf is

= N dB = N 0 NImax a ln b + R cos t

2

dt

4 10 )( 500 )( 50.0 )

= 20 (

7

0.030 0 + 0.040 0

[ 2 ( 60.0 )]( 0.020 0 ) ln

cos t

0.040 0

= 0.422 cos t

P31.20

In Figure P31.20, the original magnetic field points into the page and is

increasing. The induced emf in the upper loop attempts to generate a

counterclockwise current in order to produce a magnetic field out of

the page that opposes the increasing external magnetic flux. The

induced emf in the lower loop also must attempt to generate a

counterclockwise current in order to produce a magnetic field out of

the page that opposes the increasing external magnetic flux. Because of

the crossing over between the two loops, the emf generated in the

loops will be in opposite directions. Therefore, the magnitude of the

net emf generated is

dt

dB 2

=

r2 r12 )

(

dt

dt

dt

where the upper loop is loop 1 and the lower one is loop 2.

Chapter 31

(a)

429

The induced current will be the ratio of the net emf to the total

resistance of the loops:

I= net =

R

dB 2

dB 2

r2 r12 )

r2 r12 )

(

(

dt

dt

=

R

R 2 r +2 r

( 2

1)

total

dB 2

dB

r2 r12 )

( r2 r1 )( r2 +r1 )

(

dt

dt

=

=

R

R

2 ( r2 +r1 )

2 ( r2 +r1 )

dB

( r2 r1 )

= dt

R

2

Substitute numerical values:

I=

(b)

through the wire, but the emf in the lower loop is larger because its

area is larger (changing flux is proportional to the area of the loop),

so the lower loop wins: the current is counterclockwise in the

lower loop and clockwise in the upper loop.

Section 31.2

Motional emf

Section 31.3

Lenzs Law

*P31.21

2 ( 3.00 /m )

Thus, the motional emf is then

2

2

= 2.83 mV

P31.22

(a)

rad/s ) ( 3.00 m )2

Binduced = Binduced i (to the right) and the current in the resistor is

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

430

Faradays Law

(b)

Binduced

( )

( +i ) is to the right, and the current in the resistor is

(c)

( )

Bext = Bext k into the paper and Bext decreases; therefore, the

( )

P31.23

component of the magnetic field perpendicular to the conductor and to

its velocity.

= 1.31 102 V = 13.1 mV

P31.24

(a)

by

= 1.18 103 V = 11.8 mV

(b)

direction v B = (north) (down) = (west): it migrates west. The

wingtip on the pilots left is positive.

(c)

force in direction v B = (east) (down) = (north): it migrates

north. The left wingtip is north of the pilot.

(d)

No. If you try to connect the wings to a circuit containing the light

bulb, you must run an extra insulated wire along the wing. In a

uniform field the total emf generated in the one-turn coil is zero.

P31.25

(a)

component of the magnetic field perpendicular to the conductor

and to its velocity; in this case, the vertical component of the

Earths magnetic field is perpendicular to both. Thus, the

magnitude of the motional emf induced in the wire is

= 3.99 105 V = 39.9 V

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Chapter 31

(b)

*P31.26

431

pointing north (the direction of the wires velocity), such that

when you close your hand the fingers curl downward (in the

direction of B ). Your thumb will then be pointing westward. By

the right-hand rule, the magnetic force on charges in the wire

would tend to move positive charges westward.

The west end is positive.

I=

Bv

R

v=

IR ( 0.500 A ) ( 6.00 )

=

= 1.00 m/s

B ( 2.50 T ) ( 1.20 m )

P31.27

(a)

Refer to ANS. FIG. P31.26 above. At constant speed, the net force

on the moving bar equals zero, or

Fapp = I L B

where the current in the bar is I = /R and the motional emf is

= B v. Therefore,

Bv

B2 2 v ( 2.50 T ) ( 1.20 m ) ( 2.00 m/s )

=

( B) =

R

R

6.00

= 3.00 N

2

FB =

(b)

P = I 2R =

B2 2 v 2

= 6.00 W

R

or

P = Fv = 6.00 W

432

Faradays Law

*P31.28

With v representing the initial speed of the bar, let u represent its

speed at any later time. The motional emf induced in the bar is

Bu

= Bu. The induced current is I = = . The magnetic force on

R

R

B2 2 u mdu

=

.

the bar is backward F = IB =

R

dt

Method one: To find u as a function of time, we separate variables

thus:

B2 2

du

dt =

Rm

u

2 2

t

u

B

du

dt

=

Rm

u

0

v

B2 2

u

( t 0 ) = ln u ln v = ln

Rm

v

2 2

u

e B t Rm =

v

2 2

dx

u = ve B t Rm =

dt

xmax

dx = ve

xmax 0 =

B2 2 t Rm

Rm B2 2 t Rm B2 2 dt

dt = v 2 2 e

Rm

B 0

Rmv

Rmv

e e 0 ] =

2 2 [

B

B2 2

B2 2 u

B2 2 dx

du

=

=m

R

R dt

dt

2 2

B

mdu =

dx

R

Direct integration from the initial to the stopping point gives

0

xmax

B2 2

mdu = R dx

v

0

B2 2

m(0 v) =

( xmax 0)

R

mvR

xmax = 2 2

B

Chapter 31

*P31.29

433

FB = IB

and the motional emf by

= Bv

The current is given by I =

(a)

(b)

(c)

P31.30

I 2 R

FB =

and I =

v

IR

Bv

.

, so B =

v

R

FB v

=

= 0.500 A

R

8.00

delivered, given by

For constant force, P = F v = ( 1.00 N ) ( 2.00 m s ) = 2.00 W .

west. Only the component of the magnetic field to the north generates

an emf in the moving antenna. Therefore, the maximum motional emf is

v=

max

B cos

v=

4.50103 V

=177m/s

( 50.0106 T )(1.20m ) cos65.0

This is equivalent to about 640 km/h or 400 mi/h, much faster than the

car could drive on the curvy road and much faster than any standard

automobile could drive in general.

P31.31

component of the magnetic field perpendicular to the conductor and to

its velocity. The total field is perpendicular to the conductor, but not to

its velocity. As shown in the left figure, the component of the field

perpendicular to the velocity is B = Bcos . The motion of the bar

down the rails produces an induced emf = B v = B v cos that

pushes charge into the page. The induced emf produces a current

I = R = B v cos R , where we assume that significant resistance is

present only in the resistor. Because current in the bar travels into the

page, and the field is downward, a magnetic force acts on the bar to

the left: its magnitude is F = I Bsin 90.0 = I B = B2 2 v cos R .

434

Faradays Law

convenient to use a coordinate system with axes vertical and

horizontal. The force relationships are

Fy = mg + ncos = 0 ncos = mg

Dividing the first by the second equation, we get

n sin B2 2 v cos R

=

n cos

mg

v=

mgR sin

B2 2 cos 2

v=

P31.32

( 0.500 T )2 (1.20 m )2 cos 2 25.0

= 2.80 m/s

conductor is proportional to the component of the magnetic field

perpendicular to the conductor and to its velocity. The total field is

perpendicular to the conductor, but not to its velocity. As shown in the

left figure, the component of the field perpendicular to the velocity is

B = Bcos . The motion of the bar down the rails produces an induced

emf = B v = B v cos that pushes charge into the page. The induced

emf produces a current I = R = B v cos R , where we assume that

significant resistance is present only in the resistor. Because current in

the bar travels into the page, and the field is downward, a magnetic

force acts on the bar to the left: its magnitude is F = I Bsin 90.0 = I B =

B2 2 v cos R . In the free-body diagram shown in ANS. FIG. P31.31(b),

it is convenient to use a coordinate system with axes vertical and

horizontal. The force relationships are

Fy = mg + ncos = 0 ncos = mg

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Chapter 31

435

n sin B2 2 v cos R

=

n cos

mg

P31.33

v=

mgR sin

B2 2 cos 2

= B r 2

2

2 rad rev

1

2

= ( 0.9 N s C m ) ( 0.4 m ) ( 3 200 rev min )

2

60 s min

= 24.1 V

turning with the disk, feels a magnetic force qv B

radially

inward. Thus the outer contact is negative .

P31.34

(a)

the current in this series circuit. Since = Bv, the speed of the

moving bar must be

3

IR ( 8.50 10 A )( 9.00 )

v=

=

=

= 0.729 m/s

B B

( 0.300 T )( 0.350 m )

(b)

The flux through the closed loop formed by the rails, the bar, and

the resistor is directed into the page and is increasing in

magnitude. To oppose this change in flux, the current must flow

in a manner so as to produce flux out of the page through the area

enclosed by the loop. This means the current will flow

counterclockwise .

436

Faradays Law

(c)

P = I 2 R = ( 8.50 103 A ) ( 9.00 )

2

(d)

P31.35

into internal energy in the resistor.

v=

T

=

mg

=

267 N

= 298 m/s

3.00 103 kg/m

dNN = 0.64 m =

and

f =

= 1.28 m

2

v 298 m/s

=

= 233 Hz

1.28 m

(a)

the wire will drive current to the left in the wire as it moves up

and to the right as it moves down. The emf will have this same

frequency of 233 Hz .

(b)

x = A cos t = A cos 2 ft

Its velocity is v =

dx

= 2 fA sin 2 ft .

dt

The induced emf is

= Bv,

with amplitude

max = Bvmax = B2 fA

= 1.98 103 V = 1.98 mV

Chapter 31

P31.36

(a)

437

the field (consisting of N wires) is

F = N ( ILB) = N ( IwB)

The induced emf in the coil is

=N

d B

d ( Bwx )

=N

= NBwv

dt

dt

so the current is I =

NBwv

R

counterclockwise.

The force on the leading side of the coil

is then:

NBwv

F = N

wB

R

=

(b)

N 2 B2 w 2 v

to the left

R

B = NBA = constant

so

(c)

= 0, I = 0,

and F = 0 .

As the coil starts to leave the field, the flux decreases at the rate

Bwv, so the magnitude of the current is the same as in part (a), but

now the current is clockwise. Thus, the force exerted on the

trailing side of the coil is:

N 2 B2 w 2 v

F=

to the left again

R

P31.37

The emfs induced in the rods are proportional to the lengths of the

sections of the rods between the rails. The emfs are 1 = Bv1 with

positive end downward, and 2 = Bv2 with positive end upward,

where = d = 10.0 cm is the distance between the rails.

We apply Kirchhoffs laws. We assume current I1 travels downward in

the left rod, current I2 travels upward in the right rod, and current I3

travels upward in the resisitor R3.

For the left loop,

+Bv1 I1R1 I 3 R3 = 0

[1]

+Bv2 I 2 R2 + I 3 R3 = 0

[2]

[3]

438

Faradays Law

Substituting [3] into [1] gives

Bv1 I1R1 I 3 R3 = 0

Bv1 ( I 2 + I 3 ) R1 I 3 R3 = 0

I 2 R1 + I 3 ( R1 + R3 ) = Bv1

[4]

I2 =

Bv2 + I 3 R3 Bv1 I 3 ( R1 + R3 )

=

R2

R1

I 3 R3 R1 + ( R1 + R3 ) R2 = Bv1R2 Bv2 R1

Solving for I3 gives

I 3 = B

( v1R2 v2 R1 )

R1R2 + R1R3 + R2 R3

= 275 2

we obtain

I 3 = ( 0.010 0 T )( 0.100 m )

275 2

= 1.45 104 A

Therefore, I 3 = 145 A upward in the picture , as was originally

chosen.

P31.38

(a)

component of the magnetic field perpendicular to the tether,

which, in this case, is the vertical component of the Earths

magnetic field at this location:

Bvertical = B =

1.17 V

( 25.0 m )( 7.80 103 m/s )

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Chapter 31

(b)

439

from one location to the other, so the induced voltage in the

wire changes. Furthermore, the voltage will change if the tether

cord or its velocity changes their orientations relative to the

Earths field.

(c)

Section 31.4

P31.39

could be parallel to the magnetic field at some instant.

Point P1 lies outside the region of the uniform magnetic field. The rate

of change of the field, in teslas per second, is

dB d

= ( 2.00t 3 4.00t 2 + 0.800 ) = 6.00t 2 8.00t

dt dt

dB

2

= 6.00 ( 2.00 ) 8.00 ( 2.00 ) = 8.00 T/s

dt

The magnetic flux is increasing into the page; therefore, by the righthand rule (see figure), the induced electric field lines are counterclockwise. [Also, if a conductor of radius r1 were placed concentric

with the field region, by Lenzs law, the induced current would be

counterclockwise. Therefore, the direction of the induced electric field

lines are counterclockwise.] The electric field at point P1 is tangent to

the electric field line passing through it.

(a)

Equation 31.8)

r dB r

= ( 6.00t 2 8.00t )

2 dt 2

0.050 0

6.00 ( 2.00 )2 8.00 ( 2.00 ) = 0.200 N/C

=

E =

440

Faradays Law

The magnitude of the force on the electron is

(b)

force is opposite to the field direction. The force is tangent to the

electric field line passing through at point P1 and clockwise.

(c)

The force is zero when the rate of change of the magnetic field is

zero:

dB

8.00

= 6.00t 2 8.00t = 0 t = 0 or t =

= 1.33 s

dt

6.00

P31.40

Point P2 lies inside the region of the uniform magnetic field. The rate of

change of the field, in teslas per second, is

dB d

= ( 0.0300t 2 + 1.40 ) = 0.0600t

dt dt

dB

= 0.0600 ( 3.00 ) = 0.180 T/s

dt

The magnetic flux is increasing into the page; therefore, by the righthand rule (see figure), the induced electric field lines are

counterclockwise. The electric field at point P2 is tangent to the electric

field line passing through it.

(a)

E d =

d B

dt

d ( B R

d B

=

dt

dt

2

R

E = ( 0.0600t )

2r

E2 r =

) = R

dB

dt

Chapter 31

441

For r = r2 = 0.020 0 m,

R2

( 0.0600t )

2r

2

0.0250 m )

(

=

[ 0.0600 ( 3.00)] = 2.81 103 N/C

2 ( 0.0200 m )

E =

(b)

P31.41

point P2 and counterclockwise.

(a)

E d =

d B

dt

where

B = BA = 0 nI ( r 2 )

dI

dt

d

2 rE = 0 n ( r 2 ) ( 5.00sin 100 t )

dt

2

= 0 n ( r )( 5.00 )( 100 ) cos100 t

2 rE = 0 n ( r 2 )

E=

2 r

= 250 0 n r cos100 t

Substituting numerical values and suppressing units,

E = 250 ( 4 107 ) ( 1.00 103 ) ( 0.0100 ) cos100 t

= ( 9.87 103 ) cos100 t

millivolts/meter and t is in seconds.

(b)

If a viewer looks at the solenoid along its axis, and if the current is

increasing in the counterclockwise direction, the magnetic flux is

increasing toward the viewer; the electric field always opposes

increasing magnetic flux; therefore, by the right-hand rule, the

electric field lines are clockwise .

442

Faradays Law

Section 31.5

P31.42

magnetic field because the coil rotates about a vertical axis:

max = NBhorizontal A

1500

min 1 rev 60 s

(b)

P31.43

Maximum emf occurs when the magnetic flux through the coil is

changing the fastest. This occurs at the moment when the flux is

zero, which is when the plane of the coil is parallel to the

magnetic field.

angular speed of the coil. Thus,

2 = 2

1 1

or

P31.44

900 rev/min

13.3 V

angular speed.

(a)

(b)

(c)

turns to one half the original value has this effect:

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Chapter 31

P31.45

443

2 rad 1 min

= ( 3 000 rev/min )

= 314 rad/s

1 rev 60 s

so

dt

dt

4

= +250 ( 2.50 10 )( 314 ) sin ( 314t )

(a)

(b)

P31.46

max = 19.6 V

1

A = R 2 . There is no emf induced in the conductor until the magnetic

2

flux through the area of the coil begins to change. The conductor is in

the field region for only half a turn, so the flux changes over half a

1

1 2

period T =

= . If we consider t = 0 to correspond to the time

2

2

when the conductor is in the position shown in Figure P31.46 of the

textbook, then there is no change in flux for a quarter of a turn, from t =

0 to t = 2 , then the flux has a periodic behavior

1

B = ABcos t = R 2 Bcos t for a half a turn, from t = 2 to

2

t = 3 2 , then there is no change in flux for the final quarter of a turn,

from t = 3 2 to t = 2 , at the end of which the coil has returned to

its starting position. While in the field region, the induced emf is

dt

(a)

dt

max = 1 R 2 B

2

1 120 rev 2 rad 1 min

2

=

( 0.250 m ) ( 1.30 T )

2 min

rev

60 s

= 1.60 V

(b)

During the time period that the coil travels in the field region, the

emf varies as max sin t for half a period, from + max , at

t = 2 , to max , at t = 3 2 ; therefore, the average emf is

zero .

444

Faradays Law

(c)

1

The flux could also be written as B = R 2 Bcos t so that it is a

2

maximum at t = 0, but, in this case, the time period over which

the flux changes would be from t = 0 to t = 2 , and the

amplitude of the emf and its average would be the same as in the

previous case; therefore, no change in either answer .

(e)

If the time axis is chose so that the maximum emf occurs at the

same time as it does in the figure of part (d) the graph is

P31.47

B = 0 nI = ( 4 107 T m/A ) ( 200 m 1 )( 15.0 A )

= 3.77 103 T

For the small coil, B = NB A = NBA cos t = NB ( r 2 ) cos t.

Thus,

= dB = NB r 2 sin t

dt

s 1 ) sin ( 4.00 t )

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Chapter 31

P31.48

445

in ANS. FIG. P31.48.

(a)

back =

110 V

(b)

internal energy:

2

(c)

back = 0 . Then

120 V I c ( 11.8 ) = 0 I c = 10.2 A

Pc = I c2 R = ( 10.2 A ) ( 11.8 ) = 1.22 kW

2

P31.49

(a)

B = BA cos = BA cos t

=

2

(b)

(c)

I=

(d)

P = I 2R =

(e)

P = Fv = so =

dt

P

=

446

Faradays Law

Section 31.6

P31.50

Eddy Currents

the N and S poles on the solenoid core are shown correctly. On the rail

in front of the brake, the upward flux of B increases as the coil

approaches, so a current is induced here to create a downward

magnetic field. This is

rail is shown correctly. On the rail behind the brake, the upward

magnetic flux is decreasing. The induced current in the rail will

produce upward magnetic field by being

counterclockwise as the

Additional Problems

*P31.51

(a)

d B d

d

dB

= ( BA cos ) = ( BA ) = A

dt

dt

dt

dt

2

= 113 V

(b)

circumference of the circular area is given by

E=

*P31.52

2 r

113 V

= 300 V/m

2 (0.0600 m)

Suppose we wrap twenty turns of wire into a flat compact circular coil

of diameter 3 cm. Suppose we use a bar magnet to produce field

103 T through the coil in one direction along its axis. Suppose we then

flip the magnet to reverse the flux in 101 s. The average induced emf is

then

= N B = N [ BA cos ] = NB ( r 2 )

t

= ( 20)(103 T ) ( 0.015 0 m )2

2

101 s

cos180 cos 0

t

~ 104 V

Chapter 31

*P31.53

447

B NBA ( cos )

=

t

t

200 ( 1.1 T ) ( 100 104 m 2 ) cos180 cos 0

=

= 44 V

0.10 s

=N

I=

P31.54

44 V

=

= 8.8 A

R 5.0

(a)

out of the page, so the induced current would tend to oppose the

increase by generating a field into the page. The direction of such

a current would be clockwise. This is the case here, so the field is

increasing .

(b)

magnetic field, so the flux through the loop is

B = BA cos 0.00 = BA

The rate of change of the flux is

d B d

dB

= ( BA cos 0.00 ) = A

dt

dt

dt

d B

dt

IR = A

dB

dB

= r2

dt

dt

Therefore,

3

dB IR ( 2.50 10 A )( 0.500 )

=

=

2

dt r 2

( 0.080 0 m )

= 0.062 2 T/s

= 62.2 mT/s

P31.55

where

dt

dt

( 1.60 )( 0.350 ) t 200

=

e

200

dt

0.160 m )( 0.350 T )

=(

e

2

2.00 s

4.00 2.00

= 3.79 mV

448

P31.56

Faradays Law

The emf through the hoop is given by

= dB = A dB = A d ( Bmax e t ) =

dt

P31.57

P31.58

dt

dt

ABmax t

e

= N ( BA cos ) = N ( r 2 ) cos 0 B

t

t

1.50 T 5.00 T

= 1( 0.00500 m 2 )( 1)

= 0.875 V

20.0 103 s

I=

(b)

(a)

(b)

(c)

0.875 V

= 43.8 A

0.020 0

(a)

Bv

.

R

Particle in equilibrium

The circuit encloses increasing flux of magnetic field into the

page, so it tries to make its own field out of the page, by carrying

counterclockwise current. The current flows upward in the bar, so

the magnetic field produces a backward magnetic force FB = IB

(to the left) on the bar. This force increases until the bar has

reached a speed when the backward force balances the applied

force F:

F = FB = IB =

B = ( Bv ) B = B2 2 v

R

R

R

FR

( 0.600 N )( 48.0 )

v= 2 2 =

= 281 m/s

B

( 0.400 T )2 ( 0.800 m )2

I=

(e)

0.600 N

F

P=I R= R=

( 48.0 ) = 169 W

B

( 0.400 T ) ( 0.800 m )

(f)

FR

F 2R

( 0.600 N ) ( 48.0 ) = 169 W

P = Fv = F 2 2 = 2 2 =

B

B

( 0.400 T )2 ( 0.800 m )2

(g)

Yes.

Bv B FR

F

0.600 N

=

=

=

= 1.88 A

2 2

R

R B

B ( 0.400 T )( 0.800 m )

(d)

(h)

shown in part (c).

Chapter 31

P31.59

(i)

Yes.

(j)

449

= N d ( BA cos ) = N ( r 2 ) cos 0 dB

dt

dt

2

d

50.0 103 + ( 3.20 103 ) sin ( 1046 t )

dt

2

= ( 30.0 ) ( 2.70 103 ) ( 3.20 103 )( 1046 ) cos ( 1046 t )

P31.60

Model the loop as a particle under a net force. The two forces on the

loop are the gravitational force in the downward direction and the

magnetic force in the upward direction. The magnetic force arises from

the current generated in the loop due to the motion of its lower edge

through the magnetic field. As the loop falls, the motional emf

= Bwv induced in the bottom side of the loop produces a current

I = Bwv/R in the loop. From Newtons second law,

B2 w 2 v

Bwv

wBMg=Ma

g=ay

y

R

MR

The largest possible value of v, the terminal speed vT, will occur when

ay = 0. Set ay = 0 and solve for the terminal speed:

MgR

B2 w 2 vT

g=0vT = 2 2

MR

Bw

Substituting numerical values,

vT =

(1.00T )2 ( 0.500m )2

=3.92m/s

This is the highest speed the loop can have while the upper edge is

above the field, so it cannot possibly be moving at 4.00 m/s.

P31.61

d

At ( 2a 2 ) cos 0 I1 ( 5R ) I PQ R = 0

dt

450

Faradays Law

and for the right-hand loop,

d

Ata 2 + I PQ R I 2 ( 3R ) = 0

dt

where

Thus,

2Aa 2 5R I PQ + I 2 I PQ R = 0

and

Aa 2 + I PQ R = I 2 ( 3R )

2Aa 2 6RI PQ

solving,

I PQ

5

Aa 2 + I PQ R = 0

3

Aa 2

upward

=

23R

I PQ

(1.00 10

=

T s ) ( 0.650 m )

23 ( 0.065 0 )

= 283 A upward

P31.62

(a)

dq

I=

= where

dt R

d B

= N

dt

N 2

so dq =

d B

R 1

N

Q = ( 2 1 ) .

R

(b)

Q=

so

P31.63

N

BAN

BA cos 0 BA cos =

2

R

R

4

RQ ( 200 ) ( 5.00 10 C )

B=

=

= 0.250 T

NA ( 100 ) ( 40.0 104 m 2 )

m s ) = 7.00 V

Chapter 31

451

The left-hand loop contains decreasing flux away from you, so the

induced current in it will be

directed away from you. Let I1 represent the current flowing upward

through the 2.00- resistor. The right-hand loop will carry

counterclockwise current. Let I3 be the upward current in the 5.00-

resistor.

(a)

(b)

+7.00 V I1 (2.00 ) = 0

or

I1 = 3.50 A

or

I 3 = 1.40 A

= 34.3 W

(c)

value I2 = 3.50 A + 1.40 A = 4.90 A. The magnetic field exerts a

force of Fm = IB = ( 4.90 A ) ( 0.350 m ) ( 2.50 T ) = 4.29 N directed

toward the right on this conductor. An outside agent must

then exert a force of 4.29 N to the left to keep the bar moving.

Method 2: The agent moving the bar must supply the power

according to P = F v = Fv cos 0. The force required is then:

F=

P31.64

P

v

34.3 W

= 4.29 N

8.00 m s

F = ma:

mv 2

mv

r =

r

qB

B m2 v 2

B =

.

q 2 B2

Thus,

(a)

qvBsin 90 =

v=

Bq2 B

=

m2

(15 10

T m 2 ) ( 30 109 C ) ( 0.6 T )

2

( 2 1016 kg )

= 2.54 105 m s

452

Faradays Law

(b)

firing process:

Ui = Kf :

qV =

1

mv 2

2

16

5

mv 2 ( 2 10 kg ) ( 2.54 10 m s )

V =

=

= 215 V

2q

2 ( 30 109 C )

2

P31.65

field. We assume that 0.500 is the total resistance around the circuit,

including the ammeter.

Q = Idt =

=

dt

R

1

1

d B

dt = d B

R dt

R

1

Bcos

d ( BA cos ) =

R

R

A2 =0

dA

A1 =a 2

A =0

B cos 2

B cos a 2

Q =

A

=

R

R

A1 =a2

=

0.500

= 2.29 106 C

P31.66

(a)

Then,

I=

(b)

0.360 V

= 0.900 A

0.400

F = FB = IB

= ( 0.900 A ) ( 1.50 m ) ( 0.0800 T ) = 0.108 N

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Chapter 31

(c)

453

Since the magnetic flux B A between the axle and the resistor is

in effect decreasing, the induced current is clockwise so that it

produces a downward magnetic field to oppose the decrease in

flux: thus, current flows through R from b to a. Point b is at the

higher potential.

(d)

axle and the resistor to the left of ab. Here counterclockwise

current will flow to produce an upward magnetic field to oppose

the increase in flux. The current in R is still from b to a.

*P31.67

(a)

= N

=

d

d a2

BA cos = 1 B

cos 0

dt

dt 2

Ba 2 d

1

= Ba 2

2 dt

2

rad s )

2

= 0.125 V = 0.125 V clockwise

clockwise current, to make its own magnetic field into the page.

(b)

At this instant,

The arc PQ has length

The length of the circuit is

0.500 m + 0.500 m + 0.250 m = 1.25 m

Its resistance is

The current is then

I=

0.125 V

= 0.020 0 A clockwise

6.25

454

P31.68

Faradays Law

At a distance r from wire, B =

0 I

. Using

2 r

0 vI

2 r

P31.69

(a)

We use

= N B , with N = 1.

t

0.500 m, the change in flux through the washer from the time it is

released until it hits the tabletop is

0 I

I

B = B f A Bi A = A B f Bi = a 2

0

2 ( h + a ) 2 a

a 2 0 I 1

1 0 ahI

=

2

h + a a 2 ( h + a)

The time for the washer to drop a distance h (from rest) is:

2h

. Therefore,

t =

g

= B =

t

0 ahI

ahI

g

0 aI

gh

= 0

=

2 ( h + a ) t 2 ( h + a ) 2h 2 ( h + a ) 2

4 10

=(

2 ( 0.500 m + 0.005 00 m )

( 9.80 m s )( 0.500 m )

2

= 97.4 nV

Chapter 31

P31.70

455

(b)

Since the magnetic flux going through the washer (into the plane

of the page in the figure) is decreasing in time, a current will form

in the washer so as to oppose that decrease. To oppose the

decrease, the magnetic field from the induced current also must

point into the plane of the page. Therefore, the current will flow

in a clockwise direction .

(a)

decreasing.

(b)

dB 2

N r cos 0

2

= dt

P = I =

R

R

2

dB 2

2

N r

220(0.020 T/s) (0.120 m)2

dt

R=

=

= 248

P

160 W

(c)

P31.71

Let represent the angle between the perpendicular to the coil and

the magnetic field. Then = 0 at t = 0 and = t at all later times.

(a)

= N

d

d

(BA cos ) = NBA (cos t) = +NBA sin t

dt

dt

= 36.0 V

(b)

d B

d

= ( BA cos ) = BA sin t

dt

dt

d B

2

dt max

= 0.600 T m 2 /s

456

Faradays Law

(c)

At t = 0.050 0 s,

(d) The emf is maximum when = 90, and = B, so

and max = (60)(36.0V)

P31.72

AB

R

(0.020 0 m 2 )(1.00T)

= 4.32 N m

10.0

= d ( NBA ) = 1 dB a2 = a2 K

dt

(a)

dt

Q = C = C a 2 K

(b)

(c)

counteract this by producing a magnetic field into the page to

oppose the decrease in flux. To do this, the current must be

clockwise, so positive charge will go to the upper plate .

The changing magnetic field through the enclosed area of the

loop induces a clockwise electric field within the loop, and this

causes electric force to push on charges in the wire.

P31.73

(a)

The time interval required for the coil to move distance and exit

the field is t = v , where v is the constant speed of the coil.

Since the speed of the coil is constant, the flux through the area

enclosed by the coil decreases at a constant rate. Thus, the

instantaneous induced emf is the same as the average emf over

the interval t, or

= N = N ( 0 BA ) = N B

t

(b)

t0

NB2

= NBv

v

I=

NBv

R

Chapter 31

(c)

457

N 2 B2 2 v 2

N 2 B2 2 v 2

P=

R

=

R2

R

(d) The rate that the applied force does work must equal the power

delivered to the coil, so Fapp v = P or

Fapp =

P31.74

P N 2 B2 2 v 2 R N 2 B2 2 v

=

=

v

v

R

(e)

As the coil is emerging from the field, the flux through the area it

encloses is directed into the page and decreasing in magnitude.

Thus, the change in the flux through the coil is directed out of the

page. The induced current must then flow around the coil in such

a direction as to produce flux into the page through the enclosed

area, opposing the change that is occurring. This means that the

current must flow clockwise around the coil.

(f)

As the coil is emerging from the field, the left side of the coil is

carrying an induced current directed toward the top of the page

through a magnetic field that is directed into the page. By the

right-hand rule, this side of the coil will experience a magnetic

force directed to the left , opposing the motion of the coil.

B=

0 I

2 x

The total emf induced along the entire length of the bar is then

r+

Bv dx =

r+

r+

0 I

Iv r+ dx 0 Iv

v dx = 0

=

ln x

2 x

2 r x

2

r

0 Iv r +

ln

r

2

458

P31.75

Faradays Law

We are given

B = ( 6.00t 3 18.0t 2 )

Thus,

= dB = 18.0t 2 + 36.0t

dt

Maximum

dt

I=

P31.76

= ( 18.0 + 36.0) V =

3.00

6.00 A

0 I

. We

2 x

d B =

so

0 I

( dx )

2 x

0 I r + w dx 0 I

w

B =

=

ln 1 +

2 r x

2

r

Therefore,

= dB = 0 Iv

dt

and

P31.77

I=

w

2 r ( r + w )

0 Iv w

2 Rr ( r + w )

straight wire is perpendicular to the plane of the

coil at all points within the coil. At a distance r

from the wire, the magnitude of the field is

I

B = 0 . Thus, the flux through an element of

2 r

length L and width dr is

IL dr

d B = BLdr = 0

2 r

B =

0 IL h+ w dr 0 I max L h + w

=

ln

sin ( t + )

h

2 h r

2

Chapter 31

459

= N dB

dt

NI L

w

= 0 max

ln 1 + cos ( t + )

2

h

4 10

= (

2

0.0500 m

ln 1 +

cos ( t + )

0.0500 m

t is in seconds

The term sin ( t + ) in the expression for the current in the straight

wire does not change appreciably when t changes by 0.10 rad or less.

Thus, the current does not change appreciably during a time interval

t <

0.10

= 1.6 104 s

1

( 200 s )

equal to the distance to which field changes could be propagated

during an interval of 1.6 104 s. This length is so much larger than any

dimension of the coil or its distance from the wire that, although we

consider the straight wire to be infinitely long, we can also safely

ignore the field propagation effects in the vicinity of the coil.

Moreover, the phase angle can be considered to be constant along the

wire in the vicinity of the coil.

If the angular frequency were much larger, say, 200 105 s1, the

corresponding critical length would be only 48 cm. In this situation

propagation effects would be important and the above expression for

would require modification. As a general rule we can consider field

propagation effects for circuits of laboratory size to be negligible for

frequencies, f =

, that are less than about 106 Hz.

2

460

P31.78

Faradays Law

(a)

= Bv, where B =

0 I

, = 0.800 ,

2 y

1 2

gt = 0.800 ( 4.90 ) t 2 where I

2

is in amperes, and y are in meters, v is in meters per second,

and t in seconds.

vf = vi + gt = 9.80t, and y = y f = y i

Thus,

4 107 )( 200 )

1.18 104 ) t

(

= (

0.300

9.80

t

=

(

)(

)

2

2

2 ( 0.800 4.90t

where

0.800 4.90t

(b)

(c)

infinity .

(d) At t = 0.300 s,

(1.18 10 )( 0.300)

4

V = 98.3 V

Challenge Problems

P31.79

d B

dB

2

=A

= ( 0.100 m ) ( 100 T s ) = V

dt

dt

Chapter 31

461

d B

2

= ( 0.150 m ) ( 100 T s ) = 2.25 V

dt

down through the 6.00- resistor, I2 flows down through the 5.00-

resistor, and that I3 flows up through the 3.00- resistor.

From Kirchhoffs junction rule: I3 = I1 + I2

[1]

[2]

Using the loop rule on the right loop: 5.00I2 + 3.00I3 = 2.25

[3]

I3 =

6

P31.80

(a)

resistivity . Around its circumference, a voltage is induced

according to

= N

d

d

dt

dt

( 2 r )

=

. The eddy current

dA

bdr

in the ring is

Bmax r 2 ( sin t ) Bmax rb sin t

dI =

=

=

dr

resistance

( 2 r ) bdr

2

2

Bmax

r 3b 2 sin 2 t

dP = dI =

dr

2

1 1

cos 2 t is

2 2

1

1

0 = , so the time-averaged power delivered to the annulus is

2

2

dP =

2

Bmax

r 3b 2

dr

4

462

Faradays Law

The average power delivered to the disk is

R 2

B b 2 3

P = dP = max

r dr

4

0

P=

2

2

Bmax

b 2 R 4

Bmax

R 4b 2

0

=

4

4

16

(b)

2

When Bmax doubles, Bmax

and P become 4 times larger.

(c)

times larger.

P31.81

I=

+ induced

R

where

emf opposes the emf of the battery. The force

on the rod is related to the current and the

velocity:

F=m

dv

= IBd

dt

dv IBd Bd

=

=

+ induced ) = Bd ( Bvd )

(

dt

m mR

mR

du

dv

= Bd :

dt

dt

dv Bd

=

( Bvd )

dt mR

u

t

1 du Bd

du

( Bd ) dt

=

u

=

Bd dt mR

u0 u

0 mR

2

2 2

u

u

( Bd ) t

= e B d t mR .

Integrating from t = 0 to t = t gives ln =

or

u0

u0

mR

Bvd = e B d t mR

2 2

Therefore,

v=

(1 e

Bd

B2 d 2t mR

).

Chapter 31

P31.82

463

moving away from you the force on it is in the direction given by

qv Bc as (away) (down) =

= (left) = (right)

Therefore, the electrons circulate clockwise.

(a)

some current that in turn produces an upward field to oppose the

increasing downward field. This current is directed

counterclockwise, carried by negative electrons moving

clockwise. Therefore the electric force on the electrons is

clockwise and the original electron motion speeds up.

(b)

mv 2

mv = q rBc

r

produces a tangential electric field according to

d

s

=

A

av

dt

or

E ( 2 r ) = r 2

dBav

dt

E=

r dBav

2 dt

electron:

Ft = mat q E = m

q

dv

dt

r dBav

dv

=m

2 dt

dt

464

Faradays Law

If the electron starts at rest and increases to final speed v as the

magnetic field builds from zero to final value Bav, then integration

of the last equation gives

r

q

2

Bav

v

dBav

dv

dt = m dt

dt

0 dt

r

Bav = mv

2

r

q Bav = mv = q rBc Bav = 2Bc

2

P31.83

F = Mg T = Ma

For the sliding bar, m:

Bv

F = T IB = ma, where I = =

R

B2 2 v

Mg

= (m + M) a

R

Mg

dv

B2 2 v

a=

=

dt m + M R ( M + m)

t

dv

B2 2

Mg

where

and

=

dt

=

( v )

R ( M + m)

M+m

0

0

v

Integrating,

v

t

dv

=

( v ) dt

0

0

1

ln ( v ) = t

Then,

ln ( v ) ln ( ) = t

ln

( v ) = t

v=

v = e t

2 2

MgR

1 e t ) =

1 e B t R( M+m)

(

2 2

Chapter 31

465

P31.2

counterclockwise current as the projectile approaches, and then a pulse

of clockwise voltage as the projectile recedes; (b) 625 m/s

P31.4

+9.82 mV

P31.6

2.26 mV

P31.8

160 A

P31.10

1.89 1011 V

P31.12

02 n r22 I

0 n r22 I

; (b)

(a)

; (c) left

4r1R t

2R t

P31.14

P31.16

= 68.2e 1.60t ,

is in V

is in mV

P31.18

(a) See P31.18(a) for full explanation; (b) The emf induced in the coil is

proportional to the line integral of the magnetic field around the

circular axis of the toroid. Ampres law says that this line integral

depends only on the amount of current the coil encloses.

P31.20

(a) 0.013 3 A; (b) The current is counterclockwise in the lower loop and

clockwise in the upper loop.

P31.22

(a) to the right; (b) out of the page; (c) to the right

P31.24

(a) 11.8 mV; (b) The wingtip on the pilots left is positive; (c) no change;

(d) No. If you try to connect the wings to a circuit containing the light

bulb, you must run an extra insulated wire along the wing. In a

uniform field the total emf generated in the one-turn coil is zero.

P31.26

1.00 m/s

P31.28

Rmv

B2 2

P31.30

P31.32

P31.34

The speed of the car is equivalent to about 640 km/h or 400 mi/h,

much faster than the car could drive on the curvy road and much

faster than any standard automobile could drive in general.

mgR sin

B2 2 cos 2

(a) 0.729 m/s; (b) counterclockwise; (c) 0.650 mW; (d) Work is being

done by the external force, which is transformed into internal energy

in the resistor.

466

P31.36

Faradays Law

N 2 B2 w 2 v

N 2 B2 w 2 v

(a)

to the left; (b) 0; (c)

to the left again

R

R

P31.38

(a) 6.00 T; (b) Yes. The magnitude and direction of the Earths field

varies from one location to the other, so the induced voltage in the

wire changes. Furthermore, the voltage will change if the tether cord or

its velocity changes their orientation relative to the Earths field;

(c) Either the long dimension of the tether or the velocity vector could

be parallel to the magnetic field at some instant.

P31.40

(a) 2.81 103 N/C; (b) tangent to the electric field line passing through

at point P2 and counterclockwise

P31.42

(a) 12.6 mV; (b) when the plane of the coil is parallel to the magnetic

field

P31.44

amplitude and cuts the period in half; (c) amplitude unchanged and

period is cut in half

P31.46

(a) 1.60 V; (b) zero; (c) no change in either answer; (d) See ANS. FIG.

P31.46(d); (e) See ANS. FIG. P31.46(e).

P31.48

P31.50

P31.52

~104 V

P31.54

P31.56

ABmax t

e

P31.58

(a)

P31.60

3.92 m/s is the highest speed the loop can have while the upper edge

is above the field, so it cannot possibly be moving at 4.00 m/s.

P31.62

P31.64

P31.66

P31.68

P31.70

(b) 248 ; (c) Higher resistance would reduce the power delivered.

Bv

; (b) particle in equilibrium; (c) 281 m/s; (d) 1.88 A; (e) 169 W;

R

(f) 169 W; (g) yes; (h) increase; (i) yes; (j) larger

Chapter 31

467

P31.72

(a) C a 2 K; (b) upper plate; (c) The changing magnetic field through

the enclosed area of the loop induces a clockwise electric field within

the loop, and this causes electric force to push on charges in the wire

P31.74

P31.76

0 Iv w

2 Rr ( r + w )

4

P31.78

(a)

P31.80

2

Bmax

R 4b 2

; (b) 4; (c) 4; (d) 16

(a)

16

P31.82

0.800 4.90t 2

(a) See P31.82(a) for full description; (b) See P31.82(b) for full

description.

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