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A MINOR PROJECT REPORT

ON
A STUDY OF WORK VALUES OF MANAGERS IN BPO INDUSTRY

Submitted in partial fulfillment of requirement of Bachelor of


Business Administration (B.B.A) General

BBA IIIRD SEMESTER (M)


BATCH 2013-2016
Submitted to:

Submitted by:

Ms. Mugdha Sehgal

Utsav Sharma

Assistant Professor

03114101713

JAGANNATH INTERNATIONAL MANAGEMENT SCHOOL


KALKAJI
1

STUDENTS DECLERATION

I hereby declare that the present study A STUDY OF WORK VALUES OF


MANAGERS IN BPO INDUSTRY Is based on my original research work for the
fulfillment of the continuous evaluation of the assessment of two months summer
internship program, BACHELOR OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION-Class of
2013 - 2016 .The report has been done by me under the guidance of Ms.
Mugdha Sehgal, the research presented in this study has not been submitted in
full or part in this or any other university of the award of any degree or diploma.

Place: DELHI
Date:

Utsav Sharma
03114101713

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
A lot of effort has gone into this training report. My thanks are due to many
people with whom I have been closely associated.
I would like all those who have contributed in completing this project. First of all, I
would like to send my sincere thanks to Ms. Mugdha Sehgal for her helpful hand
in the completion of my project.
I would like to thank my entire beloved family & friends for providing me monetary
as well as non monetary support, as and when required, without which this
project would not have completed on time. Their trust and patience is now
coming out in form of this thesis

Utsav Sharma

CONTENTS

Description

Page No.

Acknowledgement (i)

(i)

Contents with page no.

(ii)

List of figures

(iii)

Executive Summary
Certificate of completion
Introduction
Objectives
Literature review
Research Methodology
Analysis & Interpretation
Findings & Inferences
Limitations
Recommendations and Conclusion
Appendices
Bibliography

S.no

List of Figure

Pages

1 Figure 1: Managerial Behavior in Indian Organization


2 Figure 2: Managerial effectives model in Indian context
3 Figure 3: Drivers of Contemporary Indian HRM Trends
4 Figure 4 : Managerial Value Model

CERTIFICATE OF COMPLETION
This is to certify that Utsav Sharma pursuing III semester (BBA) (M)
from Jagannath International Management School, Kalkaji, has
completed his project on the topic A STUDY OF WORK VALUES OF
MANAGERS IN BPO INDUSTRY.

His work is appreciable.

Project guide:
Ms. Mugdha Sehgal

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
6

The complexity of BPO industry has been grown significantly not from the
attrition point of view however also from the growth perspective, BPO
managers have extremely become important part of the overall success of
any organization and so that their work related values is this project will
focus on the different values and attributes that manager need to have to
manage the BPO work force in the complex and growing environment.
The role of the Human Resource Manager is evolving with the change in
competitive market environment and the realization that Human Resource
Management must play a more strategic role in the success of an organization.
Organizations that do not put their emphasis on attracting and retaining talents
may find themselves in dire consequences, as their competitors may be
outplaying them in the strategic employment of their human resources. With the
increase in competition, locally or globally, organizations must become more
adaptable, resilient, agile, and customer-focused to succeed. And within this
change in environment, the HR professional has to evolve to become a strategic
partner, an employee sponsor or advocate, and a change mentor within the
organization. In order to succeed, HR must be a business driven function with a
thorough understanding of the organizations big picture and be able to influence
key decisions and policies. In general, the focus of todays HR Manager is on
strategic personnel retention and talents development. HR professionals will be
coaches, counselors, mentors, and succession planners to help motivate
organizations members and their loyalty. The HR manager will also promote and
fight for values, ethics, beliefs, and spirituality within their organizations,
especially in the management of workplace diversity. This paper will highlight on
how a HR manager can meet the challenges of workplace diversity, how to
motivate employees through gain-sharing and executive information system
through proper planning, organizing, leading and controlling their human
resources.

According to Thomas (1992), dimensions of workplace diversity include, but are


not limited to: age, ethnicity, ancestry, gender, physical abilities/qualities, race,
sexual orientation, educational background, geographic location, income, marital
status, military experience, religious beliefs, parental status, and work
experience.

The future success of any organizations relies on the ability to

manage a diverse body of talent that can bring innovative ideas, perspectives
and views to their work. The challenge and problems faced of workplace diversity
can be turned into a strategic organizational asset if an organization is able to
capitalize on this melting pot of diverse talents. With the mixture of talents of
diverse cultural backgrounds, genders, ages and lifestyles, an organization can
respond to business opportunities more rapidly and creatively, especially in the
global arena (Cox, 1993), which must be one of the important organisational
goals to be attained. More importantly, if the organizational environment does not
support diversity broadly, one risks losing talent to competitors.

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

In the past decade an increasing number of international managers from


multinational organizations have participated in development programs at the
Centre for Creative Leadership. These managers work across the borders of
multiple countries simultaneously. Some of them are expatriates. Most are not.
And although many of these managers are not wrestling with the issues of
relocating and adjusting to living in a different culture, they all find themselves
dealing with cultural issuesdefined in the broadest contextevery time they
pick up the phone, log onto their e-mail, or disembark from an airplane.
Working with these managers led us to ask fundamental questions about our
current understanding of managerial effectiveness and whether or not it applied
to managers who work in an increasingly complex global world. We asked
ourselves: What do these managers do? Is it different from the work they did
when they managed in their own countries, and if it is different, how so? What
does it take for them to be effective when they manage across so many countries
simultaneously? What do these managers need to know in order to be effective?
What do organizations need to know and do in order to select and develop
people who will manage and lead effectively in the global economy?
This report is our attempt to address those questions. Although it is written for
scholars, the practical implications of our work have been developed and
published elsewhere (Dalton, Ernst, Deal, & Leslie, 2002).
Other researchers have explored the characteristics or competencies of global
managers.

10

Gergesene, Morrison, and Black (1998), for example, conducted interviews and
gathered

survey

data

from

international

managers

in

identifying

five

characteristics of successful global leaders:


(1) Context specific knowledge and skills,
(2) Inquisitiveness,
(3) Personal character (connection and integrity),
(4) Duality (the capacity for managing uncertainty and the ability to balance
tensions), and
(5) Savvy (business savvy and organizational savvy).

Values
A value is a principal or standard that is held in high esteem by an individual and
is related to all aspects of one's personal and work life. You may have values
around family, work, spiritual, leisure, personal, etc. In this exercise you will focus
on your work values. As you rank each value, think about how important the
value is to you in a work setting.

Managerial Values
The managerial ideologies in Indian dates back at least four centuries.
Arthashastra written by the celebrated Indian scholar-practitioner Kautilaya had
three key areas of exploration,
1) Public policy,
2) Administration and utilisation of people, and
3) Taxation and accounting principles.
Parallel to such pragmatic formulations, a deep rooted value system, drawn from
the early Aryan thinking, called Vedanta, deeply influenced the societal and
11

institutional values in India. Overall, Indian collective culture had an interesting


individualistic core while the civilisation values of duty to family, group and
society was always very important while vedantic ideas nurtured an inner private
sphere of individualism.
There has been considerable interest in the notion that managerial values are a
function of the behaviours of managers. England, Dhingra and Agarwal (1974)
were early scholars who contended that managerial values were critical forces
that shape organisational architecture. The relevance of managerial values in
shaping modern organisational life is reflected in scholarly literature linking them
to corporate culture (Deal & Kennedy 1982), organisational commitment and job
satisfaction (OReilly, Chatham & Caldwell 1991), as well as institutional
governance (Mowday, Porter & Steers 1982). Thus, understanding the source of
these values and in particular societal work values (which link the macro-micro
relationships and in turn organisational practices) had become a popular line of
enquiry, and a great deal of evidence has been presented to support the
importance of national culture in shaping managerial values. One of the most
widely read formulations of this literature is the seminal work of Hof stede (1980)
who popularised the notion of clustering culture in generic dimensions such as
power distribution, structuring, social orientation, and time horizons. In turn, these
dimensions could be employed to explain relevant work attitudes, job incumbent
behaviors and the working arrangements within organizational structures. Two of
these dimensions were individualism and collectivism. The traditional social
ethos from the ancient roots, which was developed over centuries, underwent
profound

transformation

during

the

British

rule.

Consequently, in

the

contemporary context multiple layers of values (core traditional values, individual


managerial values, and situational values) have emerged.
For instance, contemporary Indian multinational companies and global firms in
India have started shifting their emphasis to human resources with their
knowledge and experience as the central area of attention in extending new
performance boundaries.

12

Considerable research evidence attests to this trend with particular relevance to


Greenfield organisations with little or no historical baggages in their
organizational culture.

Figure 1: Managerial Behavior in Indian Organization


Also presents another powerful insight of the Indian tradition of the notion of
Guna dynamics. According to Sharma (1996), this culture based framework,
which has three types of gunas (attraction), is being increasingly used in
employee assessment and organizational team building strategies. The
contention is that each guna is a separate contribution to the core of human
personalities. The Sattava (or truth orientation) is the sentiment of exalted values
in people, organisations or society. Alternatively, the Tamasikguna depicts a
negative orientation which can be expressed behaviourally as ignorance, greed
or corruption. Those individuals with a Rajasikguna are inherently driven by a
desire to make a worthwhile contribution to their surroundings. Collectively, these
spiritual orientations, which manifest as Sattava, Tamas or Rajas gunas,
articulate as positive or negative HRM functions such as leadership, motivation
or other institutional behavioural activity. The third row of Figure 1 highlights the
linking of HRM trends to socio cultural roots. The culture of Sradha (upward
loyalty) and Sneha (mentoring with affection) outline the behavioural anchors
derived from the civilisational roots. The acceptance of Sradha by Youngers and
the display of Sneha by the seniors have been the root of sustainability of all
types of Indian oragnisations. This has a striking similarity to the concepts of
oyabun and kobun in the Japanese cultural context

13

Rapid advances in information technology have facilitated the expansion of a


global economy in which business activities and processes transcend national
boundaries. Such advances are driving a fundamental shift toward an
information-based society where people, through their unique knowledge,
innovation and expertise, are perceived as an important factor contributing to the
sustainable competitive advantage of organisations.
Hence, to meet the inherent challenges of a competitive, internationalized
business environment, organizations increasingly depend upon the intellectual
capacity of their human resources to enhance organizational performance.
The strategic significance of an organisations human capital pool is that its
unique capability is not readily replicable by other organisations. For this reason,
the unique configuration of an organisations human resources capabilities
represents a more dependable source of competitive advantage than does
technology.

ROLE OF CULTURE IN SHAPING MANAGERIAL ACTIONS


The Nature of Culture
While there are numerous ways the concept of culture is described throughout
the culture literature they are generally consistent in their broader meanings.
For example, Triandis (1972) defines culture as the subjective, cognitive structure
of a cultural group formed through their unique way of perceiving the social
environment. In a similar vein, Yamaguchi (1993) posits collective mental
programs being an accumulation of cultural patterns and processes resulting in
unique ways of thinking and perceiving phenomena. For Hofstede (1980), these
collective programmes of the mind are what distinguish one culture from another.
Culture is the framework for meaning for Trompenaars (1993) as it is the
14

collective way in which groups of people understand and interpret the world.
Baligh (1994) succinctly states that, ultimately, culture is the way a nation does
things. However defined and conceptualised, culture researchers such as Schien
(1985), Hofstede (1980a) and Rouseau (1990) argue that culture can be
examined or analysed at different levels.
Managerial Behavior
Manager is anyone who responsible for the work of other people. Stewart (1988)
defines manager as those above a certain level in the hierarchy, usually those
above foreman level on the works side and those above the first level of
supervision in the offices. Managerial behaviour is the behaviour that can be
reported, whether from observation by others or by self-reports. Managerial
objective is the aim that a manager of a firm wants to achieve. In perfect markets
a proper managerial objective is to maximize its firm's market value.
With the market economy conquering the world culminating in the shrinking of
the world into a global village, organisations have to change their stance, with a
strategy focused at the global market and acquire agility to respond quickly to the
customer expectations. Such organisational change can be brought about by
building high performing synergistic work systems comprising of many interrelated parts that must function as a whole to reach the goals of meeting
customer needs. Such synergistic work systems involve tailored configurations of
work structures, practices and processes. Organisations have to restructure so
as to organise work flow around key business processes webbed around
customer needs and then create teams to carry out those processes. Human
resource systems; management practices; work practices and processes and
organisational

structures

tuned

to

customer

requirement

culminate

in

organisations strategic alignment towards responsiveness and customer


orientation. The critical steps involved in such organisational change process are
as follows

15

i) Building the case for change.


ii) Define vision, mission and strategy.
iii) Develop communications and involvement strategy for the organisation as a
whole.
iv) Design/Re-design the organisation structure
v) Plan for implementation.
vi) Implement the system
vii) Monitor and evaluate progress
viii) Review the organisation.
In all the above activities the macro focus of the organisation as a whole is to be
kept in view. All the steps are important, but their sequence can vary depending
upon existing organisation culture. Typically they overlap, and earlier steps need
to be revisited as the change progresses. The relative emphasis on particular
step depends on the history of an organisation and its current work culture.
When planning for implementation, communicate plans with enthusiasm,
competence and commitment. Identify projects that will lead to early wins.
In implementation, have senior leaders driven the implementation, develop
support systems before launching teams and build management teams before
employee teams. Implement top down for monitoring and evaluating progress.
Open up the managers to ask the right questions, argue and positively criticize in
formally organised round tables with employees as internal customers. During
the transition, allow optimum time for change, prevent backsliding and celebrate
success.
Learning organisations have come alive with responsiveness and customer
orientation. Such organisations have enhanced capacity to learn, adopt and
change. It is an organisation in which learning processes are developed,
analysed, monitored, managed and aligned with improved and innovated goals.
Its vision, strategy, leadership, values, structures, systems knowledge and
practical experience, all constantly change based on the need of the hour.
16

Sharing best practices, an open culture, calculated risk taking is encouraged.


Systems for performance based rewards are promoted. Instead of a single
prescription

for

success,

learning

organisations

use

many.

Following are the requirements for the managerial changei) The managers must have adequate knowledge of human behaviour.
ii) The managers must be clear exactly of that behaviour, they have to manage.
iii) They must have the skills to manage the consequences for designed
behaviour in work situation.

17

OBJECTIVES

To study the work values of managers in BPO Industry.


To study the managerial values and culture for the organization.
To Identify the competitiveness of the value management and

behavioral of the Managers in the BPO industry


To study the employees satisfaction from the managerial behavior.

18

CHAPTER-II
LITRATURE REVIEW

WORK VALUES
Theory and research on work values precede largely from the premise that work
values are derived from peoples basic value systems that help them navigate
through the multiple spheres of their lives (Roe and Ester, 1999). An early
definition by Rokeach (1973), states that a value is an enduring belief that a
specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially
preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence
(Uygu, 2003). Rokeach defines beliefs about preferable modes of conduct
instrumental values and beliefs about preferable end-states terminal values. In
a value system, individuals rank-order their instrumental and terminal values
along a continuum of importance. Work values on the other hand are more
specific than general life values as they apply to a specific life domain. As such,
work values influence the importance of work in the life of the individual (verko,
1989).
19

Some researchers stress that work goals can be regarded synonymous to work
values since the concept of goals is a core element of values. For example,
Zedeck (1997) has defined work values as goals that people strive to attain
through working. Other definitions that stress the concept of goals have asserted
that values signify desired goals scaled according to importance which guide a
persons life (Tevrz, Turgut, 2004), behaviour that is directed towards goals
(French, Kahn, 1962), and criteria for choosing those goals (Locke, 1976). In all
the definitions given above it is evident that the concept of goals can be
substituted for the concept of values.
In the definitions of work values, the idea of an attitude towards or orientation
with regard to work constitutes a central element. Most definitions of work values
agree with the notion that work values are specific goals that the individual
considers important and attempts to attain in the work context. One of the most
important aspect that comes to fore from the theories of work and work
motivation, is that workers differ with regard to the reasons they have for working
and the needs they want to satisfy through work (Beukman, 2005). Similarly,
Nord et al (1990) has defined work values as, end states that guide individuals
work related preferences that can be attained through the act of working.
Work values have been classified according to their types. Nord, et al. (1990)
suggests that work values can be classified as intrinsic or extrinsic. Intrinsic work
values refer to end-states that occur through work or in the course of people
engaging in work activities such as a sense of accomplishment and are
dependent on the content of work. Extrinsic work values refer to end states that
occur as a consequence of work, regardless or independent of the state of the
content of work per se such as family security (George, Jones, 1997). In addition
to this binary classification, Ginzberg, et al (1951) has suggested a third
dimension. This third dimension is named social/environmental values referring
to relations with co-workers and the work environment itself.

Work Centrality
The concept of work centrality has mainly been derived from basic values.
According to Kanungo (1982), work centrality is a normative belief about the
value and importance of work in the configuration of ones life, and it is a function
of ones past cultural conditioning or socialization. Some researchers (e.g.
Kanungo, 1982) use the term work involvement or involvement with work to
define work centrality. Work centrality is the degree of importance of work in
general rather than involvement in the present job. Therefore, work centrality
differs from other concepts like, organizational commitment and job involvement.
An empirical study by Paullay, et al. (1994) has clarified the distinction between
20

work centrality and job involvement and has demonstrated that these two
concepts actually appeared to be two distinct constructs. In the study by Paullay
et al., job involvement is defined as the degree to which one is cognitively
preoccupied with, engaged in, and concerned with one's present job; and work
centrality is defined as the beliefs that individuals have regarding the degree of
importance work plays in their lives. Although a moderate, positive correlation
was indicated between the measurement instruments of job involvement and
work centrality, the confirmatory factor analysis provided support for the
hypothesis that job involvement and work centrality were two distinct constructs.
Work-Value Congruence
The above hypothesis predicts that different work values have varying degrees of
influence on work centrality. It is believed that as the distance between the act of
work and the value it relates to (work-value congruence) differ, the relation
between values and work centrality changes accordingly. Work-value congruence
is a concept that is believed to exist in explaining relations between basic
variables such as values/goals and attitudinal variables like centrality,
satisfaction, citizenship and commitment. It is defined as the distance between
ones values or goals and ones belief in attaining the specific value/goal through
the act of work. Bourdieu (1973, 1977) asserts that the formation of goals in a
specific life sphere, change according to the belief in reaching that specific goal.
Individuals observe events around them and make judgments consciously or
unconsciously- about the attain ability of their goals and act according to their
perception of the attainability of the goal. Zedeck (1997) argues that work values
influence the importance of work in the life of the individual, and add that this
relationship is moderated by the perception of one in attaining the specified goals
through the act of working.

COMPETANCE
Competence is a standardized requirement for an individual to properly perform
a specific job. It encompasses a combination of knowledge, skills and behavior
utilised to improve performance. More generally, competence is the state or
quality of being adequately or well qualified, having the ability to perform a
specific role.

21

For instance, management competency includes the traits of systems thinking


and emotional intelligence, and skills in influence and negotiation. A person
possesses a competence as long as the skills, abilities, and knowledge that
constitute that competence are a part of them, enabling the person to perform
effective action within a certain workplace environment. Therefore, one might not
lose knowledge, a skill, or an ability, but still lose a competence if what is needed
to do a job well changes.
Competence is also used to work with more general descriptions of the
requirements of human beings in organizations and communities. Examples are
educations and other organizations who want to have a general language to tell
what a graduate of an education must be able to do in order to graduate or what
a member of an organization is required to be able to do in order to be
considered competent. An important detail of this approach is that all
competences have to be action competences, which means you show in action,
that you are competent. In the military the training systems for this kind of
competence is called Artificial Experience, which is the basis for all simulators.
General Competence
In a specific organization or community you need to have the Professional
Competence of the profession or industry. The professional competencies are
equal to the Occupational competences described below. They are usually the
competences you have to show in an interview for a job. But today there are a
set of General Competences which is required if you want to keep the job or get
a promotion. For all organizations and communities there is a set of primary
tasks that competent people have to contribute to all the time. For a university
student the primary tasks could be:

Handling theory

Handling methods

Handling the information of the assignment


22

The four general competences are:

Meaning Competence: Identifying with the purpose of the organization or


community and acting from the preferred future in accordance with the
values of the organization or community.

Relation Competence: Creating and nurturing connections to the


stakeholders of the primary tasks.

Learning Competence: Creating and looking for situations that make it


possible to experiment with the set of solutions that make it possible to
solve the primary tasks and reflect on the experience.

Change Competence: Acting in new ways when it will promote the


purpose of the organization or community and make the preferred future
come to life.

Occupational Competence
The Occupational Competence movement was initiated by David McClelland in
the 1960s with a view to moving away from traditional attempts to describe
competence in terms of knowledge, skills and attitudes and to focus instead on
the specific self-image, values, traits, and motive dispositions (i.e. relatively
enduring characteristics of people) that are found to consistently distinguish
outstanding from typical performance in a given job or role. It should be noted
that different competencies predict outstanding performance in different roles,
and that there is a limited number of competencies that predict outstanding
performance in any given job or role. Thus, a trait that is a 'competence' for one
job might not predict outstanding performance in a different role.
McClelland argued that these competencies could neither be identified nor
assessed using traditional procedures. The fundamental problem is that high
level competencies such as initiative and the ability to understand and intervene
in organizational processes are difficult and demanding activities that no one will
23

engage in unless they very much care about the activity in which they are
engaged or unless they find these activities intrinsically satisfying. Such
qualities will, therefore, most often only be developed and displayed while people
are undertaking activities they care about. Furthermore, success in undertaking
them depends on bringing to bear a range of cognitive, affective, and conative
components of competence, such as thinking about what is to be achieved and
how it is to be achieved, turning ones emotions into the task, and persisting over
a long period of time. Note, again, that these components of competence cannot
be assessed except in relation to activities people care about, i.e. they cannot be
accessed through the processes favored by traditional psychometricians. Hence
their neglect in conventional studies of occupational competence based upon
traditional tests and especially tests of academic knowledge - knowledge of
content.

MANAGERIAL EFFECTIVENESS:
In the past, employees were expected to be efficient in producing the desired
results and their efficiency was measured in terms of the outputs delivered
relative to the inputs used. Now, the focus has shifted to effectiveness.
Effectiveness involves doing the right things, in the right way. Effectiveness is
particularly important in the case of managers, as they are responsible for the
performance

of

others.

However, effective management starts at a personal level, before moving on to


the personnel level. Effective managers are role models for subordinates. They
play a vital role in improving the overall effectiveness of the organisation. There is
a general misconception that managerial effectiveness is an inherent quality that
cannot be learnt. However, if effectiveness was something innate, we would not
see so many successful managers or successful organizations. The reality is that
effectiveness can be learnt, and with practice, be perfected. In short, managers
can

be

trained

to
24

be

effective.

There are no specific personality traits common to all successful managers.


Some of them are analytical while others are intuitive. Some are good decisionmakers, while others are good planners. However, all these managers have one
characteristic in common: They are effective in whatever they do and whatever
they

are.

Successful

knowledgeable.

managers

may

be

However, only effectiveness

intelligent,
translates

imaginative,
this

and

intelligence,

imagination, and knowledge into results, and ultimately makes a manager


successful.
Managerial effectiveness is a function of personality type and organizational
components.
Managerial effectiveness is very important for the survival and growth of the
organisation. It is difficult to define managerial effectiveness in concrete terms.
Many perceive it within a particular frame of reference. Decisions about
effectiveness are bound to be situational and contingent upon the definition and
perspectives of those making the judgment. A review of literature shows that
managerial effectiveness has been studied with three perspectives:

1. Traditional/Conventional perspective
2. Organisational level competency based perspective, and
3. An individual level competency based perspective.
The traditional model emphasises the ability to set and achieve goals (Bartol and
Martin, 1991) where it is implicitly assumed that managerial effectiveness leads
to organisational effectiveness. The organisational competency based approach
implies that there is long term future orientation that accounts for both external
and internal influences on the organisations. From these analyses a vision is
created for the future of the organisation, goals are set that will achieve the vision
and plans are developed to achieve these strategic goals. Here, the organisation
tries to create the system and environment with the help of skills and
25

characteristics of managers that lead them to achieve strategic intents.


The individual competency based approach to managerial effectiveness focuses
upon the individual rather than the organisation. The purpose of this approach is
to develop transferable (generic) management skills that are applicable across
different circumstances both nationally and internationally. But this competencybased perspective on managerial effectiveness has been heavily criticised on the
ground of the contingencies and the contexts. Effectiveness is best seen as
something a manager produces from a situation by managing it appropriately,
producing the results or meeting the targets in every sphere of the activities of
organisations. The manager's job is linked with three major dimensions-technical, conceptual, and human. The productivity of any organisation can be
increased by the effective management of all the three dimensions and specially
by managing the conceptual and human dimensions of management. All
managers need to work with and through subordinates to optimize organisational
performance. Therefore, certain behavioural skills are required of individuals if
they are to be effective as managers.

Managers have many resources at their disposal and the quality of work is
dependent on how well these resources have been used. The performance of a
manager can be measured by the extent to which goals that are important to the
group and organisations are met through the productive efforts of subordinates
(Herbert, 1976). In other words, effective management is the culmination of
synergy of effectiveness of individual managers in the organisation (Sen and
Saxena,

1999).

Das (1987) identified the characteristics of an efficient branch manager as setting


an example by personal qualities, job knowledge, business acumen, and
management ability. Miles (1992) suggested that constructive use of authority
entails the ability to formulate clear goals and to determine what steps are
necessary to achieve them, including getting people to do what is necessary for
26

achieving the targets. Misumi (1989), and Misumi and Peterson (1985) defined
the ideal manager in Japan in terms of both performance and maintenance
orientations, namely, a manager who leads the group towards goal attainment
and preserves its social stability. Just as there had been controversy and many
arguments were raised that a good leader should have certain characteristics
similar arguments are there for managerial effectiveness. There are many
researchers who on the basis of their findings have identified that effective
managers possess the particular set of characteristics like job knowledge, good
communication, business acumen and interpersonal relationship but having
these characteristics are not sufficient to become effective manager. Managerial
effectiveness is not only a personality characteristic but it is related to
performance and output. Gupta (1996) has developed a 16-factor scale to
measure managerial effectiveness. These factors are tapping three important
aspects of effectiveness: activities of his position, achieving the results, and
developing further potential. The managerial effectiveness has been measured
by experts in several different ways at different times. Some models focus on
individual competencies of managerial effectiveness, while most of the studies
have taken performance measure and superior's appraisals rather than selfreport measures while deciding the effectiveness of a manager. In the light of
above discussion, a study is planned to see the effect of management position,
departments, and personality variable on managerial effectiveness.

Managing the Managerial Process


The focus on management has been continuously increasing over the past
years. The debate concerning the need and the desire to develop a management
policy has, during the past year, made the subject highly topical. The fact that
management has become a

27

Key issue is only natural as the ability, and the will to manage, are decisive
factors in determining the ability to maintain and further develop the
competitiveness of Danish companies.

Management is not for the few


The basis of the fundamental questions posed in it is naturally What is
management? and How may management be practiced? In contrast to many
other management theories where the focus on the relationship between the
manager and the subordinate the paper argues that, at the core of management
is the individual managerial behaviour in terms of the managerial roles that must
be performed in order for a company to function. Managerial behaviour is not
only associated with the manager role but is performed by individuals who,
through common means, will reach common goals. And this, according to
Professor Johnsons terminology, happens through a goal-setting, problemsolving and language creating behaviour. Hereby management is no longer for
the chosen few but becomes a process involving several more actors, and
hopefully, with a broader anchorage in the organisation itself. This interpretation
fits, according to Danish mentality, perfectly with the democratic values central in
our society. Simultaneously it emphasises that management is important seen
from the following the points of view:
My own managerial behaviour;
Our managerial behaviour through the local managerial environment;
Everybodys managerial behaviour in terms of the interconnected
managerial environments, which together constitutes the companys
managerial behaviour.
An important point interpretation is that managerial behaviour can be made
conscious and be developed, and that managerial behaviour is performed
28

through a set of different managerial roles in corporation with others. The


importance of this corporation, interpretation of the managerial process, is
evident from the papers explicit subtitle: a participative approach.

Frame of Reference
Based on various management theories the foundation for management theory is
developed comprising the following three dimensions:
1. Objective-setting behaviour
2. Problem-solving behaviour
3. Language creating behaviour
Each of these can be performed in relation to the three types of objectives:
operations, adaptation and development three types of problem-solving:
analysis/synthesis, interaction and search-learn as well as three types of
languages: decision-, behavioural- and systems-language. Managerial frame of
reference emerges consisting of 3 by 3 managerial roles amounting to at total of
27, which may be categorised into 9 operations control roles, 9 adaptation roles
and 9 development roles. The majority of the paper is dedicated to the
interpretations of these three main categories and the more specific types of
roles are defined, discussed, exemplified and expanded upon over more than
500 pages. The discussion of each role type is meticulous, systematic as well as
well-argued and is, as all the roles, summarised into three main points
objective, problem-solving and type of language.

A couple of examples of managerial roles must be emphasised.

29

Among the operations control role is the administrator. These will probably be
familiar to most people which the paper offer a number of fine angles to while
simultaneously setting them in into context. Amongst the adaptive roles the
coordinator and the reorganiser may be mentioned. The latter is undeniably a
central managerial role which relevance is currently experienced intensely in
relation to how an organisation can adapt to changed circumstances and
conditions.
Example of the role of the reorganiser is provided from the academic world. The
final
9 roles relate to development roles. Amongst these are found the strategic
planner, the communicator and the statesman. The former is illustrated partly
through a number of more principled viewpoints and partly through a number of
good cases. It is evident that this is a more challenging and demanding role
requiring the ability of project development and complex problem-solving, while
the managerial role of statesman comprises of the ability to create visions and
the companys strategic profile as well as the ability to ensure the development of
the companys managerial process.
A primary element in interpretation of management is the managerial process
itself. The paper therefore concludes with a number of viewpoints concerning
theory and practice seen from this perspective, and where the point is, that the
paper is a theory on managerial roles but that it is the individual manager who in
practise must develop his or her own theory. The keywords therefore comprise of
individual as well as collective learning.

30

Figure 2: Managerial effectives model in Indian context

INDIAN CONTEXT
One of the noteworthy features of the Indian workplace is demographic
uniqueness. It is estimated that both China and India will have a population of
1.45 billion people by 2030; however, India will have a larger workforce than
China. Indeed, it is likely India will have 986 million people of working age in
2030, which will probably be about 300 million more than in 2007. And by 2050, it
is expected India will have 230 million more workers than China and about 500
million more than the United States of America (U.S.). It may be noted that half of
Indias current population of 1.1 billion people are under of 25 years of age.
While this fact is a demographic dividend for the economy, it is also a danger
sign for the countrys ability to create new jobs at an unprecedented rate
When Indias young demographic bubble begins to reach working age, India will
need far more jobs than currently exist to keep living standards from declining.
India today doesnt have enough good jobs for its existing workers, much less for
millions of new ones. If it cannot better educate its children and create jobs for
31

then once they reach working age, India faces a population time bomb: The
nation will grow poorer and not richer, with hundreds of millions of people stuck in
poverty.
With the retirement age being 55 to 58 years of age in most public sector
organisations, Indian workplaces are dominated by youth. Increasing the
retirement age in critical areas like universities, schools, hospitals, research
institutions and public service is a topic of considerable current debate and
agenda of political parties.
The divergent view, that each society has an unique set of national nuances,
which guide particular managerial beliefs and actions, is being challenged in
Indian society. An emerging dominant perspective is the influence of globalisation
on technological advancements, business management, and education and
communication infrastructures are leading to a converging effect on managerial
mindsets and business behaviours.
And when India embraced liberalisation and economic reform in the early 1990s,
dramatic changes were set in motion in terms of corporate mindsets and HRM
practices as a result of global imperatives and accompanying changes in societal
priorities. Indeed, the onset of a burgeoning competitive service sector compelled
a demographic shift in worker educational status and heightened the demand for
job relevant skills as well as regional diversity. Expectedly, there has been a
marked shift towards valuing human resources (HR) in Indian organisations as
they become increasingly strategy driven as opposed to the culture of the status
quo. Accordingly, competitive advantage in industries like software services,
pharmaceuticals, and biotechnology (where India is seeking to assert global
dominance), the significance of HRs is being emphasised. These relativities were
demonstrated in a recent study of three global Indian companies with (235
managers) when evidence was presented that positively linked the HRM
practices with organisational performance .In spite of this trend of convergence, a
deep sense of locality exists creating more robust cross mergence in the
conceptual as well as practical domain.
32

Figure3: Drivers of Contemporary Indian HRM Trends


Figure presents the key drivers for contemporary Indian HRM trends. In Figure 2
there are four external spheres of intervention for HRM professionals and these
spheres are integrated in a complex array within organisational settings. The
intellectual sphere, which emphasises the mindset transaction in work
organisations, has been significantly impacted by the forces of globalisation.
Indeed, Chatterjee and Pearson (2000) argued, with supporting empirical
evidence from 100 Indian managers, that many of the traditional Indian values
(respect for seniority, status and group affiliation) have been complemented by
newer areas of attention that are more usually linked to globalisation, such as
work quality, customer service and innovation. The most important work related
attribute of the study was the opportunity to learn new things at work. Such cross

33

verging trends need to be understood more widely as practitioners face a new


reality of human resource development of postindustrial economic organisations.
The other three spheres, of, namely the emotional, the socio cultural and the
managerial domains are undergoing, similar profound changes. For instance, the
socio cultural sphere confronts the dialects of the national macro level reform
agenda as well as the challenge of innovating by addressing the hygiene and
motivational features of the work place. Consequently, this sphere, which is
underpinned by the anchors of Sradha and Sneha, has the opportunity to
leverage work setting creativity in dimensions of autonomy, empowerment, multi
skilling and various types of job design. And the emotional sphere, which focuses
on creativity and innovation to encapsulate the notions of workplace commitment
and collaboration as well as favorable teamwork, brings desirable behavioural
elements of transparency and integrity into organisational procedures and
practices. The managerial sphere provides the mechanisms for shifting mindsets,
for in Indian organisations HRM is viewed to be closely aligned with managerial
technical competency. Thus, understanding of the relativity of HRM to strategic
intended organisational performance is less well articulated in Indian firms. The
current emphasis of reconfiguring cadres (voluntary and no voluntary redundancy
schemes), downsizing, delay ring and similar arrangements will become less
relevant as holistic perspectives gain ground. A hallmark of future Indian
workplaces is likely to be a dominant emphasis on managerial training, structural
redesign and reframing of institutional architectures to achieve enterprise
excellence. Thus, a primary role of Indian managers will be to forge new
employment and industrial relationships through purposeful HRM policies and
practices.

34

CONCEPT:
Below we touch on a number of concepts to do with work competency that have
been published recently, with the aim of extracting from them those
characteristics of the concept that are useful for the subsequent development of
this chapter. They are as follows:
A capacity to mobilize diverse cognitive resources to meet a certain type of
situation (Perrenoud, 2000).LeBoterf (1997) says that competencies are not
themselves resources in the sense of knowing how to act, knowing how to do, or
attitudes, but they mobilize, integrate and orchestrate such resources. This
mobilization is only pertinent in one situation, and each situation is unique,
although it could be approached as an analogy to other situations that are
already known. The exercise of competency involves complex mental situations,
schemes of thought which allow determination (more or less consciously and
rapidly) and performance (in a more or less efficient way) of action which is
relatively adapted to a situation. Vocational competencies are constructed in
training, but also in the course of the everyday experiences of a teacher as he
moves through different work situations.

Competencies and managerial effectiveness


We all have competencies. These are the sum of our experiences and the
knowledge, skills, values and attitudes we have acquired during our lifetime.
In the workplace we use our competencies to perform a variety of behaviors and
activities, which in turn produce outputs (products and services) that we provide
to others. It is the quality of these outputs and the reactions of those who receive
them that lead to results with positive, negative or neutral consequences for the
organization; the people who work there; and its suppliers, shareholders, clients,
and customers.
The current and future success of an enterprise is a reflection of the
effectiveness of the senior management team, their vision and leadership, and
35

the combined knowledge and skills of the organization's workforce. This means
that the identification of critical management and specialist competencies that will
enable enterprises (and countries) to meet the demands of the future has
assumed an even more important place as a key responsibility of senior business
executives, human resource practitioners, educationalists, public administrators
and government leaders. Major attributes of sales manager behaviour.

At the heart of any successful activity lies a competence or a skill. In todays


competitive world it is becoming particularly important to build on the competitive
activities of business. There has been much thinking about business strategy
over the last three decades; particularly regarding what competencies a business
needs to have in order to compete in a specific environment. Top management is
identifying corporate core competencies and working to establish them
throughput the organization. Human Resource Development builds competencybased models that drive business results.
All organizations are talking about competencies. Some have truly worked the
concept into several of their processes. A few have a fully implemented
competency modeling and reporting system in place. These address the
development of people from process design through succession.
The process is completely customizable. The decisions of competency design
are driven by a number of organizational factors, including management
philosophy, customer requirements, business needs, and in-place processes.
These factors vary from one organization to another, requiring a customized
approach to competencies in the workplace.
What are competencies?
Competencies are clusters of knowledge, skills/abilities and underlying personal
characteristics that drive resultant behavior leading to success/superior
performance on job. The stress and due bias is towards the behavioral
36

dimension. The word capability is also inter-changeably used to connote this


meaning.
Competency = Ability + Willingness
The word competency is widely used in business and personnel psychology. A
competency is also something you can measure, and lists of competencies form
a common language for describing how people perform in different situations.
Every job can be described in terms of key competencies. This means that they
can be used for all forms of assessment, including appraisals, training needs
analysis and of course, selection.

The Competency Iceberg


It can be helpful to think of competencies in terms of an iceberg. Technical
competencies are at the tip - the portion above the waterline that is clearly visible
(and therefore easier to assess).
Behavioral competencies are below the waterline - they are more difficult to
assess, and often harder to develop. Behavioral competencies can be
understood as manifestations of how a person views him or herself (self-image),
how he or she typically behaves (traits), or motives him or her (motives).

37

Skill: A person's ability to do something well.


Knowledge: Information that a person uses in a particular area.
Self-Image: A person's view of him or herself, identity, personality and worth.
Trait: A typical aspect of a person's behavior.
Motive: What drives someone's behavior in a particular area? (An underlying
need for achievement, affiliation or power)
Competencies are not "add-on" responsibilities or skills. Instead, they are a way
of clarifying existing job requirements and expectations about performance.
A competency model describes the combination of knowledge; skills and
characteristics needed to effectively perform a role in an organization and is used
as a human resource tool for selection, training and development appraisal and
succession planning. Identifying and mapping these competencies is rather
complex. A competency model consists of a set of competencies that have been
selected through some research process that demonstrates their importance for
success on the job.

38

The competencies identified for Convergys India have been listed in the
Competency model below:
Succession Planning
Training
Promotions
Competency Model

Career Planning
Recruitment

Business & Commercial focus


Client & Customer Focus
Working with others
Developing others
Confidence & Communication
Performance Focus
Working proactively
Leading others
Expert Knowledge
Planning & Reviewing
Solving problems
Creativity & Innovation
Change focus

Influencing others

Pay Decisions

Work

Assignments
Performance Management
Competency model for Convergys India

39

A competency model ensures the HRM systems:


Selection Systems

All interviews are looking for the same set of abilities

and characteristics.
Training and Development

It provides a list of behaviors and skills that

must be developed to maintain satisfactory levels of performance.


Succession Planning

It focuses on the same set of attributes and skills

relevant to success on the positions under consideration.


Performance Management

It

clarifies

what

is

expected

from

the

individuals.
Appraisal System It focuses on specific behavior, offering a roadmap for
recognition, reward and possible advancement.
This project focuses on three areas of Competency-based applications:
Recruitment & Selection: Competency Based Interviewing guide
Performance Management System: Performance appraisal Process
Career Planning: Career Progression Program for Support staff

40

CHAPTER III
COMPANY PROFILE

41

2.1 HISTORY
Convergys is an international business process outsourcer with particular expertise
in customer management. It develops and implements a range of outsourcing
solutions

for

many

leading

organizations

in

the

commercial,

financial

services, utility and public sectors. These include transformational outsourcing,


combining our skills in consulting, technology and outsourced service provision to
stimulate and facilitate business change and flexibility.
Convergys is part of United Utilities plc, a FTSE 100 company. In 2001, the
company launched a strategic alliance with Cap Gemini Ernst & Young. The
agreement provides a powerful combination of outsourcing and IT skills and
experience that is unique in the UK.
In December 2002, we acquired UK contact center operator, 7C and the
shareholding of 7C India, in which GE Capital has a strategic investment.

42

2.2 ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE

2.3. LIST OF KEY MANAGEMENT PERSONNEL


Jeff Fox
President and Chief Executive Officer
Andre S. Valentine
Chief Financial Officer
Julia A. Houston
Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary
43

Jim Goetz
Chief Information Officer and General Manager Global Technology Solutions
Andrea J. Ayers
President and COO, Customer Management
Jeff Fox
President and CEO
Convergys Corporation

Jeffrey (Jeff) Fox is president and chief executive


officer of Convergys Corporation, a global leader in relationship management.
Jeff provides direction and leadership to the Company and is responsible for the
achievement of the Company's strategy and mission, annual goals, and yearly
revenue and profitability targets. All lines of business, business units and resource
units report directly to Jeff, as do the chief financial officer and the general counsel
and corporate secretary.
Jeff became a member of the Convergys Board of Directors in February 2009. He
was appointed Convergys president and CEO in February 2010. Prior to his
association with Convergys, Jeff founded and served as CEO and partner of The
Circumference Group, a technology and telecommunications consulting and
investment firm.
44

From 1996 to 2009, Jeff held management positions at Alltel Corporation, including
Chief Operating Officer; Group President-Shared Services, supporting Alltel's
wireline and wireless operations; and Group President-Alltel Information Services,
responsible for software, professional services, and outsourcing to top tier global
financial institutions. Alltel was the fifth largest wireless company in the United
States before its acquisition by Verizon in January 2009.
Prior to joining Alltel, Jeff worked in investment banking for 10 years with Stephens
Inc., preceded by two years with Merrill Lynch. Jeff specialized in M&A advisory
services for public and private companies.
Jeff is a graduate of Duke University with a bachelor's degree in economics.

Andre Valentine is chief financial officer for Convergys


Corporation.
He is responsible for managing the financial risks of the company, with oversight for
corporate strategic development, financial planning and reporting, internal audit,
real estate, procurement, and investor relations. He reports to Jeff Fox, president
and chief executive officer of Convergys.
45

Andre has been with Convergys since 1997. Prior to his current role, Valentine
served as chief financial officer for Convergys Customer Management line of
business. He also held the position of senior vice president and controller of
Convergys, as well as senior vice president of group finance for Customer
Management (CM).
Prior to Convergys, Andre worked for Coopers and Lybrand.
Valentine is a native of Cincinnati and has a bachelors degree in accounting from
the University of Cincinnati.

Julia A. Houston is Senior Vice President, General


Counsel and Corporate Secretary of Convergys Corporation. She is responsible for
managing the legal affairs of the company, as well as corporate compliance,
compensation and benefits, privacy, information security, and corporate security.
Julia reports to Jeff Fox, president and chief executive officer of Convergys.
Before joining Convergys, Julia was Senior Vice President, General Counsel, Chief
Compliance Officer and Secretary of Mirant Corporation in Atlanta, Georgia, where
she had responsibility for legal affairs, compliance, regulatory and legislative affairs,
environmental policy and internal audit. Prior to Mirant, Julia was corporate counsel
at Delta Air Lines, Inc. and an associate with King & Spalding LLP.
Julia earned her bachelor's degree from the University of Virginia and her law
degree from the University of Georgia School of Law.

46

Jim Goetz is the chief information officer (CIO) and


general manager of Global Technology Solutions for Convergys Corporation, a
global leader in relationship management.
Jim is responsible for the planning, development, and delivery of the technology
products and services for the Company globally, including external and internal
clients. He reports to Jeff Fox, president and chief executive officer of Convergys.
Prior to joining Convergys, Goetz held a number of executive leadership positions
with ServiceMaster, IBM, and Ameritech.
Jim holds a bachelor's degree in mathematics and economics from Wheaton
College, and a master's degree in business administration from the University of
Chicago.

47

Andrea Ayers is president and chief operating officer


of Customer Management at Convergys Corporation, a global leader in relationship
management.
Andrea is responsible for meeting the company's revenue and profitability targets
for this line of business, which generates approximately $1.8 billion in annual
revenues and operates a global network of contact centers and home agents. She
reports to Jeff Fox, president and chief executive officer of Convergys.
Prior to her current appointment, Ayers has held a number of senior executive
positions at Convergys, including president of the company's Relationship
Technology Management line of business; a business unit president focusing on the
Government, Retail, Healthcare, Automotive, and Financial Services verticals; vice
president of marketing; and general manager of the Direct Broadcast Services
(DBS) business unit. Andrea has been with Convergys since 1990.
Andrea earned her bachelor's degree in management and administration from
Louisiana State University in Shreveport, Louisiana.

48

2.4 CURRENT SALES, PRODUCT MIX


Outsourced services include:

Customer management outsourcing

Business services outsourcing

Transformation and technology

The Convergys Mission


To work in partnership with our customers to transform public service delivery, and
continually improve services to the citizen on the basis of best value.

Values
Convergys is trusted by many leading organizations to manage millions of customer
interactions every year. It differentiates through the following brand values, but to
support their clients' cultures they embed and communicate their brand values
to their customers. They are the sum total of everything they want their clients to
feel and think about them.

Passionate about service

Efficient and effective

Proactive innovators

Results focused

Experts plus

Their core values shape the way they run Convergys and interact as a team. They
have five core values - all of which reflect the company's founding belief that their
people are as critical to their success as are clients and their customers.
49

Our customers are our business

We will respect every individual in our company

We will adopt a performance focused approach

We will be flexible and decisive

Quality as a way of life

Locations
Convergyss head office is in Manchester and their 9,000 employees are based in
30 UK locations covering the North West, Midlands, East Anglia, London, Wales
and Scotland. They also have offshore operations in India and Canada.
Services and Markets
As an international business process outsourcer, with particular expertise in
customer management, Convergys develops and implements a range of
outsourcing solutions for many leading organizations in the commercial sector,
financial services, utility and public sectors.
These range from contact center operations, for example, through to complete
transformational outsourcing - combining their skills in consulting, technology and
outsourced service provision to stimulate and facilitate business change and deliver
a step change in performance.
They work in partnership with their clients to deliver enhanced business
performance, whilst reducing costs and improving the service and realizing the
potential of customer relationships.

50

2.5 MARKET POSITION

Contact centres

Customer relationship management

Telemarketing

Billing

Document handling

Payment processing

Debt management

Print & fulfillment

Finance & accounting

Human resources

Change management

Careers
Career development is fundamental to their success as a business. It promotes a
culture of continuous self-development; provides a stimulus for personal and
business growth; complements their appraisal process; and, importantly, supports
an individual's ongoing development plans.
Convergys is a rapidly growing company delivering business process outsourcing
services for blue-chip clients in the UK and overseas. They continually develop
51

leading edge IT, telephony and processing systems that ensure they can not only
win new clients, but also deliver world-class service on behalf of their customers.
They are therefore continually seeking to recruit motivated and committed
individuals to join their team and develop their careers in line with their growth.
Opportunities are always available in Customer Services, Transformation and
Technology and Business Change. In addition, they have occasional openings in
our Sales, Marketing, Finance and HR operations.

Key Facts
Convergys is an international business process outsourcer with particular expertise
in customer management.

300 million turnover

Manages over 34 million client customer accounts

9,000 employees

Economies through scale

204 million UK customer transactions

65 million bills and documents printed and sent out

95 million payments processed

6 billion collected in payments

Independent accreditations

Investors in People

ISO 9001

The Convergys Promise

A flexible, scalable, multi-channel service delivered from our Centres of


Excellence

Reduced cost per employee served


52

Guaranteed levels of service

Improved accuracy and timeliness of critical transactions

Access to experienced Shared Service Center practitioners who will


leverage your existing Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) solution (HR
Systems)

2.6 DIRECT COMPETITORS


-

Genpact
IBM
V- customer care

53

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research methodology can be defined as it is used to give a clear cut idea on
what the researcher is carrying out his or her research. In order to plan in a right
point of time and to advance the research work methodology makes the right
platform to the researcher to mapping out the research work in relevance to
make solid plans.
The project is based on Secondary data.
Secondary Data: It consists of information that already exists somewhere and
has been collected for some specific purpose in the study. The secondary data
for this study is collected from various sources like,

Books.

Website.

Newspaper.

Financial Magazine. ( weekly, business world etc.)

SOURCES OF DATA
The main source of obtaining necessary data for the study was Secondary
Data. This study is empirical in nature and hence secondary data is used
to conduct the research. The data was collected from the Internet by
exploring the Secondary sources available on websites.
TYPE OF RESEARCH:

54

SECONDARY DATA

Secondary Data: The secondary data constitutes of daily flows data


which was collected from websites respectively.

I collected the Secondary data from following sources:

Newspaper Hindustan Times, Times of India, Economic Times

Magazine - The Times. Harvard Business Review, 4Ps

Website/Internet from different website

Book Course book/ Philip Kotler

Notes- Professors Notes

55

CHAPTER-IV
ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS

56

ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS


The effect of values as an independent variable is the most commonly accepted
and used perspective in the field of management and organizational behavior.
This may be mainly due to the contention that national culture values influence
management practices and employees, managers behavior and performance.
This effect, therefore, can be identified in relation to several key areas of
management:
1. Effect of values on general management principles and practices. For
example, planning as a common management principle is influenced by the
value of future orientation (e.g., Hofstede, 1984, 1991). For example, the degree
of future orientation may reflect as short term, medium term or long term
depending on the person, group or society that this particular value may holds.
People or societies with long-term orientation tend to prepare long-term plans,
while short-term oriented people or societies tend to do things on ad-hock
manner or relay on short-term benefits of what they do. As such, long-term
oriented Convergys tend to invest more in such areas as research and
development, training and development of employees than short-term oriented
Convergys. Similarly, task and activities of an organization can be organized in a
tall or flat structure depending on power distance and hierarchical values of
people. Managers in high power distance societies tend to form tall organization
structures so that they can maintain power distance/gaps between managers and
employees.
2.

Effect of values on actual people management practices. For examples,

Aycan et al. (2000), Budhwar and Debrah (2001), Sparrow, Schuler and Jackson
57

(1994) have found that Human Resource Management (HRM) functions such as
recruitment, socialization, training and development, and empowerment are
underpinned by cultural values of different countries. For example, these
research findings revealed that high emphasis on training and retraining of
employees in people management practices was related to the value of future
orientation and the recognition of value of human re-sources by a particular
society and Convergys. Similarly, individual based performance evaluation
systems were related to the value of individualism in cultures.
3. Values also effect on preferences for people management policies and
practices. For example, research studies indicate that national culture and work
value orientations at individual level is highly predictive of their preferences for
the design of HR policies and practices (Aycan et al., 2007; Chandrakuamra and
Spar-row, 2004; Nyambegera et al., 2000; Sparrow and Wu, 1998). Specifically,
Nyambegera et al. (2000) found that activity thinking and low hierarchical
values are related to employees involvement in decision-making and
empowerment practices, respectively. Similarly, individual growth oriented work
norms, and Convergys and positions oriented work ethics are found to be
negatively related to empowering management practices (Chandrakumara and
Sparrow, 2004).
4.

Effect of values congruence/fit on behavioral and performance outcomes.

Research findings indicate that congruence between employees value and firms
value leads to greater satisfaction ,job involvement and less turnover (Sheridan,
1992), and contextual performance According to Punnet (1998), value
congruence can reduce conflicts in Convergys and improve cooperation.
5.

Effect of values on behavioral and performance outcomes. For example,

England (1995) found a significant positive relationship between work centrality


and non-financial commitment to working. Mottazs (1986) finding also indicates
that intrinsic values are strongly related to work satisfaction. In addition,
significant relationships have been found between values and organizational and
58

job commitment, productivity, job involvement, and contextual/citizenship and


task performance. With regard to the degree of managerial success, England
(1975) found that successful and unsuccessful managers espouse following
values: values of pragmatism, dynamic action, influential leadership, expertise,
prestige, duty conscious were held by successful managers, while less
successful managers held the values of passivity, security, status quo (resistance
to change and inflexibility), affection, and pleasure.
1.2.

Effect of values as a moderator variable.

Research evidence also indicates that the effectiveness of managerial


interventions such as use of goal setting, job enrichment, quality circles,
performance-based pay systems, etc., are greatly de-pendent on (or moderated
by) cultural values of participants. In addition, Roe and Ester (1999) also note
that in a society characterized by collectivism the collective itself is more salient
than the individual itself, and interventions such as differential or individualized
re-wards are likely to be unproductive, as they aim at enhancing the individual
itself but not the collective self. In such situations, quality circles and team-based
performance evaluation systems may be ineffective. Thus, cultural or work values
could play a moderating role in determining the effectiveness of managerial
interventions and, therefore, understanding cultural and work values orientations
of employees is important for practicing managers when adopting work practices
and evaluating their effectiveness.
1.3.

Effect of values as a dependent variable.

Basically, this contention represents the effect of organizational practices on


values. For example, Kim (1992) notes that those jobs involving more time
working with ideas or thinking and more autonomy at work are more likely to
create higher intrinsic work values in people. This simply means that work values
can be changed by changing work practices such as job redesigning by way of
job enlargement and enrichment. Wang (1992) also notes that gender, age,
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education, extrinsic organizational rewards, and intrinsic occupational out-comes


are major determinants of an employees extrinsic and intrinsic work values. For
example, reward system of Convergys can be seen as an effective tool in
influencing work values of people in Convergys.
In addition, values may also be affected by consequential behavior of oneself
and/or by the behaviors of others at work. For example, if someone experienced
negative consequences as a result of inappropriate work values, he/she may
think of developing more positive work values. Thus, the effect of values as a
dependent variable can result in the adoption of HRM and managerial practices,
recognizing consequential behaviors of self, and observing and following
behaviors of others at work.
2. Changing values of employees, organizations, and customers
Values change occurs with respect to many aspects of our personal,
organizational, political, socio-cultural, and aesthetic values. In modern society
changes seem to occur almost instantly with little warning. For example, a new
economic, technological, political, or societal breakthrough (or breakdown) can
take place almost overnight (Henderson and Thomson, 2003). Values may shift
or evolve at a rate previously unknown. This article highlights some values
changes occurred with respect to Convergys, customers, and individual
employees.
The evolution of management orientations in Convergys reflects the fact that
changes occur in value orientations of managers from the concepts of growth
and efficiency in 1800s to principled management in 1990s to managing
meanings in 2000s.The impeding value shifts in Convergys also reflect changes
in their concern for environmental justice and business ethics in 1990s to animal
rights to intergenerational rights in 2000s. Thus, the focuses of employers to
managing businesses have changed from strong work ethics and bank balances
to work and family balance, from commitment to enjoyment, from authority to
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empowerment, from structure to flexibility, from conformity to creativity, from


telling them to involve us, and from learning to earn to lifelong learning. With
regard to customers, globalization, advancement in communication technology
and education,

LIMITATIONS
As such, there were no problems faced while carrying out the project study. The
project is based on secondary data. The only problems faced were when there
were no contacts and/or appointments. When contacted, most of the companies
out rightly denied disclosing any of the details like the company's turnover,
strategies, company policies, roles of different departments and the members at
the HR department were not willing either to give detailed information on the
same.

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RECOMMENDATIONS
1. Use of recognition/appreciation tools to motivate good performance
2. Existence of a clearly stated HRM policy in writing
3. Creation of management structures for implementation of stated HRM
policy
4. Extensive use of training and development covering all the employees
5. Communication with employees on a continuous basis
6. Empowerment of employees individually and through the method of selfdirecting teams
7. Use of a culture based teamwork rather than structure based small groups
8. Use of employee attitude surveys for communicating as well as gauging
the progress of change process
9. Self-assessment for monitoring peoples satisfaction and effectiveness of
human resource system in relation to both operational and strategic levels
of enterprise
10. Losing an efficient employee in the name of negotiation
11. Job rotation has to be implemented
12. SHRM concepts must be introduced in the HR Policies & Procedures, so
that the future challenges are successfully handled
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13. Employees should know the review of performance appraisal once the
appraising is done, so that the employee will try to rectify the weaknesses.
14. Have to ensure that right candidate is at the right job, so that more efforts
can be expected from them with utmost job satisfaction.
15. Induction process should be developed.
16. Corporate Governance must be given a priority in the Companys Policy,
being the top company.
.

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CONCLUSION

46% of the respondents agree to effective performance appraisal system


existing in the company.

58% of employees agreed that the company is eager in recognizing and


acknowledging their work, 36% strongly agreed and only 6% showed
neutral response.

52% of the respondents are expressing that both financial and nonfinancial incentives will equally motivate them.

54% of the respondents are strongly agreeing that the management is


interested in motivating the employees.

HR operation will help to the Managerial operation in any organization, as


per the chi square test suggested that in the example presented above the
corrected value is .1694, with an associated significance level of .226 (this
is presented in the column labelled Asymp. Sig. (2-sided). To be significant
the Sig. value needs to be .05 or smaller. In this case the value of .446 is
larger than the alpha value of .05, so we can conclude that our result is
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not significant. It suggested that the Null hypothesis is not correct and it
will so the alternate is true.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1)

Newspaper

a.

Human Resource Times

b.

BLT news for Human resource

c.

Business wire

2)

Magazine
Business World (Issue: 25th July, 2005)

3)

Research Reports

a.

Research report by HBR

b.

Report by Center of Creative Leadership

c.

Report of Forrester on the Indian manager behavioral pattern (May 2003)

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