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DIPLOMA PROGRAMME
MATHEMATICAL STUDIES SL
INFORMATION BOOKLET

For use by teachers and students, during the course and in the examinations

First examinations 2006

International Baccalaureate Organization


Buenos Aires

Cardiff

Geneva

New York

Singapore

Diploma Programme
Mathematical Studies SL
Information Booklet
International Baccalaureate Organization, Geneva, CH-1218, Switzerland
First published in November 2004
Updated January 2006
by the International Baccalaureate Organization
Peterson House, Malthouse Avenue, Cardiff Gate
Cardiff, Wales GB CF23 8GL
UNITED KINGDOM
Tel: + 44 29 2054 7777
Fax: + 44 29 2054 7778
Web site: www.ibo.org

International Baccalaureate Organization 2004

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568a

CONTENTS
Formulae

Presumed knowledge

Topic 2Number and algebra

Topic 3Sets, logic and probability

Topic 4Functions

Topic 5Geometry and trigonometry

Topic 6Statistics

Topic 7Introductory differential calculus

Topic 8Financial mathematics

Critical values of the 2 distribution (topic 6.9)

Formulae
Presumed knowledge
Area of a parallelogram

A = (b h) , where b is the base, h is the height

Area of a triangle

1
A = (b h) , where b is the base, h is the height
2

Area of a trapezium

1
A = ( a + b) h , where a and b are the parallel sides, h is the height
2

Area of a circle

A = r 2 , where r is the radius

Circumference of a circle

C = 2r , where r is the radius

Topic 2Number and algebra


2.2

Percentage error

v A vE
100%, where vE is the exact value and
vE

v A is the approximate value of v


2.5

The nth term of an


arithmetic sequence

The sum of n terms of


an arithmetic sequence
2.6

2.7

un = u1 + ( n 1)d
n
n
S n = (2u1 + (n 1)d ) = (u1 + un )
2
2

The nth term of a


geometric sequence

un = u1r n 1

The sum of n terms of a


geometric sequence

Sn =

Solution of a quadratic
equation

ax 2 + bx + c = 0 x =

International Baccalaureate Organization 2004

u1 (r n 1) u1 (1 r n )
, r 1
=
1 r
r 1
b b 2 4ac
, a0
2a

Topic 3Sets, logic and probability


3.8

3.10

n( A)
n(U )

Probability of an event A

P( A) =

Complementary events

P( A) = 1 P( A)

Combined events

P( A B) = P( A) + P( B ) P( A B )

Mutually exclusive
events

P( A B) = P( A) + P( B )

Independent events

P( A B ) = P( A) P( B )

Conditional probability

P( A B) =

P( A B )
P( B )

Topic 4Functions
4.3

Equation of axis of
symmetry

x=

b
2a

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Topic 5Geometry and trigonometry


5.1

5.2

5.4

5.5

Distance between two


points ( x1 , y1 ) and
( x2 , y2 )

d = ( x1 x2 )2 + ( y1 y2 ) 2

Coordinates of the
midpoint of a line
segment with endpoints
( x1 , y1 ) and ( x2 , y2 )

x1 + x2 y1 + y2
,

2
2

Equation of a straight
line

y = mx + c ; ax + by + d = 0

Gradient formula

m=

Sine rule

a
b
c
=
=
sin A sin B sin C

Cosine rule

a 2 = b 2 + c 2 2bc cos A ; cos A =

Area of a triangle

Area of a triangle =

y2 y1
x2 x1

b2 + c 2 a 2
2bc

ab sin C , where a and b are adjacent sides,


2
C is the included angle

Volume of a pyramid

1
V = (area of base vertical height)
3

Volume of a cuboid

V = l w h , where l is the length, w is the width, h is the height

Volume of a cylinder

V = r 2 h , where r is the radius, h is the height

Area of the curved


surface of a cylinder

A = 2rh , where r is the radius, h is the height

Volume of a sphere

V=

Surface area of a sphere

A = 4r 2 , where r is the radius

Volume of a cone

1
V = r 2 h , where r is the radius, h is the height
3

Area of the curved


surface of a cone

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4 3
r , where r is the radius
3

rl , where r is the radius, l is the slant height

Topic 6Statistics
6.4

Interquartile range

IQR = q3 q1

Outliers are points with value either less than q1 1.5 IQR or
greater than q3 + 1.5 IQR
6.5

Mean

fx

i i

x=

6.6

, where n = f i

i =1

Standard deviation

i =1

f (x
i

sn =

6.7

Pearsons product
moment correlation
coefficient

x )2

i =1

, where n = fi
i =1

r=

sx y
sx s y

( x

, where sx =

i =1

x)

( y

, sy =

i =1

y)

and sx y is the covariance

6.8

Equation of regression
line for y on x

6.9

The test statistic


2

y y =

sxy
sx

(x x)

( f o f e )2
, where f o are the observed frequencies, f e are
fe
the expected frequencies
2
calc
=

Topic 7Introductory differential calculus


f ( x + h) f ( x)
dy
= f ( x ) = lim

h 0
dx
h

7.1

Derivative of f (x)

y = f ( x)

7.2

Derivative of axn

f ( x ) = ax n f ( x ) = nax n 1

Derivative of a
polynomial

f ( x ) = ax n + bx n 1 + ... f ( x ) = nax n 1 + ( n 1) bx n 2 + ...

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Topic 8Financial mathematics


8.2

Simple interest

8.3

Compound interest

Crn
, where C = capital, r % = interest rate,
100
n = number of time periods, I = interest
I=

I = C 1 +
C , where C = capital, r % = interest rate,
100

n = number of time periods, I = interest which is the special case


kn

k = 1 of I = C 1 +
C,
100k

where C = capital, r % = nominal interest rate,


n = number of years, k = number of compounding periods
in a single year and I = interest

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Critical values of the distribution (topic 6.9)


2

p = P ( X c)

0.005

0.01

0.025

0.05

0.1

0.9

0.95

0.975

0.99

0.995

=1

0.00004
0.010
0.072
0.207
0.412
0.676
0.989
1.344
1.735
2.156
2.603
3.074
3.565
4.075
4.601
5.142
5.697
6.265
6.844
7.434
8.034
8.643
9.260
9.886
10.520
11.160
11.808
12.461
13.121
13.787
20.707
27.991
35.534
43.275
51.172
59.196
67.328

0.0002
0.020
0.115
0.297
0.554
0.872
1.239
1.646
2.088
2.558
3.053
3.571
4.107
4.660
5.229
5.812
6.408
7.015
7.633
8.260
8.897
9.542
10.196
10.856
11.524
12.198
12.879
13.565
14.256
14.953
22.164
29.707
37.485
45.442
53.540
61.754
70.065

0.001
0.051
0.216
0.484
0.831
1.237
1.690
2.180
2.700
3.247
3.816
4.404
5.009
5.629
6.262
6.908
7.564
8.231
8.907
9.591
10.283
10.982
11.689
12.401
13.120
13.844
14.573
15.308
16.047
16.791
24.433
32.357
40.482
48.758
57.153
65.647
74.222

0.004
0.103
0.352
0.711
1.145
1.635
2.167
2.733
3.325
3.940
4.575
5.226
5.892
6.571
7.261
7.962
8.672
9.390
10.117
10.851
11.591
12.338
13.091
13.848
14.611
15.379
16.151
16.928
17.708
18.493
26.509
34.764
43.188
51.739
60.391
69.126
77.929

0.016
0.211
0.584
1.064
1.610
2.204
2.833
3.490
4.168
4.865
5.578
6.304
7.042
7.790
8.547
9.312
10.085
10.865
11.651
12.443
13.240
14.041
14.848
15.659
16.473
17.292
18.114
18.939
19.768
20.599
29.051
37.689
46.459
55.329
64.278
73.291
82.358

2.706
4.605
6.251
7.779
9.236
10.645
12.017
13.362
14.684
15.987
17.275
18.549
19.812
21.064
22.307
23.542
24.769
25.989
27.204
28.412
29.615
30.813
32.007
33.196
34.382
35.563
36.741
37.916
39.087
40.256
51.805
63.167
74.397
85.527
96.578
107.565
118.498

3.841
5.991
7.815
9.488
11.070
12.592
14.067
15.507
16.919
18.307
19.675
21.026
22.362
23.685
24.996
26.296
27.587
28.869
30.144
31.410
32.671
33.924
35.172
36.415
37.652
38.885
40.113
41.337
42.557
43.773
55.758
67.505
79.082
90.531
101.879
113.145
124.342

5.024
7.378
9.348
11.143
12.833
14.449
16.013
17.535
19.023
20.483
21.920
23.337
24.736
26.119
27.488
28.845
30.191
31.526
32.852
34.170
35.479
36.781
38.076
39.364
40.646
41.923
43.195
44.461
45.722
46.979
59.342
71.420
83.298
95.023
106.629
118.136
129.561

6.635
9.210
11.345
13.277
15.086
16.812
18.475
20.090
21.666
23.209
24.725
26.217
27.688
29.141
30.578
32.000
33.409
34.805
36.191
37.566
38.932
40.289
41.638
42.980
44.314
45.642
46.963
48.278
49.588
50.892
63.691
76.154
88.379
100.425
112.329
124.116
135.807

7.879
10.597
12.838
14.860
16.750
18.548
20.278
21.955
23.589
25.188
26.757
28.300
29.819
31.319
32.801
34.267
35.718
37.156
38.582
39.997
41.401
42.796
44.181
45.559
46.928
48.290
49.645
50.993
52.336
53.672
66.766
79.490
91.952
104.215
116.321
128.299
140.169

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100

= number of degrees of freedom

International Baccalaureate Organization 2004