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A Thesis for the partial fulfillment of the degree of

M.Sc in Food Engineering & Technology


MANUFACTURING OF CARBONATED
SOFT DRINKS POWDER
This dissertation submitted to the Department of Food
Engineering & Technology, State University of Bangladesh,
for the partial fulfillment of Masters of Science in Food
Engineering & Technology

Reported by:
Md. Jabed Iqbal Bhuiyan
ID: PG20-02-12-005

Department of Food Engineering & Technology


State University of Bangladesh
December, 2013
1

A Thesis for the partial fulfillment of the degree of


M.Sc in Food Engineering & Technology
MANUFACTURING OF CARBONATED
SOFT DRINKS POWDER
This dissertation submitted to the Department of Food
Engineering & Technology, State University of Bangladesh, for
the partial fulfillment of Masters of Science in Food Engineering
& Technology

Reported by:
Md. Jabed Iqbal Bhuiyan
ID: PG20-02-12-005

Supervisor

..

Anis Alam Siddiqui


( Head & Associate professor )

Department of Food Engineering & Technology

State University of Bangladesh


December, 2013
2

CERTIFICATION
This is certify that this thesis entitled Manufacturing of carbonated soft
drinks powder submitted by Md. Jabed Iqbal Bhuiyan,
ID: PG20-02-12-005, M.Sc Student, Department of Food Engineering &
Technology, State University of Bangladesh, has been carried out under
my supervisor. This is further to certify that this thesis work is carried
out as partial requirement for fulfillment of the M.Sc degree in Food
Engineering & Technology.

Supervisor

..

Anis Alam Siddiqui


( Head & Associate professor )
Department of Food Engineering & Technology
State University of Bangladesh

TOPIC OF THE THESIS

MANUFACTURING OF CARBONATED
SOFT DRINKS POWDER

Dedicated to My Parents
&
All Friends

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I respect to my thesis supervisor Anis Alam Siddiqui, Chairman, Department of
Food Engineering & Technology, State University of Bangladesh, for his proper and
endless guidance, advice, encouragement and support through out the progress about the
thesis.
I like to Special thanks MD. Saiful Islam (D.G.M-Production), Haque Brothers
Industries Limited, and Quality Control incharge mainly A.S.Nasir Uddin Ahamed
(Q.C.I), Haque Brothers Industries Limited, respectively for their encouragement,
valuable information and help during this thesis work.
Its a great opportunity for me to complete the thesis work a well renowned of this
semester thesis on Manufacturing of Carbonated Soft Drinks Powder. With the
help of my respected thesis supervisor, teacher and the authorities of the State University
of Bangladesh, But it has been possible with the proper guideline & cordial effort of my
teacher. I thanks to authorities of Haque Brothers Industries Limited, for give me
sufficient lab facilities. The acquisition of knowledge from this facility is a wonderful
achievement for me.
Really, I am very much glad to my teachers of department to give us a chance to
my learning system and life. I wish this department day by day development.

Special thanks to authority of State University of Bangladesh for providing


modern facilities which helped me to carry out my work successfully
The Author
---------------------------Md. Jabed Iqbal Bhuiyan
ID: UG20-02-12-005

ABSTRACT

The study was related to preparation of powder soft drinks and there is an
exceptionality that, there is creation of CO2 (Carbon dioxide) when it is dissolved in cold
water. Especially there is used treated sodium bicarbonate. Sugar, Sweeteners, Citric acid,
Ascorbic acid (Vitamin-C), Sodium citrate, Sodium chloride, Colouring agents and
Flavouring agents etc, were also used. Carbonated Energy powder soft drinks prepared
from Energy Powder Flavour. Carbonated Clear lemon powder soft drinks prepared from
Lemon Encapsulated Flavour. Carbonated cola powder soft drinks prepared from Cola
Encapsulated Flavour. At first necessary ingredients measure accurately and then mix
properly. Dry this mixture at 60-65C until the drying properly. Should be checked
moisture content of the product, there is moisture should have below 1%. After drying the
mixture will be cooled at 22-23C and below 40% moisture controlled room then mixed
flavour. After mixing it should be packed under same condition (Moisture controlled
room) exactly as customer requirements. The prepared goods have been tested of
Physical, Instrumental, Chemical and Organoleptic test. The pH value of finished goods
should have 3.0 to 4.0; percent of Titrable acidity should be 0.150 to 0.180%. The
finished products of carbonated powder soft drinks were accepted by triangle test.

The Author
---------------------------Md. Jabed Iqbal Bhuiyan
ID: UG20-02-12-005

CONTENTS

CHAPTER

PAGE

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

ABSTRACT

CONTENTS

LIST OF TABLES

10

ABBREVIATIONS

11

REFERENCE

40

LIST OF APPENDIX

42

CHAPTER 01: INTRODUCTION


1.1: Introduction
1.2: Objectives of the thesis
1.3: Concept of the soft drinks
1.4: General aspect of soft drinks
CHAPTER 02: REVIEW OF LETERATURE
2.1: Tang (drinks)
2.2: History of Tang
2.3: Original Tang
2.4: Other versions of Tang
2.5: Eno (Drug)

CHAPTER 03: MATERIALS AND METHODS


3.1: Preparation of carbonated powder soft drinks
3.1.1: List of Instruments
3.1.2: List of raw materials
3.1.3: Informations of raw materials
3.1.4: Formulations
3.1.5: Flow diagram
3.1.6: Process details
3.2: Quality Control of the products
3.2.1: Physical test
3.2.2: Instrumental test
3.2.3: Chemical test
3.2.4: Organoleptic test
CHAPTER 04: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1: Results appearance
4.2: Results of moisture analysis
4.3: Results of Brix (Concentration of sugar)
4.4: Results of pH
4.5: Results of percent of acidity
4.6: Results of triangle test
CHAPTER 05: SUMMARY AND CONCLUTSION
CHAPTER 06: REFERENCE
CHAPTER 07: LIST OF APPENDIX

LIST OF TABLES

Table 01: Moisture content of formulation @ 01, 02, and 03;


Table 02: Concentration of sugar or Brix of formulation @ 01, 02, and 03;
Table 03: Concentration of hydrogen of solution / pH of formulation @ 01, 02, and 03;
Table 04: Burette reading for acidity test of Formulation @ 01 (Energy powder drinks)
Table 05: Burette reading for acidity test of Formulation @ 02 (Clear lemon powder
drinks)
Table 06: Burette reading for acidity test Formulation @ 03 (Cola powder drinks)
Table 07: Results of the triangle test of formulations @ 01 (Energy powder drinks);
Table 08: Results of the triangle test of formulations @ 02 (Clear lemon powder drinks);
Table 09: Results of the triangle test of formulations @ 03 (Cola powder drinks);
Table 10: Results of total quality control test of the products (Carbonated Powder Soft
Drinks)

10

ABBREVIATIONS

NMT

= NOT MORE THAN

NMT

= NOT LESS THAN

CSDP

= CARBONATED SOFT DRINKS POWDER

BSTI

= BANGLADESH STANDARD TESTING INSTITUTION

ADI

= ACCEPTABLE DAILY INTAKE

FDA

= FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION

TDO

= TITANIUM DIOXIDE

BFF

= BANGA FLAVOUR & FRAGRANCE

BFAL

= BANGA FLAVOUR APPLICATION LAB

RTD

= READY TO DRINKS

LDP

= LOW DENSITY POLYETHELENE

BPFR

= BANGLADESH PURE FOOD RULES

SOPQCM

= STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE & QUALITY CONTROL

MANUAL
RH

= RELATIVE HUMIDITY

RDA

RECOMMENDED DIETARY ALLOWANCE

11

CHAPTER 01
INTRODUCTION
1.1: Introduction
Carbonated soft drinks powder (CSDP) is very interesting part of the beverage world,
because when the powder dissolve in cold water then it create CO 2 (Carbon dioxide) in
the glasses. There are three types of carbonated soft drinks powder, such as- Carbonated
energy powder drinks, carbonated clear lemon powder drinks, carbonated cola powder
drinks. Carbonated energy soft drinks is so popular in Bangladesh, like- Royal Tiger,
Speed, Black Horse, Thunder etc., similar product is carbonated powder soft drinks, there
is one difference that this drinks will be dissolved in cold water before consume. This
drink contain 0.70% moisture, 1% sugar concentration, pH is 3.2 and percent of acidity is
0.151%. This drink is accepted by the triangle test. Carbonated clear soft drinks is the
another popular item in Bangladesh, like- Sprite and 7up etc, the similar product is
carbonated powder soft drinks. Difference only both liquid and powder, this is need to
dissolve in cold water before consume. In this drinks you will get about 0.65% moisture,
1.2% sugar concentration, pH 3.5 and percent of acidity is 0.166%. This is getting the
acceptability by an organoleptic (triangle test). Cola soft drink is the most common drinks
in Bangladesh. These are Cocacola, Pepsi, Mojo and Pran cola etc. We will make
carbonated cola powder soft drinks, which is contain about 0.6% moisture, 3.0% sugar
concentration, pH is 3.3 and percent of acidity is 0.170%. This is passed the panel and
triangle test. Carbonated soft drinks are so much popular in the world, such as- Pepsi,
Cocacola, 7up, Sprite, Marrinda etc., There is many kinds of instant powder soft drinks,
such as- Tang, Qualimax etc., These types of powder drinks found in different flavour,
such as- Orange flavour, Mango flavour, Lemon flavour, Lime flavour, Guava flavour,
Pineapple flavour. But there is no carbonated soft drinks powder.

12

1.2: Objects of the thesis:


a To improve the quality of powdered soft drinks in Bangladeshi
market.
b To reduce the manufacturing and transportation costs.
c To increase the market of powder soft drinks in our country.
d To change the tradition of the people in the beverage market of
Bangladesh.

1.3: Concept of soft drinks


The concept for the soft drink system depends on the corresponding requirements
to the system. In addition to a large variety of products, the degree of automation,
the required flexibility during product planning, the way of providing the beverage
ingredients and the required quality management system are important criteria for
selecting the optimum process equipment. These are made by blending the
flavoring material with dry acids, gums, artificial color, etc. If the sweetener has
been included, the consumer need only add the proper amount of plain or
carbonated water. Depending on the scale of production, the thickeners/ stabilizers
may be dispersed directly into the batch, or separate premixes may be prepared for
use in a variety of products. In either case, to obtain functionality from these
products, they must be correctly dispersed and hydrated.

13

1.4: General aspect of soft drinks manufacturing


System for processing ready-made ingredients
Application with a low variety of products consisting of only few basic ingredients,
and for the production of large batches
Frequent type change-over and small batch sizes
Mainly manually oriented production processes
Cleaning concept
Space requirements / space provided
Adaptation to existing production systems
Completely new investment
Line speed

In addition, profitability, and therefore, optimum line efficiency are factors of


utmost importance. The steadily reduced product cycles represent another special
challenge, as the new recipes must be implemented quickly and at low cost. This
requires sophisticated and well-coordinated systems for soft drink production.

14

CHAPTER 02
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
There are different powder soft drinks in world market. About 100 years ago
the powder soft drinks was innovated in Indonesia. Day by day it world wide
expanded, now this available in Bangladesh such as Tang, Qualimax, Rasna, shark
etc. are global products and C-vita, Vita-C, Glucose, Prome etc. are the local
products in our country. World wide found only one carbonated powder as
medicine which is ENO. This product is manufacture by gsk. This is not food
product, the gsk always marketed it as medicine.

2.1: Tang (Drinks)


Tang is the brand name of powder soft drinks of Kraft food, USA. Tang is
an orange-flavored breakfast drink. Originally formulated by General Foods
Corporation food scientist William A. Mitchell in 1957, it was first marketed in
powdered form in 1959.
Sales of Tang were poor until NASA used it on John Glenn's Mercury flight, and
subsequent Gemini missions.
Since then, it was closely associated with the U.S. manned spaceflight program,
leading to the misconception that Tang was invented for the space program. The
Tang brand is currently owned by Kraft Foods.

15

2.2: History of Tang


Tang was famously used by some early NASA manned space flights. In
1962, when Mercury astronaut John Glenn conducted eating experiments in orbit,
Tang was selected for the menu, and was also used during some Gemini flights. A
NASA engineer working on Gemini explained how and why it was used
(paraphrased):
"There was a particular component of the Gemini life support-system module
which produced H2O (water) among other things. This was a byproduct of a
recurring chemical reaction of one of the mechanical devices on the life-support
module. The astronauts would use this water to drink during their space flight. The
problem was, the astronauts did not like the taste of the water because of some of
the byproducts produced, which were not harmful of course. So, they added Tang
to make the water taste better."
The creator of Tang, William A. Mitchell, also invented Pop Rocks, Cool Whip, a
form of instant-set Jell-O, and other convenience foods.

16

2.3: Original Tang


Tang is sold both in powdered and ready to drink form. The recommended
usage of original powdered Tang is two tablespoons per 8 US fluid ounces (240 ml;
8.3 imp fl oz) of water. A single 8 US fl oz (240 ml; 8.3 imp fl oz) serving of Tang
provides 9 grams (0.32 oz) of sugar; 40 calories (167 kJ); 100% RDA of vitamin
C; 10% RDA of vitamin A, calcium, vitamin E, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin B6,
and no caffeine.
Kraft also makes a sugar-free version of Tang, containing aspartame, which
comes in individually-measured packets and was introduced in March 1985.

2.4: Other versions of Tang


In 2007, Kraft introduced a new version of Tang which replaced half of the
sugar with artificial sweeteners. The new packaging advertises "1/2 the Sugar of
100% juice". The artificial sweeteners used in the new formulation are Sucralose,
acesulfame potassium, and Neotame. The new formula is more concentrated and
distributed in smaller containers, with a 12.3 US fl oz (360 ml; 12.8 imp fl oz)
(348 g (12.3 oz)) container making 8 US quarts (7,600 ml; 270 imp fl oz).
The recommended usage is two and one-half teaspoons per 8 US fluid
ounces (240 ml; 8.3 imp fl oz) of water. The lid on the new smaller plastic
container acts as a measuring cup which may be used to make one or two quart
quantities, the same as the original Tang.
As of December 2009, the 12.3 US fl oz (360 ml; 12.8 imp fl oz) lower calorie
Tang has been discontinued and is no longer available from Krafti.

17

2.5: Eno (Drug)


Eno is the most global of GSK's gastrointestinal products. The fast-acting
effervescent fruit salts, used as an antacid and reliever of bloatedness, was invented
in the 1850s by James Crossley Eno. It has sales of nearly 30 million, with its
major markets being Spain, India, Brazil, South Africa, Malaysia and Thailand. It
is frequently used as a substitute for baking powder.
As of the summer, 2010, GSK made the decision to withdraw Eno from the
UK market. (Info from GSK UK marketing on enquiring directly as to the
difficulty on purchasing Eno.)
At the beginning of the year, they initially withdrew the unique UK 218g jar,
replacing it with a European/USA 150g jar, though increasing the price by 18% at
the same time. It can also still be found in sachets of 5g, sold in boxes of ten.
Stocks are not currently being replaced, and when it's gone, it's gone. Most existing
UK stock has an expiry date no later than May 2013.
This leaves a major gap in the UK market for a product of this nature as its
primary competitor, Andrews, contains 2.1g of sucrose per 5ml measure, making it
unsuitable for diabetics. Other effervescent alternatives, such as Resolve, contain
Paracetemol - unnecessary when you have a simple stomach upset. Even own
branded alternatives type 'fruit salts' from Boots and Superdrug all contain sucrose,
with the result being a sweet sugary taste compared to the historically advertised
"refreshing zing" of Enos. They are also not suitable for diabetics.
Why GSK has chosen to withdraw this product is a mystery, as there is clearly a
robust demand for it, and it sells successfully in every market it is available in.
Each 5 g of Eno powder contains: Sodium Bicarbonate Ph Eur 2.32 g Citric
Acid Ph Eur 2.18 g Anhydrous Sodium Carbonate Ph Eur 0.50 g
Sodium content: Each 5g of powder contains 0.85 g of sodiumii
18

CHAPTER 03
MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1: Preparation of carbonated powder soft drinks.
3.1.1: List of Instruments:
a Balance
b Sieves
c Sugar crusher
d Powder mixture (Ribbon mixture)
e Drier (Electric / Gas)
f Air conditioner
g Dehumidifier
h Moisture controlled room
i

Moisture analyzer

Spoon

k Packaging machine
3.1.2: List of raw materials:
a. Crystal Sugar (particle size 80 mesh)
b. Permitted sweetening agents
c. Acidity regulator
d. Vitamin (Ascorbic acid / Vitamin-C)
e. Buffering agents (Sodium chloride / Sodium citrate)
f. Minerals / Anti-caking agents (Tri-calcium phosphate)
g. Carbonating agents (Sodium bicarbonate)
h. Permitted food colour
i. Permitted food flavour
19

3.1.3: Information of raw materials:


Sugar
Sugar is the major ingredients of carbonated powder soft drinks and this is used as
a sweetening ingredients. The sugar/sucrose has been found in crystal form in our
local market. But there is no available size of sugar for carbonated powder soft
drinks, so we need to reduce the size of crystal sugar by sugar crusher as require
(90 to 100 meshes). The chemical formulation of sucrose is C12H22O11;
Molecular weight of sugar/Sucrose is 342 gm/mol.
Sweetening Agents
Many kinds of sweetening agents used in our country, but most of the items can
not comply rules and regulations of BSTI Bangladesh Standard and Testing
Institution. Our sweetening agents are Aspartame which is 160 times sweet than
sugar; this is comply the rules and regulations of BSTIiii. An acceptable daily intake
(ADI) of 40 milligrams/kilogram of body weight/day was established by scientists
in the Food Directorate of Health Canadaiv.
Acidity Regulator
There are different types of acidity regulator used in carbonated powder soft drinks
and non carbonated powder soft drinks. Citric acid is the most common acidity
regulating agent in the food processing world but there is may uses ascorbic acid
(Vitamin-C), lactic acid, malic acid and fumaric acid etc. These acids are complied
the rules and regulations of BSTIv. There is used citric acid in our project; the
chemical formula of citric acid is C6H8O7; molecular weight of citric acid 192
gm/mol.
20

Buffering Agents
According to the rules and regulations of BSTI vi, the buffering agents are used for
tuning pH of finished products. As buffering agents we use Sodium Citrate, sodium
chloride, potassium chloride; etc. There is used sodium citrate as buffering agent.
Carbonating Agents
For carbonated soft drinks no need any carbonating agents, there is used CO2 for
fizzing or carbonation. But to make powdered carbonated soft drinks need to add
carbonating agents for fizzing. There is used Sodium Bicarbonate as carbonating
agents, this is permitted by BSTIvii.
Anti-Caking Agents
There is used Tri-calcium phosphate as anti-caking agent, which is used 0.5% on
total batch volume. This is permitted by the BSTI viii. This is lot of sources of
minerals (calcium).
Clouding Agents
There is used food grade Clouding agents which is permitted by the BSTI ix. Some
body used food grade TDO Titanium dioxide in soft drinks as clouding agents.
Food Colouring
Colouring is the most important part for beverage items, there is have two types of
colouring agents such as- Natural and Artificial colour. There is used some
artificial colour such as- Orange red colour, Egg yellow colour, Lemon yellow
colour. This is permitted by the BSTIx.
Food Flavouring
There are used different types of flavour to increase the test of drinks. We chose
Cola, Lemon, and Energy flavour according to the sense of current market of
Bangladesh. This type of flavouring agents permitted by the FDAxi;

3.1.4: Formulations:
21

All formulations are provided by the Banga Flavour Application Lab BFAL of
Banga Flavour & Fragrance (Pvt.) Ltd BFF.
Formulation No. @ 01
Powder Energy Drinksxii
Refine Sugar
Aspartame
Citric Acid Anhydrous
Sodium Citrate
Treated Sodium Bicarbonate

6.700 gm
1.000 gm
15.000 gm
0.400 gm
13.250 gm

Vitamin Premix

2.000 gm

Anti-Caking Agents

0.3 00gm

Lemon Yellow Colour

0.050 gm

Energy Powder Flavour

1.300 gm

TOTAL

40.000 gm

Note: Serving size 4.0 gm for 200 ml cold water.

Formulation No. @ 02
22

Clear Lemon Powder Drinksxiii


Refine Sugar

7.850 gm

Aspartame

0.900 gm

Citric Acid Anhydrous

17.000 gm

Sodium Citrate

0.400 gm

Treated Sodium Bicarbonate

13.250 gm

Anti-Caking Agents

0.3 00gm

Lemon Encapsulated Flavour

0.300 gm

TOTAL

40.000 gm

Note: Serving size 4.0 gm for 200 ml cold water.


Formulation No. @ 03
Cola Powder Drinksxiv
Refine Sugar

45.30 gm

Aspartame

0.800 gm

Citric Acid Anhydrous

17.000 gm

Sodium Citrate

0.400 gm

Treated Sodium Bicarbonate

14.00 gm

Anti-Caking Agents

0.300 gm

Caramel Colour DDW 606

1.200 gm

Cola Encapsulated Flavour

1.000 gm

TOTAL

80.000 gm

Note: Serving size 8.0 gm for 200 ml cold water.


How to make RTD (liquid):
(a). 1 (one) serving (4/8 gms) for 200 ml cold water.
(b). 20/40 gms powder (5 serving) for 1 (one) liter
cold water.

23

3.1.5: Flow diagram:


Receiving raw materials

Measure the raw materials according to formulation


(By the calibrated balance)

Crushing the Sugar

Mix all ingredients by the ribbon mixture


(Except flavour & Treated sodium bicarbonate)

Spray water for coming appearance (Optional)


(According to expectation), (as require)
Mixing properly

The mixture put in tray

Drying
Temperature 60-65C

24

Cooling
(Under moisture controlled condition)
(Temperature 22-23 C and Relative Humidity below 40 %)

Flavour mixing
(Under moisture controlled condition)

Packaging
(Under moisture controlled condition)

Cartoning
(At room temperature)

Storage
(At room temperature)

Marketing

3.1.6: Process details:


25

The processing of carbonated powder soft drinks is not a difficult process, but this
is not easy to control the require environment for bring quality. The total process of
carbonated powder soft drinks is described as follows:
Raw materials:
We should collect every raw materials (Sugar, Citric acid anhydrous, Ascorbic
acid, Anti-caking agent, Carbonating agent, Buffering agents, Sodium chloride,
Clouding agents, Permitted food colour, Permitted food flavour) fresh and sound;
Weighing:
Weigh all ingredients according to the formulation. Weighing is most important
part of processing of carbonated powder soft drinks. Taste, colour, flavour and
odour etc. every thing is depends on right quantity of the batch volume. So we
should ensure the right quantity of ingredients. Another things is important that,
always calibrated balance should be used for weigh the all ingredients.

Sugar crushing:
Particle size is the most important for any types of powdered products. As a
carbonated powder products sugar particle size should be 90 meshes to 100 meshes
(as tailor standard). Because of that this is need to dissolve instantly. Crush the
sugar by a fine crusher.

Mixing:
26

Mixing is another important part of the processing of powder soft drinks. At this stage all
ingredients will be mixed by ribbon mixture accurately except flavour. All ingredients
must be mixed homogenously.
Spray water:
The water will be spray in the mixture machine on mixture for getting the appearance and
colour. The water quantity always depends on expected colour and appearance. The water
should be spraying by the spray bottle.
Drying:
After mixing the mixture put in tray and then set in the drier; Start drying at 60 to 65 C
temperature. When completed 50% drying the mixture will be subverted time to time.
When completed drying the will be screened as per requirements. Moisture level must be
reduce up to 0.5% .
Cooling:
After drying the entire mixture shift to a temperature and humidity controlled room.
Temperature and Relative Humidity should have 20-22C and below 40% respectively.
Temperature and Relative Humidity controlling is the most necessary part of any types of
powdered products, specially Carbonated powder soft drinks. Because there is have
possibility of reaction and produce CO2 (carbon dioxide) presence of moisture. So must
be controlled moisture in the cooling area.
Flavour Mixing:
After cooling mix flavour according to formulation under the same condition (Tem. 2022C and RH below 40%). Flavour is the most important ingredients for powder soft
drinks and soft drinks. This is enhancing taste and aroma of the products. There is use
special type of powder flavour, this is called Encapsulated flavour. Here use different
types of flavour; e.g. - Lemon Encapsulated Flavour, Lime Encapsulated Flavour, ColaCola Encapsulated Flavour, Orange Encapsulated Flavour, Energy Powder Flavour;

Packaging:
27

This product may packed glass jar or aluminum foil and LDP Low Density
Polyethylene film etc. The foil packs also called sachet, sachet quantity or serving
size would be 4 gm, 8gm, 12gm, and 22gm; etc. For every serving water quantity
will same (200 ml). After that this sachet will be fill in a box which is contain
about 36 sachets. And by the some boxes make carton.
Labeling:
After the completing process nutrition facts mentioned label will pasting on the jar
or bottle. Nutrition facts must be calculated by proper rules and regulation. Must be
followed BPFR1976
(Bangladesh Pure Food Rules 1976)
Storing:
Every product must be storage during product life path Step by step. Either
manufacturer hand or distributor or retailer or final consumer hand respectively, so
we need proper storage system or condition for this product storing. For the
different types of product need different temperature, humidity or different
environment. For carbonated powder soft drinks need room temperature and
normal Relative Humidity.

28

3.2: Quality Control of the products:


For powder soft drinks different test methods are applied. Such as1. Physical test
2. Instrumental Test
3. Chemical Test
4. Organoleptic Test
3.2.1: Physical Test:
a Appearance:
Measure the appearance of the products (powder soft drinks) in quality control
department by method of BFF (SOPQCM-01-00-28) (2010)xv. This test will be
completed visually. For the appearance test of powder soft drinks, we take 25 gm
product (powder soft drinks) on a tray. Check granules and fluidity visually of the
product (powder soft drinks).
3.2.2: Instrumental Test:
a Moisture analysis:
According to the method of BFF (SOPQCM-01-00-32) (2010) xvi.Take 4 to 5 gm
sample of powder soft drinks and this is put in the moisture analyzer, set the
program and press OK button. After 2 minutes the machine will show result
(moisture content of powder soft drinks). Moisture analysis done by an infrared
moisture analyzer; required moisture for carbonated powder soft drinks is below
1%.

29

b Brix
Brix is concentration of the sugar in a solution. We determine the Brix or
concentration of sugar by the instrumental methods. For this test required
instrument is refractometer. At first take one serving sample (4gm or 8 gm) in a
beaker and dilute with 200 ml water properly. Wash the refractometer by distilled
water and dry it by the tissue paper. Calibrate the refractometer by distilled water,
reading will 0 Brix. Then put the sample on the refractometer plate, see the result
and put in the results table.
c pH
pH is the another instrumental test for the sample. For this test required a pH meter
and some product (one serving (4 or 8 gm) sample in 200 ml water). Sample
product put in a 250 ml beaker and switch on the machine. After 5 minutes take
reading from the pH meter and put in the results table.
Acidity or pH is the most important factor for product self life, but must be alert
abut pH because this product (Carbonated powder soft drinks) is the carbonating
food. So always should be careful about it. The pH is determined according to
method of BFF (SOPQCM-01-00-33) (2010)xvii.

3.2.3: Chemical Test:


a Acidity:
For determination of acidity of the carrot juice needs some sample, some reagent,
some glass apparatus etc. This test is done by as the method of BFF (SOPQCM-0100-38) (2010)xviii.
Requirements:
30

Sample= 10 ml
NaOH ( 0.1 N )

= As require

Phenolphthalein ( 0.1% ) = As require


Beaker

= 2 pcs

Electronics balance

= 1 pcs

Conical flask

= 2 pcs

Volumetric flask

= 1 pcs

Burette

= 1 pcs

Pipette

= 2 pcs

Pipette filler

= 1 pcs

Equation:
Burette Reading x Normality of NaOH x Equivalent weight of acid x 100

% of Acidity =
Weight of sample x 1000

Titration method:
a At first take 10 ml sample product (Carrot juice) in conical flask.
b Fill the burette by 0.1(N) sodium hydroxide (NaOH)
c Take 2 (two) to 3 (three) drops phenolphthalein indicator in the
conical flask with sample product (Carrot juice)
d Take 0.1(N) sodium hydroxide (NaOH) from the burette drop by drop
into conical flask until obtained slightly pink colour.
e Take burette reading (BR) or amount of sodium hydroxide (NaOH)
and put in the table.

31

3.2.4: Organoleptic Test:


a. Triangle testxix:
This test received this name because three samples (two identical and one
different) are presented to the panel and they can be placed at three corners of a
triangle, but in practice, they are kept in straight line. It is the task of the panel
member to pick out from the three samples, the sample which is different from the
other two. There are three different possible sample positions as given below:
1. 00X,
2. 0X0,
3. X00,
Where 0X0 = Odd Sample (Testing Product) and X00 & 00X = Same Sample.
The panel member should be told what to look for. The results are presented in the
table.

32

CHAPTER - 4
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1: Results of Appearance


The results of appearance of carbonated powder soft drinks is as follow Formulation @ 01 (Energy powder drinks)
The appearance of product is fine and slightly granular powder, this product is
highly hygroscopic, the colour is off white to slightly yellowish in powdered
condition and under diluted condition the appearance is liquid and colour is lemon
yellow.
Formulation @ 02 (Clear lemon powder drinks)
The appearance of product is fine and slightly granular powder, this product is
highly hygroscopic, the colour is off white to white in powdered condition and
under diluted condition the appearance is liquid and colourless.
Formulation @ 03 (Cola-cola powder drinks)
The appearance of product is fine and slightly granular powder, this product is
highly hygroscopic, the colour is Blackish to slightly blackish in powdered
condition and under diluted condition the appearance is liquid and colour is pale
red to blood red.

33

4.2: Results of Moisture Analysis


Moisture or water content of the finished goods as followTable-01: Moisture content of formulation @ 01, 02, and 03;
Attribute
Formulation @ 01
Formulation @ 02
Formulation @ 03

Specification
NMT ( ) 1%
NMT ( ) 1%
NMT ( ) 1%

Results
0.70 %
0.65 %
0.60 %

4.3: Results of Brix


Table-02: Concentration of sugar or Brix of formulation @ 01, 02, and 03;
Attributes
Formulations @01 (Energy powder drinks)
Formulations @02 (Clear lemon powder drinks)
Formulations @03 (Cola-cola powder drinks)

Results
1.0
1.2
3.0

4.4: Results of pH
Table-03: Concentration of hydrogen of solution / pH of formulation @ 01, 02, and 03;
Attribute
Formulations @01 (Energy powder drinks)
Formulations @02 (Clear lemon powder
drinks)
Formulations @03 (Cola-cola powder drinks)

Specification
3.0 to 4.0
3.0 to 4.0

Results
3.2
3.5

3.0 to 4.0

3.3

4.5: Result of percentage of acidity:


Table 04 : Burette reading for acidity test of Formulation @ 01 (Energy powder
drinks)
S

Burette Reading (BR)

Differenc

Average

% Acidity
34

1
2
3

e
Initial reading

Final reading

46.2
43.3
40.5

43.3
40.5
37.8

2.4
2.3
2.4

2.366

0.151

Calculation:
2.366 x 0.1 x 64 x 100
% of Acidity =
10 x 1000
= 0.151 %

Table 05 : Burette reading for acidity test Formulation @ 02 (Clear lemon


powder drinks)
S
l

1
2
3

Burette Reading (BR)


Initial reading
Final reading
46.2
43.3
40.5

43.3
40.5
37.8

Differenc
e

2.5
2.7
2.6

Average

% Acidity

2.6

0.166

Calculation:
2.6 x 0.1 x 64 x 100
% of Acidity =
10 x 1000
= 0.166 %
Table 06 : Burette reading for acidity test Formulation @ 03 (Cola-cola powder
drinks)
S

Burette Reading (BR)

Differenc

Average

% Acidity
35

1
2
3

e
Initial reading

Final reading

46.2
43.3
40.5

43.3
40.5
37.8

2.7
2.6
2.7

2.65

0.170

Calculation:
2.65 x 0.1 x 64 x 100
% of Acidity =
10 x 1000
= 0.170 %
4.6: Results of Triangle test:
Table 07: Results of the triangle test of formulations @ 01 (Energy powder drinks);
Evaluation card:
Name of Product:
Two or three samples are identical. Identify and comment on the odd samples.
Serial No.
Person ~ 01
Person ~ 02
Person ~ 03
Person ~ 04
Person ~ 05
Person ~ 06

Code No. of
samples
0X0, X00, 00X
0X0, X00, 00X
0X0, X00, 00X
0X0, X00, 00X
0X0, X00, 00X
0X0, X00, 00X

Code No. of Identical


sample
X00, 00X
0X0, X00
X00, 00X
00X , X00
X00, 00X
0X0, 00X

Code No. of odd


sample
0X0
00X
0X0
0X0
0X0
X00

Note: - 0X0= odd (testing sample) sample, X00 and 00X is same (reference sample)
sample. Four person can be identified the odd sample so product is product is satisfactory.

Table 08: Results of the triangle test of formulations @ 02 (Clear lemon powder
drinks);
36

Evaluation card:
Name of Product:
Two or three samples are identical. Identify and comment on the odd samples.
Serial No.
Person ~ 01
Person ~ 02
Person ~ 03
Person ~ 04
Person ~ 05
Person ~ 06

Code No. of
samples
0X0, X00, 00X
0X0, X00, 00X
0X0, X00, 00X
0X0, X00, 00X
0X0, X00, 00X
0X0, X00, 00X

Code No. of Identical


sample
X00, 00X
0X0, X00
X00, 00X
00X , X00
X00, 00X
0X0, 00X

Code No. of odd


sample
0X0
00X
0X0
0X0
0X0
X00

Note: - 0X0= odd (testing sample) sample, X00 and 00X is same (reference sample)
sample. Four person can be identified the odd sample so product is product is satisfactory.

Table 09: Results of the triangle test of formulations @ 03 (Cola-cola powder drinks);
Evaluation card:
Name of Product:
Two or three samples are identical. Identify and comment on the odd samples.
Serial No.
Person ~ 01
Person ~ 02
Person ~ 03
Person ~ 04
Person ~ 05
Person ~ 06

Code No. of
samples
0X0, X00, 00X
0X0, X00, 00X
0X0, X00, 00X
0X0, X00, 00X
0X0, X00, 00X
0X0, X00, 00X

Code No. of Identical


sample
X00, 00X
0X0, X00
X00, 00X
00X , X00
X00, 00X
0X0, 00X

Code No. of odd


sample
0X0
00X
0X0
0X0
0X0
X00

Note: - 0X0= odd (testing sample) sample, X00 and 00X is same (reference sample)
sample. Four person can be identified the odd sample so product is product is satisfactory.

37

4.5: Results of Total Quality test of the products (Carbonated Powder Soft
Drinks):
Table 10: Results of total quality control test of the products (Carbonated
Powder Soft Drinks)
Attributes

Specification
s

Fine and
granular
powder
Appearance
Off white,
white, blackish,
Colour in
yellowish;
powder
Yellowish,
slightly red to
Colour in liquid blood red;
NMT 1 %
Moisture, %
3.0 to 4.0
pH
Titrable Acidity, (0.150 - 0.180)
%
%
(0.9 to 3.5) %
Brix, %
Satisfactory,
good
Triangle test

Formulation
@ 01

Formulation
@ 02

Formulation
@ 03

Fine and
granular
powder
Off-white to
slightly
yellowish

Fine and
granular
powder
Off-white to
white

Fine and
granular
powder
Off-white to
slightly
blackish

yellowish
0.70 %
3.2

colourless
0.65 %
3.5

Pale red to
blood red
0.60 %
3.3

0.151 %
1.0 %

0.166 %
1.2 %

good

good

0.170 %
3.0 %
good

CHAPTER - 5
38

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION


The purpose of the study was to prepare sugar based products by some raw materials
such as sugar, dextrose, fructose, citric acid, sodium citrate, sodium chloride, potassium chloride,
aspartame, acesulfame potassium, clouding agents, permitted colour and permitted food grade
flavour etc. Acceptability of this type of products depends on sensory test report. If the products
win by sensory test then it will be success in the market. According to this type of theory topic of
study Carbonated Soft Drinks Powder was won success.
According to the raw materials these products are easy to manufacture in our country,
because of that sugar is the main raw materials of the products and this is available in our
around. Thats why we can produce the any types of soft drinks powder in there by cheapest cost.
Others raw materials of these items are available in our market.
For this project needed to some light machineries. These types of machineries we will get
in low cost, so we can manufacture the soft drinks powder and carbonated soft drinks powder
easily. Required machineries such as sugar crusher, measuring balance, mixer machine, drier (gas
/ electric), RH controlled room, air conditioning system, dehumidifier etc.
The manufacturing process of the study was so easy but this is difficult to control under
standard parameters. It has been dried at 60 to 65C temperature and maintains the % of RH or
moisture of the air below 40%. It has been measured by the digital or analogue hygrometer. If the
% of RH is not possible to controlled the product will be damaged within 1 (one) or 2 (two)
month. The shelf life of products has been decrease and ultimately manufacturer will be loser.
After the production of goods it will be tested by the quality control department. They
will check appearance, colour, odour, pH (hydrogen ion concentration of a solution), Brix
(concentration of sugar of a solution), moisture percent of powdered goods, and percentage of
acidity of the products. Finally organoleptic test has been done. By the triangle test (as
organoleptic) the products will pass or approved for sale and marketing.
In addition, by this manufacturing plant we can use during another powdered type
products such as flavoured tasty saline, oral saline, cereals drinks, powdered malt drinks etc. in
the same cost we produced many products, so it will be beneficiary to us and the people of our
country will benefitted by this project.

CHAPTER 6
39

REFERENCES

40

About
tang
(Kraft
foods)
history
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tang_%28drink%29
i

The GSK marketed Eno as drug


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eno_%28drug%29
ii

history

on

from

web

web

management

management

BSTI (2007). Sweetener (Aspartame) for soft drinks powder (BDS 1586: 2007). first
revision, topic (3.1.1.1). p. 3
iii

About aspartame Directorate of Health Canada has been declared about aspartame on
web management http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/securit/addit/sweeten-edulcor/aspartameeng.php
iv

v BSTI (2007). Acidity regulator (Citric acid) for soft drinks powder (BDS 1586: 2007).

first revision, topic (3.1.3); p. 3


BSTI (2007). Buffering agent (Sodium citrate) for soft drinks powder (BDS 1586:
2007) first revision, topic (3.2.4); p. 3
vi

BSTI (2007). Carbonating agent (Sodium bicarbonate) for soft drinks powder (BDS
1586: 2007) first revision, topic (3.2.8); p. 3
vii

BSTI (2007). Anti-caking agent (Tri-calcium phosphate) for soft drinks drinks
powder (BDS 1586: 2007) first revision, topic (3.2.3); p. 3
viii

BSTI (2007). Clouding agent for soft drinks powder (BDS 1586: 2007) first revision,
topic (3.2.5); p. 3
ix

BSTI (2007). Colouring agent (Egg yellow colour, Orange red colour and Lemon
yellow colour for soft drinks powder (BDS 1586: 2007) first revision, topic (3.2.6); p. 3
x

xi

US code of Federal Regulations, Title 21, (Food & Drugs) part 170.30

Formulation of carbonated energy soft drinks powder of Banga Flavour Application


Lab BFAL a concern of Banga Flavour & Fragrance (Pvt.) Ltd BFF
xii

Formulation of carbonated clear lemon soft drinks powder of Banga Flavour


Application Lab BFAL a concern of Banga Flavour & Fragrance (Pvt.) Ltd BFF
xiii

xiv Formulation of carbonated cola soft drinks powder of Banga Flavour Application

Lab BFAL a concern of Banga Flavour & Fragrance (Pvt.) Ltd BFF
BFF (2010). (Appearance test method) Standard operating procedure and quality
control manual 01, Method no. SOPQCM-01-00-28.
xv

xvi BFF (2010). (Moisture analysis method) Standard operating procedure and quality

control manual 01, Method no. SOPQCM-01-00-32.


BFF (2010). (pH test method) Standard operating procedure and quality control
manual 01, Method no. SOPQCM-01-00-33.
xvii

BFF (2010). (% of Acidity test method) Standard operating procedure and quality
control manual 01, Method no. SOPQCM-01-00-38.
xviii

Swaminathan M. (1987). Book: Food Science Chemistry and Experimental Foods.


Chapter: Sensory methods of analysis of foods. PP. 289-290
xix

CHAPTER 7
LIST OF APPENDIX
1. Defination of carbonated soft drinks powder:
Carbonated soft drinks powder (CSDP) is very interesting part of the beverage world, because
when the powder dissolve in cold water then it create CO2 (Carbon dioxide) in the glasses.

There are three types of carbonated soft drinks powder, such as- Carbonated energy powder
drinks, carbonated clear lemon powder drinks, carbonated cola powder drinks.

2. Soft drinks powder making process:


a. Raw materials
b. Weighing
c. Sugar crushing
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
k.

Mixing
Spray water
Drying
Cooling
Flavour Mixing

Packaging
Labeling
Storing

3. Instruments for carbonated soft drinks powder making:


a

Balance

Sieves

Sugar crusher

Powder mixture (Ribbon mixture)

Drier (Electric / Gas)

Air conditioner

Dehumidifier

Moisture controlled room

Moisture analyzer

Spoon

Packaging machine

4. Raw materials for carbonated soft drinks powder making:


a. Crystal Sugar (particle size 80 mesh)
b. Permitted sweetening agents
c. Acidity regulator
d. Vitamin (Ascorbic acid / Vitamin-C)
e. Buffering agents (Sodium chloride / Sodium citrate)

f. Minerals / Anti-caking agents (Tri-calcium phosphate)


g. Carbonating agents (Sodium bicarbonate)
h. Permitted food color
i. Permitted food flavor

5. Physical test for carbonated soft drinks powder:


a. Appearance

6. Chemical test for carbonated soft drinks powder:


a

Moisture analysis

Brix test

pH test

7. Instrumental test for carbonated soft drinks powder:


a

Acidity test

8. Organoleptic test for carbonated soft drinks powder:


a. Triangle test

THE END