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á  Water Treatment Process

Air murniadalahzatcair yang tidakmempunyai rasa, warnadanbau yang


terdiridarioksigendanhIdrogendenganrumus H2 O.Namun, air
dapattercemarolehberbagaiagenseperti:
| Patogen: Pembawapenyakit yang berasaldarimikroorganismesepertibakteri,
virus, amoeba, dansebagainya.
| Êahankimiaberbahaya yang berasaldariaktivitasmanusia (limbahindustri,
pestisida, pupuk, dsb)
| Êahan- bahankimiadan mineral yang berasaldarialamseperti arsenic, garam-
garamdan Fluor.
Êeberapapencemartidakberbahaya ,namundapatmempengaruhibau, rasa,
warnaatautemperaturdari air sehingga air
tersebuttidakmemenuhistandarmutuuntukdikonsumsiataudigunakanmanusiadalamkehi
dupansehari-hari.
Untukmembuat air yang telahtercampurdenganberbagaizatpengotoryang
diantaranyadapatmembahayakanmanusia, makadilakukanlahproses yang
dinamakanWater Treatment.
Water Treatmentadalahsuatuprosesmembuat air
menjadilayakdigunakandanmemenuhistandarmutuuntukdapatdikonsumsimanusiasesu
aidengandengantujuantertentu, seperti air minum, prosesindustri, kesehatan,
dan lain-lain. Water Treatment dibutuhkanbaiksebelumataupunsesudah air
tersebutdigunakan. Treatment yang
dilakukantergantungpadatujuandaripenggunaanair .Tujuandari Water
Treatment adalahmembuangsemuacampuran yang mengontaminasi air
ataumengurangikonsentrasicampuran yang mengontaminasi air tersebut agar
air layakdigunakan.

Êeberapaprosesdalam Water Treatment:


<| Adsorption danAbsorbtion
Merupakan 2 proses yang
menggunakankarbonaktifdalammelakukanpembuangansenyawaorganik.
Perbedaanantarakeduanyaadalahjikaadsorpsiberasaldarisatubahankimia,
absorbsiberasaldaribeberapabahankimia.
<| Moagulation, Fluccolation, dan Sedimentation
Moagulation
adalahprosesuntukmengendapkankoloiddenganmenambahkanbahankimia,
Fluccolationadalahprosesuntukmenahanpartikulat-
partikulatdanmengendapkannyasecarabersamaan, dan Sedimentation
adalahprosesmengendapkanpartikel-partikelsepertilanaudanpasir.
<| Filtration
Merupakanprosesmembuangpadatandari air denganmelewatkan air melalui
medium poros.
<| Aeration
Merupakanprosesmembawaudarakedalam air untukmengubahkomponendiantara 2
fase.
<| Water Softening
Merupakanprosesdimana air mengalirmelewati%eolite softener yang
mengubahkalsiumdan magnesium menjadi sodium.
<| „emineralization
<| Neutralization
<| Subsidence
<| uvaporation
<| ulectrodialysis
Merupakanproses„eioni%ers yang membuang mineral-mineral
berbahayadengancara„istilationdanIon
Exchangeryaitupembuanganselektifatausepenuhnya ion anion
dankationterlarutdidalamlarutan.
<| Saringanmikro
Merupakanprosesmenyaringpencemar-pencemarhalussepertiganggang, lanau, dsb.
<| Pencampuran
Merupakanprosesmencampurbahan-bahankimiadan gas yang
mungkindiperlukanuntukpengolahan.
<| „isinfeksi
Merupakanprosesmembunuh pathogen yang beradadalam air alamiah.
<| Presipitasi
Merupakanprosesmembuang ionic terlarutsepertikalsiumdan magnesium.
<| Oksidasikimiawi
Oksidasiberbagaisenyawa yang bisadidapatkandalam air, misal yang
dapatmenyebabkanbaudan rasa.

Êeberapamacam Water Treatment:


a.| Êoiler Water Treatment
b.| Mooling Water Treatment
c.| Mooling Tower Treatment
d.| Mlosed Mircuit Treatment
e.| Wastewater Treatment


Æ  á
       
Seperti yang telahdijelaskansebelumnya, air murniadalahzatcair yang
tidakmempunyai rasa, warnadanbau.Karena air merupakansuatularutan yang hampir-
hampirbersifat universal, makazat-zat yang paling
alamiahmaupunbuatanmanusiahinggatingkattertentuterlarutdidalamnya.
„isampingitu, akibatdaridaurhidrologi, air
jugamengandungberbagaizatlainnya.Zatinilah yang
disebutsebagaizatpengotorÔimpurities).
Impuritiesbanyaksekalimacamnya.Êerikutiniberbagaiimpurities yang
biasanyaterdapatpadafresh water.

M  M    M 


    

imparts unsightly appearance to


water; deposits in water lines,
non-expressed in analysis coagulation, settling, and
Turbidity process equipment, etc.;
as units filtration
interferes with most process
uses

chief source of scale in heat


softening; demineralization;
exchange equipment, boilers,
calcium and magnesium internal boiler water
Hardness pipe lines, etc.; forms curds
salts, expressed as MaMO3 treatment; surface active
with soap, interferes with
agents
dyeing, etc.

foam and carryover of solids lime and lime-soda


with steam; embrittlement of softening; acid treatment;
bicarbonate(HMO3-),
boiler steel; bicarbonate and hydrogen zeolite softening;
Alkalinity carbonate (MO32-), and
carbonate produce MO2 in demineralization
hydroxide(OH-), expressed
steam, a source of corrosion in dealkalization by anion
as MaMO3
condensate lines exchange

Free
H2SO4 , HMI. etc.,
Mineral corrosion neutralization with alkalies
expressed as MaMO3
Acid

corrosion in water lines,


Marbon aeration, deaeration,
MO2 particularly steam and
„ioxide neutralization with alkalies
condensate lines

PH hydrogen ion concentration pH varies according to acidic or pH can be increased by


defined as: alkaline solids in water; most alkalies and decreased by
natural waters have a pH of 6.0- acids
1 8.0
pH = log
+
[H ]

adds to solids content of water,


but in itself is not usually demineralization, reverse
2-
Sulfate SO4 significant, combines with osmosis, electrodialysis,
calcium to form calcium sulfate evaporation
scale

adds to solids content and demineralization, reverse


-
Mhloride Ml increases corrosive character of osmosis, electrodialysis,
water evaporation

adds to solids content, but is not


usually significant industrially:
demineralization, reverse
-
high concentrations cause
Nitrate NO3 osmosis, electrodialysis,
methemoglobinemia in infants;
evaporation
useful for control of boiler
metal embrittlement

cause of mottled enamel in adsorption with magnesium


teeth; also used for control of hydroxide, calcium
Fluoride F-
dental decay: not usually phosphate, or bone black;
significant industrially alum coagulation

adds to solids content of water:


demineralization, reverse
+
when combined with OH-,
Sodium Na osmosis, electrodialysis,
causes corrosion in boilers
evaporation
under certain conditions

hot and warm process


removal by magnesium
scale in boilers and cooling
salts; adsorption by highly
water systems; insoluble turbine
Silica SiO2 basic anion exchange resins,
blade deposits due to silica
in conjunction with
vaporization
demineralization, reverse
osmosis, evaporation

Iron discolors water on precipitation; aeration; coagulation and


Fe2+ (ferrous)
source of deposits in water filtration; lime softening;
Fe3+ (ferric) lines, boilers. etc.; interferes cation exchange; contact
with dyeing, tanning, filtration; surface active
papermaking, etc. agents for iron retention

Manganese Mn2+ same as iron same as iron

usually present as a result of


floc carryover from clarifier;
3+
improved clarifier and filter
Aluminum AI can cause deposits in cooling
operation
systems and contribute to
complex boiler scales

corrosion of water lines, heat


deaeration; sodium sulfite;
Oxygen O2 exchange equipment, boilers,
corrosion inhibitors
return lines, etc.

Hydrogen cause of "rotten egg" odor; aeration; chlorination;


H2S
Sulfide corrosion highly basic anion exchange

corrosion of copper and zinc cation exchange with


Ammonia NH3 alloys by formation of complex hydrogen zeolite;
soluble ion chlorination; deaeration

refers to total amount of


dissolved matter, determined by lime softening and cation
evaporation; high exchange by hydrogen
„issolved
none concentrations are objectionable zeolite; demineralization,
Solids
because of process interference reverse osmosis,
and as a cause of foaming in electrodialysis, evaporation
boilers

refers to the measure of


undissolved matter, determined subsidence; filtration,
Suspended
none gravimetrically; deposits in heat usually preceded by
Solids
exchange equipment, boilers, coagulation and settling
water lines, etc.

refers to the sum of dissolved


see "„issolved Solids" and
Total Solids none and suspended solids,
"Suspended Solids"
determined gravimetrically
Water Treatment merupakanprosesmenjernihkan air agar air
dapatdigunakansesuaidengantujuantertentu, seperti air minum, prosesindustri,
kesehatan, dan lain-lain dengancaramembuangsemuazat-zat (bahankimia, partikulat)
yang berbahayadanmerugikan yang terkandungdidalam air. Sedangkan Impurities
adalahkotoranatauzat-zatkotor yang berbahayadanmerugikan yang terkandungdidalam
air.Padatabel paling kanan, ditunjukkanpengolahan(water treatment)
yangdapatdilakukanuntukmasing-masingimpurities. Jadi, tujuanadanyawater
treatmentiniadalahuntukmenghilangkanberbagaiimpurities yang adapada air sehingga
air yang
digunakanbahkandikonsumsimanusiadalamkehidupantidakmembahayakanhidupmanu
sia.


  á
 Æá á  

‘ merupakansuatubentukprosespertukaran gas yang


dapatdigunakandalamberbagaivariasioperasi yang meliputisebagaiberikut:
]| Tambahanoksigenuntukmengoksidasibesidanmanganterlarut.
]| Pembuangankarbondioksida.
]| Pembuangan hydrogen sulfide untukmenghapuskanbaudan rasa.
]| Pembuanganminyak yang mudahmenguapdanbahan- bahanpenyebabbaudan rasa
serupa yang dikeluarkanolehganggangsertamikroorganisme yang serupa.

Êeberapa impurities yang hilangdalam aeration:


‡| Karbondioksida
‡| ÊesidanMangan
‡| AmoniadanHidrogenSulfida
‡| Mhlorin
‡| Volatile Oragnic Substance
‡| Volatile Organic Mompounds

M 
M   M 
     
  
corrosion in water lines, aeration,
   ,
Marbon
MO2 particularly steam and neutralization with
„ioxide
condensate lines alkalies
discolors water on   ; coagulation
precipitation; source of and filtration; lime
Fe2+ (ferrous) deposits in water lines, softening; cation
Iron
Fe3+ (ferric) boilers. etc.; interferes with exchange; contact
dyeing, tanning, filtration; surface active
papermaking, etc. agents for iron retention
Manganese Mn2+ same as iron same as iron
corrosion of water lines,
   ; sodium
Oxygen O2 heat exchange equipment, sulfite; corrosion
boilers, return lines, etc. inhibitors
aeration; chlorination;
Hydrogen cause of "rotten egg" odor;
H2S highly basic anion
Sulfide corrosion
exchange
corrosion of copper and cation exchange with
Ammonia NH3 zinc alloys by formation of hydrogen zeolite;
complex soluble ion chlorination;
   

  
  
<| http://www.gewater.com/handbook/Introduction/ch_1_sourcesimpurities.jsp
Handbook of Industrial Water Treatment
<| Vinsley, Ray K, et al. 1991. TeknikSumber„aya Air. Jakarta:urlangga