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Common elemental equations and governing equations

Translational
mechanical

Rotational mechanical

Electric

Fluid

across

Velocity v

Angular velocity

Voltage V

Pressure P

through

Force f

Torque T

Current I

Flow Q

Mass (m)

Moment of inertia (J)

Capacitance (C)

Fluid capacitance (C)

dvm 1
= fm
dt
m
f m = mam

d J 1
= TJ
dt
J
TJ = J J

dVC 1
= IC
dt
C
QC = CVC

dPC 1
= QC
dt
C

Spring (k)

Rotational spring (k)

Inductor (L)

Fluid inductor / Tube (L)

df k
= kvk
dt
f k = kxk

dTk
= kk
dt
Tk = k k

dI L 1
= VL
dt
L

dQL 1
= PL
dt
L

Damper (B)
f B = BvB

Rotational Damper (B)


TB = B B

Resistor (R)
VR = RI R

Other
variables

Displacement x

Angular displacement or

Acceleration a

angle
Angular acceleration

Direction of arrow in Linear Graphs


Across variable sources: DOWN
Through variable sources: UP
A-Type: DOWN
D-Type, T-Type: ANY
Transducer (Transformers / Gyrator): DOWN

Order to put elements from Linear Graphs to Normal Trees


1. across variable sources
2. A-type
3. Transformer: Only 1 branch
Gyrator: Both branches OR NONE!!!
4. D-Type
5. T-Type
No closed Loop.
Tree runs through / links all nodes.

Compatibility equations
- across variables
- (every time) put 1 link back to tree for a closed loop
Continuity equations
- through variables
- contour that intersects with ONLY ONE branch

Charges Q

Fluid resistor / Rough (R)

QR =

1
PR
R

Accounting / Arithmetic
If NO transducer occurs:
#(branches in tree) = N 1

B = #(branches in graph)
N = #( nodes )
S A = #( across S )

#( elemental eqn ) = B S
#( compatibility eqn ) = B N + 1 ST

ST = #(through S )

#( continuity eqn ) = N 1 S A

S = S A + ST

#( elemental eqn ) = #( comp ) + #( cont )

N d = #( energy domains )
1
=
> 1

If transducer occurs:
#(branches in tree) = N N d

( no TF,GY)
( with TF,GY)

#(elemental eqn) = B S
#(compatibility eqn) = B N + N d ST
#(continuity eqn) = N N d S A
#(elemental eqn) = #(comp ) + #(cont )

Primary variables = 1st


= across variables on branches + through variables on links
Secondary variables = 2nd
= through variables on branches + across variables on links

#(states)
= #( A type in tree) + #(T Type NOT in tree)
= #( A type in branches) + #(T Type in link)
REMARK: NO STATES in D, S, TF, GY

STATE VARIABLES

Across variables of A-Type in tree


Through variables of T-Types NOT in tree

OR

Across variables of A-Types in branches


Through variables of T-Types in links

OR

Any A-Type in link


Any T-Type in branch

Dependent Energy Storage

Any A-Type NOT in tree


Any T-Type in tree

TRANSDUCERS

Transformers

TF
a1
=
t
0
1

0
a2
1

t2
TF

Non-zero diagonal entries

Gyrators

0
a1
t = 1

1
GY

GY
a2

0 t2

Zero diagonal entries


Conservation: NO power loss  a1t1 + a2t2 = 0

a1 = TF a2

1
t1 = TF t2
Across to across
Through to through
a1 = GY t2

1
t1 = GY a2
Across to through
Through to across