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CHAPTER 4

PROCESS CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION

4.1

Introduction

Process control is the automatic control of an output variable by sensing the amplitude
of the output parameter from the process and comparing it to the desired or set level
and feeding an error signal back to control an input variable. In all process unit
operations, there is a necessity to keep the quality and quantity specification at certain
limits in order to satisfy the market requirement. The control system exist in a plant
would have strong influence to the plant performance.
The change of operating conditions, compositions and also physical properties of the
streams are the most important things that we should avoid in our processes. Thus, the
chemical plant must be satisfied with several requirements such as safety, production
specifications, environmental regulations, operational constraints and economics in the
presence of ever changing disturbances. A further complication is that the latest
process has become more difficult to operate because of the trend towards larger,
highly integrated plants with smaller surge capacities between various processing units.

Instruments which can monitor the important process variables during plant operation
must be specified. These instruments must be capable of measuring the variables and
should have an acceptable accuracy and repeatability of measurement, usually the
latter attribute is more important than the former on chemical plant measurements. The
instruments may be used for manual measurements or included in automatic control
loops.

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Automatic alarms may also be required to indicate deviations outside acceptable limits.
If possible, direct measurement of the process variable should be made, however it is
often easier to measure a dependent variable, e.g. temperature measured as an
indication of composition for distillation column top product.
The specification of a control scheme and the associated instrumentation for a chemical
plant should satisfy several main objectives.

The plant should operate at all times in a safe manner. Dangerous situations
should be detected as early as possible and appropriate action initiated, also the

process variables should be maintained within safe operating limits.


The plant should operate at the lowest cost of production.
The production rate and the product quality must be maintained within specified
operating limits.

4.1.1

P & ID

The P & ID is used to prepare the preliminary instrumentation and control scheme.
Control loops are identified for level, flow, pressure and temperature controls to ensure
steady plant operation. The first steps in the design of a good control system are to
define which variables need to be measured and which need to be controlled. To
specify pressure, temperature, flow and level controllers on all units at different
locations, and to assume that the measurements will provide the basis for adequate
control is unrealistic.
It is necessary to specify:
(a) The variables that need to be measured;
(b) The location of these measurements;
(c) The variables that need to be controlled;
(d) How the desired control can be achieved.

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4.1.2

Control System Design

Normally, there are two types of control system, which are a feedback control and a
feed forward control. Feedback configuration uses direct measurement of the controlled
variables to adjust the values of manipulated variables and the objective is to keep the
values of the controlled output variables at desired levels. While a feed forward control
configuration measures the disturbances (load) directly and takes control action to
eliminate its impact on the process output. That is mean a feed forward controllers have
the theoretical potential for perfect control. Most of the processing system in the
chemical plant used the multiple input, multiple output system (MIMO) and single input,
single output system (SISO).
Basically, control objectives must be first defined before developing a particular control
schemes. After that, when a critical controlled variables are identified, whereby
measured variables, manipulated variables must be decided to conceptualise the
control strategies. The following procedures are used to identify and locate the control
instrument in the process:
1. Define the control objective: the central element in any control configuration is
the process that we want to control. There are 4 matters before we define the
control objective that are ensuring the stability of the process, suppressing the
influence of external disturbances, and optimizing the economic performance of
a plant or combination of these 4 matters.
2. Select measurement-this is done by measuring the certain processing
variables such as temperature, pressures, concentration, flow rate and other.
3. Select the manipulated variables.
4. Select the control configuration-the most common configuration that has been
used are feedback control configuration in chemical plant. Feedback
configuration is uses direct measurement of the controlled variables to adjust
the values of manipulated variables and the objective is to keep the values of
the controlled output variables at desired levels.
5. Design and decide which type of controller should be used.

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The following represent some typical feedback control systems that are often
encountered in chemical processes.
1. Liquid-level control.
2. Pressure control.
3. Temperature control.
4. Flow control.
5. Composition control.

i)

Level Control

Level control is important in equipments with interface existence. It is to maintain the


interface level so that the system may not overflow or dry out during the process.
Typically level control is incorporated in the design with the flow out from equipment.
ii)

Pressure Control

Pressure is crucial for system consist of gas or vapour. It must be maintain at the
specific value especially in reactor and distillation so that the equipment can
function and reaction can happen. Besides the pressure also cannot be too high as
it might cause failure to the equipment or worse cause explosion. This control
method depends to the nature of process, for instance, pressure is control via
manipulating the flow from or to equipment.
iii)

Temperature Control

Temperature control is important to ensure the product achieves the desired


composition or specification. In this case, this refers to the ammonium nitrate
production. In addition, temperature control can also minimize the energy required
by heater as well as consumed by cooler through controlling the flow of steam and
coolant. The life span of the equipment can be preserved as long as the
temperature deviation is small.
iv)

Flow Control

Flow control is obvious that it involved directly or indirectly the control of other
parameters, such as the temperature control in heat exchanger and pressure
control in the reactor. To provide constant flow rate to the equipment or to the
following processing unit, usually control valve is installed to meet this purpose.
v)

Composition Control

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Composition control is important to ensure the purity of the product. This control is
implemented in distillation columns. The composition control in this plant used the
model predictive control method to readjust the manipulated value to the set point.
4.1.3

Process Control and Hardware

In any control configuration, we can distinguish as following hardware element:


a) Chemical Process:
Represent the material equipment together with the physical or chemical operations
that occur in the plant.
b) Measuring instruments or sensors:
Sensors are used to measure the disturbances, the controlled output variables and the
main sources of information about what is happened in the process.
c) Transducers:
Equipment using is to measure the control variables, such as temperature, pressure,
level, composition and flow rate. The example of that equipment is thermocouples.
d) Transmission :
Transfer the measurement signal from the measuring devices to the controller. The
dashed lines in the control plant represent an electronic signal, while solid lines
represent pneumatic signals.
e) Controller :
The equipment that can be received the information from the measuring device and
may decide what action should be taken. Basically, there are 2 types of controllers,
electronic signals and pneumatic controllers.
f) Final control element :
This hardware implements the real decision taken by the controller.
g) Recording elements :
The equipment which is provides a visual demonstration of how a chemical process
behaves. Usually, the variables recorded are the variables that are directly measured as

96
part of the control system. There are various types of recorders such as temperature,
pressure, flow rate and compositions.
The control systems include in this ammonium nitrate Plant includes:
a. Reactor control system.
b. Distillation column control system.
c. Separator control system.
d. Heat exchanger control system.
There are several types of indicator controllers used in the proposed plant for the above
purposes:
a. Temperature indicator and controller (TIC).
b. Pressure indicator and controller (PIC).
c. Flow indicator and controller (FIC).
d. Level indicator and controller (LIC).
Table 4.1: Legends P&ID
Symbol

Description

PI and PC

Pressure Indicator and Pressure Controller

TI and TC

Temperature Indicator and Temperature Controller

FI and FC

Flow Indicator and Flow Controller

LI and LC

Level Indicator and Level Controller

CI and CC

Composition Indicator and Composition Controller

PAH and PAL

Pressure Alarm High and Pressure Alarm Low

TAH and TAL

Temperature Alarm High and Temperature Alarm Low

LAH and LAL

Level Alarm High and Level Alarm Low

TRA, FRA, PRA

Temperature Recorder Alarm, Flow Recorder Alarm, Pressure


Recorder Alarm

Table 4.2: General Functions of Control Element in a Plant


Instrument

Function
Pressure Control Instruments

97
PI

Detects the pressure change in the equipment

PC

Makes the decision what action should be done. Decision is


sent to final control element (valve) to do an action.

PAH

Detects high pressure in equipment. When pressure exceeds


the pressure limit, it sends a signal to the PC.

PAL

Detects low pressure in the equipment. When pressure is


lower than the pressure limit, it sends a signal to the PC.

PRA
TI
TC

Monitors the pressure of the system


Temperature Control Elements
Detects the temperature change in the equipment
Makes the decision about the temperature. Decision is sent to
the final control element (valve) to do an action.

TAH

Detects high temperature in equipment. When temperature


exceeds temperature limit, it send a signal to TC.

TAL

Detects low temperature in equipment. When temperature is


lower than temperature limit, it sends a signal to TC.

FI

Flow Control Elements


Detects the flow in the streamline to the major equipment.
This element will detect the flow change in the streamline.

FC

Makes a decision on what action should be taken.

FRA

To monitor the flow rate of the stream


Liquid Level Control Element

LI

Detects the liquid level change

LC

Makes a decision what action should be taken

LAH

Detects higher liquid level change

LAL

Detects lower liquid level change

CI

Composition Control Element


Detects the composition change

CRA

To monitor the concentration of distillate component

CC

Makes a decision what action should be taken

98
4.2

Process Control and Instrumentation for Pipe Reactor

4.2.1

Introduction

The distributed nature of the tubular plug flow reactor means that variables change with
both axial position and time. In order for the desired product to be produced, the
temperature during the reaction should be in the range of 86 oC at the reactor inlet and
180oC at the outlet.
4.2.2

Understanding the process flow

The main objective for Pipe Reactor is to produce ammonium nitrate. The control of
chemical reactor offers some most challenging problems in chemical engineering, since
the chemical reactor is the heart of many processes. The stability efficiency of reaction
operation is very important to the entire plant. The reaction employed in the plant is
highly exothermic and runaway operation can cause explosion. Thus, it requires an
effective, well-designed control system to assure stable operation. The control system
objectives are defined as:
a) To maintain the reactor operation at optimum temperature and pressure.
b) To sustain the product quality in order to make sure the maximum production
rate can be maintained at the annual production rate.
c) To maintain optimum feed condition and composition in order to ensure high
production rate.
Since the reactor is an exothermic reactor, the temperature of reaction takes place must
be within the range of 80C 200C. The temperature in the reactor is detected by
placing several indicator and transmitter.
Objective of process control for reactor
1) Control the temperature of the feed in order to reach the operating
temperature of the reaction
2) Control the pressure of the process stream (feed to reactor) in order to keep
the desired value of product flow rate from the reactors, PFR-101.
3) Control the pressure in the reactor in order to avoid reactor explosion

99
Table 4.3 below shows the control system for pipe reactor PFR-101.
Table 4.3 :Control system for Pipe Reactor PFR-101
Manipulated
Disturbance
Control Strategy

Control
Variable
Temperature at

Variable
Pressure of the

Inlet pressure

Type of controller:

reactor

reactor

to the reactor

Feedback control

PFR-101

-The

101

PFRinlet

stream

inlet

PFR-101
stream

through valve V-1

because

of

loop

temperature

consists
transmitter

of
(TT),

pressure drop

pressure controller (PC) and the

at V1

control valve.
-If the temperature detected by
TT for the inlet reactor stream is
higher than 90oC, the signal is
sent

to

PC.

PC

will

send

corrective action to the control


Pressure

at

Temperature of the

reactor

PFR-

reactor

101

outlet

outlet

stream

PFR-101
stream

through valve V-2

No significant

valve.
Type of controller:
Feedback control
-The loop consists of pressure
Transmitter

(PT),

pressure

controller (PC) and the control


valve.
-If the pressure detected by TT
for the outlet reactor stream is
higher than 540kPa, the signal
is sent to PC. PC will send
corrective action to the control
valve.

100

z
Figure 4.1: Control system of reactor PFR-101.

4.3

Process control and Instrumentation for Distillation Column

4.3.1

Introduction

The control scheme governed in the operation of distillation column is mainly aimed to:
1) Control the pressure of the column
2) Control the operation of reboiling of the bottom product to get to the desired
operating temperature
3) Control the operation of condensing the distillate
In order to ensure the products produced are within the specifications, all the related
process variables namely reflux flow and top temperature is connected to the products

101
composition analyzers. This also applied at the stripping (bottom) section of the column,
in which the steam flow and bottom temperature are connected to bottom product
composition analyzers.
A stream is manipulated by varying the opening desired variable. There are five
manipulated streams which are top and bottom product flow rates, condensation rate,
boil up rate and reflux flow rate. Pressure is often considered the prime distillation
control

variable.

Pressure

affects

condensation,

vaporization,

temperatures,

compositions, volatilities, and almost any process that takes place in the column. An
unsatisfactory pressure control often implies poor column control. Pressure is therefore
paired with a manipulated stream that is most effective for providing tight pressure
control. When the top product is liquid, this stream is almost always the condensation
rate; when the top product is vapour, this stream is almost always the top product rate.

Figure 4.2: General P & ID for distillation column


4.3.2

Control System for Distillation Column 1 (T-100)

102
The purpose of this column is to recover ammonia from the bottom product of the
separator. Ammonia is collected at the distillate and recycled back to the feed stream.
The control system is used to maintain the quality of desired product and to recover
ammonia to its maximum efficiency. For safety purposes, satisfactory operation of the
column, certain constraints must be understood and followed, for example the column
shall not flood, avoid shock loading to the column to avoid overload reboiler or
condenser heat-transfer capacity and also column pressure should not exceed a
maximum permissible value. The control diagram for this distillation column is given in
figure below.

Table 4.4: Process Control system for Distillation Column 1(T-100)


Control
Objective

Measured
Variable

Manipulated
Variables

Disturbance

Type of
Controlle
r

Set Point
Feed
flowrate:

Control
flowrate of
feed into
column

Flowrate of
feed

Flowrate of
feed

Level in the
to column

Feedback

Maintain
temperature
at the feed
stream

Temperature
at feed
stream

Flowrate of
top column

Temperature
in feed

Feedforwa
rd

Temperatur
e in feed =
20C

Cascade

Pressure:
550 kPa (If
pressure
exist + 10%
of set point,
pressure
alarm high /
low will
activated )

Maintain
pressure at
the bottom
stream

Pressure at
the bottom
stream

Flowrate of
inlet for boiler
stream

Increase in
pressure in
distillation
column

105.5
kmol/h

103

Maintain
overhead
vapor
condensatio
n

Temperature
of reflux
stream.

Maintain
pressure in
distillate
stream

Pressure at
distillate
stream

Symbols:
PT Pressure Transmitter
TT Temperature Transmitter

Flowrate of
condenser

Temperature
of condenser
stream and
reflux plate

Feedback

Temperatur
e: -6.75C
(If
temperature
exist + 10%
of set point,
temperature
alarm high /
low will
activated)

Flowrate at
flare stream

Increase
pressure in
distillate
stream

feedback

550 kPa

Title: DISTILLATION COLUMN 1


Note: SIEVE TRAY DISTILLATION COLUMN
Project .: PRODUCTION OF AMMONIUM NITRATE

104

FT Flow Transmitter
LT - Level Transmitter

Designer:
SITI HAJAR BINTI ABD KADIR

Figure 4.3: Process Control Diagram for Distillation Column 1, T-100

105
4.3.3

Control System for Ammonia Recovery Column (T-101)

The purpose of this column is to separate the recover ammonia at distillate back to the
feed stream as well as purifying the product; ammonium nitrate. The control system is
used to maintain the quality of desired product and to recover ammonia to its maximum
efficiency. For safety purposes, satisfactory operation of the column, certain constraints
must be understood and followed, for example the column shall not flood, avoid shock
loading to the column to avoid overload reboiler or condenser heat-transfer capacity
and also column pressure should not exceed a maximum permissible value.

The

control diagram for this distillation column is given in figure below.


Table 4.5: Process control system for Ammonia Recovery Column, (T-101)
Control
Objective

Measured
Variable

Manipulated
Variables

Disturbance

Control
flowrate of
feed into
column

Flowrate of
feed

Flowrate of
feed

Level in the
to column

Maintain
temperatur
e at the
feed stream

Temperatur
e at feed
stream

Maintain
pressure at
the bottom
stream

Type of
Controller

Feedback

Set Point

Feed
flowrate:
289 kmol/h

Pressure at
the bottom
stream

Flowrate of top
column

Flowrate of
inlet for boiler
stream

Temperature
in feed

Increase in
pressure in
distillation
column

Feedforwar
d

Temperatu
re in feed
= 100C

Cascade

Pressure:
520 kPa (If
pressure
exist +
10% of set
point,
pressure
alarm high
/ low will
activated )

106

Maintain
overhead
vapor
condensati
on

Temperatur
e of reflux
stream.

Maintain
pressure in
distillate
stream

Pressure at
distillate
stream

Flowrate of
condenser

Temperature
of condenser
stream and
reflux plate

Feedback

Temperatu
re: -1.2C
(If
temperatur
e exist +
10% of set
point,
temperatur
e alarm
high / low
will
activated)

Flowrate at
flare stream

Increase
pressure in
distillate
stream

feedback

450 kPa

107

Symbols:
PT Pressure Transmitter
TT Temperature Transmitter
FT Flow Transmitter
LT - Level Transmitter

Title: AMMONIA RECOVERY COLUMN


Note: STRUCTURED PACKED DISTILLATION COLUMN
Project .: PRODUCTION OF AMMONIUM NITRATE
Designer:
SITI HAJAR BINTI ABD KADIR

Figure 4.4: Process Control Diagram for Ammonia Recovery Column, T-101

108
4.3.4

Control System for Distillation Column 3 (T-102)

The purpose of this distillation column is to separate the components mixture


(ammonium nitrate, water, ammonia and nitric acid) to get the desired product of
ammonium nitrate in the bottom stream.
The control system is used to maintain the material product quality which is 96% of
concentration of pure product of ammonium nitrate.

For safety purposes, suitable

operation of the column, certain constraints must be understood and followed, for
example the column shall not flood, avoid shock loading to the column to avoid
overload reboiler or condenser heat-transfer capacity and also column pressure should
not exceed a maximum permissible value. Besides that, the operation of reboiling of the
bottom product to get to the desired operating temperature and the operation of
condensing the distillate should be controlled.
The control diagram for this distillation column is given in figure below.
Table 4.6: Process Control system for Distillation Column, T-102
Control

Measured

Manipulated

Objective

Variable

Variables

Flow rate

Flow rate of

of feed

feed

Control flow
rate of feed
into column

Disturbance

Type of
Controller

Temperature
and pressure

Set Point

Feed flow
Feedback

of the stream

rate:
3.58 kg/s
Pressure:
3.95 atm (If

Increase in
Maintain

Pressure at

pressure at

the

the distillate

distillate

stream

stream

Flow rate of
distillate
stream

pressure

pressure lead
to flow of
distillate to

exist + 10%
Feedback

pressure

flow through

alarm high /

flare unit

Maintain

Temperatur

Flow rate of

Temperature

overhead

e of reflux

condenser

of condenser

of set point,

low will
Feedback

activated )
Temperature
: 414.6 K (If

109
temperature
exist + 10%
vapor
condensatio

of set point,

stream and

stream.

temperature

reflux plate

alarm high /
low will
activated)
Avoid

Control
liquid level
inside the
column to
avoid

Flooding (If
Internal

Flow rate of

liquid level

bottom

of column

product

level exist +
Feed flow rate
to the column

Feedback

10% of set
point, level
alarm high /

flooding

low will
activated)

Maintain the
vapor
condensatio
n

Temperatur

Flow rate of

Temperature

e of reflux

bottom of

of reflux

stream

condenser

stream

To achieve
Feedback

reflux ratio
of 0.9

110

Figure 4.5: Control system of distillation column T-102.


4.4

Process Control and Instrumentation for Heat Exchanger

4.4.1

Introduction

In the production of Ammonium Nitrate, the type of heat exchanger that be used is shell
and tube heat exchanger. There are three cooler and four heaters in this production.
The objective of heat exchanger is to heating or cooling the fluid. Heat exchanger used
a simple principle in its operation. Two fluids of different temperatures are brought into
close contact but that two fluids are prevented from mixing by a physical barrier. The
temperature of those two fluids will tend to increase or decrease. The heat will
exchanged from one fluid to the other fluid to achieving the objective. No energy is
added or removed.

111
In order to heat or cool the fluid, the inlet and outlet temperature of the fluid has to be
controlled to the desired temperature. The outlet temperature of will be the set point. If
the temperature of fluid is not reach as the set point, the controller will take action. For
liquid, the flow rate of the liquid must be manipulated to controlled the temperature. For
temperature of vapour, it can be controlled by manipulating the pressure of that vapour.
Control valve will be used to controlled the flow and pressure. The flow or pressure of
the fluid will be controlled depending on the reading of the flow or pressure transmitter.
Then, the transmitter will detect the value and sent the information to the controller
which will take the action whether to open the valve or not. The control valve must be
on the common line either upstream or downstream of the exchanger. Basically all heat
exchanger require the same control strategies as discussed below.
The control strategy for heat exchanger is feedback control. The temperature
transmitter (TT) detected value of temperature at outlet stream of process line and send
the information to the temperature controller (TC) for appropriate action of the control
valve at inlet stream

of utility stream involving hot or cold stream. The controlled

variable is the outlet temperature of the process line and the manipulated variable is the
flow rate of inlet temperature of the utility stream.
4.4.2

Heat Exchanger, E-100

For cooler, E-100 feedback control started with the temperature transmitter (TT)
detected value of temperature at stream 9. If the temperature at stream 9 is not 20 0C,
the temperature transmitter will send the information to the temperature controller (TC)
for adjusting the temperature of utility inlet stream involving cold fluid. The control valve
at the utility inlet stream will take action based on the the temperature controller order.
At Figure 4.6, a process control diagram for heat exchanger, E-106 is shown.

112

Figure 4.6: Process Control Diagram for Heat Exchanger, E-100


4.4.3

Heat Exchanger, E-105

Figure 4.7: Process Control Diagram for Heat Exchanger, E-105

113

Figure 4.7 have shown the feedback control for E-105. The temperature transmitter
(TT) will detected value of temperature at stream 9 send the information to the
temperature controller (TC) for appropriate action on the control valve at the utility inlet
stream if the temperature at stream 9 is not 100 0C.
4.4.4

Heat Exchanger, E-106

Figure 4.8: Process Control Diagram for Heat Exchanger, E-106


For E-106, the aim is to cool the temperature of 204.3 0C at stream 18 to 100 0C at
stream 19. Feedback control was used to control the achieved the goal. The
temperature transmitter (TT) detected value of temperature at stream 19. If the
temperature at stream 19 is not 100 0C, the temperature transmitter will send the
information to the temperature controller (TC) for adjusting the temperature of utility
inlet stream involving cold utility by controlled the control valve. The control valve at the
utility inlet stream will take action based on the temperature controller order.

114
4.4.5

Heat Exchanger, E-101

Figure 4.9: Process Control Diagram for Heat Exchanger, E-101


Figure 4.9 have shown the feedback control for E-101. This heater is used to heat the
fluids at stream 2 (25 0C) to stream 3 (80 0C). The temperature transmitter (TT) will
detected value of temperature at stream 3 send the information to the temperature
controller (TC) for appropriate action on the control valve at the utility inlet stream if the
temperature at stream 3 is not 80 0C.

4.4.6

Heat Exchanger, E-102

The control strategy for heater, E-102 is feedback control. The temperature transmitter
(TT) detected value of temperature at stream 5 of process line and send the information
to the temperature controller (TC) for appropriate action of the control valve at inlet
stream of utility stream involving hot utility if the temperature of stream 5 is not 180 0C.

115

Figure 4.10: Process Control Diagram for Heat Exchanger, E-102


4.4.7

Heat Exchanger, E-103

Figure 4.11: Process Control Diagram for Heat Exchanger, E-103

116
For E-103 as shown in Figure 4.11, the purpose of using heater is to increase the
temperature of 1.192 0C at stream 16 to 25 0C at stream 17. Feedback control was used
to control the achieved the goal. The temperature transmitter (TT) detected value of
temperature at stream 17. If the temperature at stream 17 is not 25 0C, the temperature
transmitter will send the information to the temperature controller (TC) for adjusting the
temperature of utility inlet stream involving hot utility by appropriate action of the control
valve.
4.4.8

Heat Exchanger, E-104

Figure 4.12: Process Control Diagram for Heat Exchanger, E-104


Based on figure 4.12, E-100 used feedback control. The goal of using the heater is heat
the fluids at stream 10 (6.746 0C) to stream 11 (25 0C). The feedback control started
with the temperature transmitter (TT) detected value of temperature at stream 11. If the
temperature at stream 11 is not 25 0C, the temperature transmitter will send the
information to the temperature controller (TC) for appropriate action of the control valve
at inlet stream of utility stream involving hot utility.

117
4.5 Process Control and Instrumentation for Separator
4.5.1

Separation Process Control System of V-101

The product flow from Pipe reactor will flow directly into knockout drum which is vertical
sepator (V-101). The separator will operate in 5.4 bar pressure with temperature of
180C. The purposes of this separator are to decrease the pressure of product flow and
hence separate the unreacted ammonia gases from the liquid product. This separator
also will increase the solution concentration of ammonium nitrate to 78%. Level
controller is the primary controller to this system since it will affect the volume of liquid
hold up, separator pressure, and separation efficiency. The purposes this process
control system is to control the operating pressure of the separator and to control the
outlet flow of product.
Table 4.7: Process Control System for Separator, V-101
Controlled

Manipulated

Disturbance

Control System

Variables
Pressure

Variables
Gas outlet

Changes in separator

Feedback control

Level

pressure
Flowrate of liquid

inner pressure
Changes in separator

Feedback control

outlet product

liquid hold up volume

118

Figur
e 4.13: Process Control Diagram of Separator, V-101

119

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Luyben, W.L. (2007). Chemical Reactor Design and Control. 1st edition.
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Stephanopoulos, G. (1984). Chemical Process Control: An Introduction to Theory and
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Ulrich, G.D. (1984). A Guide To Chemical Engineering Process Design And
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