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(c)2002 American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics or Published with Permission of Author(s) and/or Author(s)' Sponsoring Organization.

AIA A

A02-14371

AIAA 2002 - 0555 Wake-Integral Determination of Aerodynamic Drag, Lift and Moment in Three-Dimensional Flows

J.C. Wu

Applied Aero, LLC

Zephyr Cove, NV

C.M. Wang Applied Aero, LLC Zephyr Cove, NV

K.W. McAlister Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate Moffett Field, CA

40 th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting & Exhibit 14-17 January 2002 Reno, Nevada

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(c)2002 American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics or Published with Permission of Author(s) and/or Author(s)' Sponsoring Organization.

AIAA 2002-0555

WAKE-INTEGRAL DETERMINATION OF AERODYNAMIC DRAG, LIFT AND MOMENT IN THREE-DIEMENSIONAL FLOWS

J. C. Wu*

Applied Aero, LLC,

Zephyr Cove, Nevada

C. M. Wangt

Applied Aero, LLC,

Zephyr Cove, Nevada

K. W. McAlistert

Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate, Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California

Abstract

New wake-integral expressions for the determination of aerodynamic load on finite wings and rotors are established using a vorticity-moment theorem. Compared to previous wake-integral expressions based on the momentum theory, the new expressions connect the wake flow properties more directly to the aerodynamic load. They offer enhanced physical understanding of the flow mechanisms responsible for the production of aerodynamic force and moment and are simpler and more efficient to use. Wind-tunnel experiments are performed to validate the wake-integral expressions for the thrust and the torque on rotors in slow climb. A three-dimensional particle-image velocimetry system is used to obtain velocity values in the near-wake of a model rotor. Thrust and torque values determined using the wake data are presented and compared with balance-measured values.

1. INTRODUCTION

A lifting body in flight always leaves behind in the fluid a footprint - the wake. For more than a century, the aerodynamicist has searched for the connection between this footprint and the aerodynamic load on the body. L. Prandtl connected the down wash induced by trailing vortices - parts of the wake - to the induced drag on the finite wing. The profound contribution of the resulting lifting-line theory to theoretical aerodynamics cannot be overemphasized. The research described in the present paper is centered on the wake- integral approach, which also connects the wake to the aerodynamic load. This method, however, differs from the lifting-line theory in that it focuses not on the downwash induced by the wake, but on the wake itself. The wake-integral method does not require the inviscid fluid idealization and is useful in evaluating both the inviscid drag and the viscous drag.

A wake integral in a general context is an integral over a transverse surface downstream of a lifting solid body. For the present work, the term 4 wake integral' is used in a more restricted context to designate a special surface integral whose integrand vanishes outside the

vortical wake region. A. Betz

2

pioneered the wake-

integral concept and successfully established a wake- integral expression for the steady profile drag (also

* President, Associate Fellow t Chief Aerodynamicist t Research Scientist Copyright © 2002 by J. C. Wu. Published by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc. with permission

called the parasite drag 3 ) in 1925. E. C.

J. C. Wu et al.

5

Maskell 4 and

derived a wake-integral expression for

the induced drag in the 1970s. These wake-integral expressions allow the separate determination of the induced drag and the profile drag on the lifting body through wake surveys over a single wake plane. Since measurements are required only in small wake regions where the vorticity is non-zero, both the profile drag and the induced drag can be determined efficiently and accurately. The advantages offered by the method in design diagnostics are obvious.

Efforts have been in progress in recent years at several universities and governmental and industrial laboratories at various points of the world to further develop the wake-integral method. Wind tunnel studies of many aerodynamic shapes of practical importance, including car shapes, have been performed using the method. In a recent review article 6 on drag prediction and reduction, I. Kroo referred to many recent efforts, noting that successes have been reported along with several open issues that require further investigations.

Previous studies of the wake-integral method are mostly concerned with steady aerodynamic drag. The

present paper reports selected results of a research

program initiated in 1996 and completed

recently 7 .

The aim of the program is to generalize the wake- integral method for unsteady flow applications, in particular helicopter rotor applications. Under this program, new wake-integral expressions are derived for the finite wing. New wake-integral expressions are also derived for the thrust and the torque on the rotor in axial flight, including hover. Wind-tunnel experiments

are performed to validate the rotor expressions.

1

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  • 2. VORTICITY MOMENT AND VORTEX LOOP

The conceptual foundation of the present research

is described in detail in a recent report . Several long-

standing issues of viscous aerodynamics are examined from the vorticity-dynamics viewpoint in the report 8 . In this paper, a vorticity-loop method for aerodynamic analyses is described. This method is based on the

previously developed vorticity-moment theorem 9 . New wake-integral expressions are derived for the finite

wing and for the rotor in axial flight using this method.

The vorticity-moment theorem 9 contains several

mathematical statements involving integrals of vorticity moments. These statements are derived mathematically

rigorously from the Navier-Stokes equations. For the

aerodynamic force F on a solid body, the statement is:

that point. The strength of each tube (the integrated

vorticity strength co over the tube's cross-section) is the

circulation F around the

tube. Since the vorticity is

solenoidal, F is the same at all sections of the tube.

Hence the vorticity strength co is inversely proportional

to the cross-sectional area of the vorticity tube.

If one

views the vorticity field

in

R f (or

R^)

as

composed of a system of vorticity tubes with small

cross-sectional areas, then the vorticity in each tube can

be approximated by a vortex loop F = Ft, where t is the

unit tangent vector of the loop's path C, as shown in

Figure la. The vector t points in the direction of the

vorticity vector in the tube. The term 'vortex loop' is

used in the following discussion for convenience. The

conclusions are obviously valid for the closed tubes of vorticity that the vortex loops approximate.

= -^-p—f

2

dt JR.

rxcodR + p—fvdR

dt JR

S

(1)

where p

is the density of

the fluid;

R«, is

the

infinite

unlimited region composed of the solid region R s and

the fluid

region

R f ; r

is

a position

vector; v

is

the

velocity vector; and CO is the vorticity vector defined by co = V x v.

The last term in (1) vanishes if the solid motion is

rectilinear and does not change with time. For most

practical applications, the contribution of this term to the aerodynamic force is negligibly small even if the solid is accelerating or rotating. In such applications, the first term in (1) determines the aerodynamic force.

This term states that F is equal to -Vip times the rate of

change of the first moment of vorticity in Roo. region reduces to R f if the solid is not rotating.

This

A Cartesian system of coordinates (x,y,z) with the

unit-vector set (i j,k) is used in the following discussion

of the vortex loop method.

If the freestream velocity,

V = Ui, is aligned to the x-axis and the span of the solid

is in the y-direction, then the lift L and the drag D on

the solid

are

the

z-

and

the

x- components of

F

respectively.

The vectors r, v, and CO are stated as r =

xi + yj + zk, v = ui + vj + wk, and CO = £i -f

Tjj + £k.

The vorticity field,

as

the curl

of

a vector

field

(specifically, the velocity field),

is solenoidal,

i.e.,

divergence free. It has been shown 8 that the regions R f

and R s can be considered together kinematically. A

vorticity field in R f

(or more generally in RJ can be

viewed as being composed of closed tubes of vorticity 8 whose walls are vorticity lines, i.e., lines whose tangent at each point is in the direction of the vorticity vector at

The elemental vorticity moment rXCOdR of an

elemental region dR is approximated by rxFds, or F(rxtds), where ds is an elemental segment of the loop. If the vortex loop lies in the x-y plane z = z h then tds =

idx + jdy

and rxtds = Zi(-idy + jdx) + k(xdy - ydx).

The integration of rxcodR over the vorticity tube R t is

frxcodR^-Fziif

JR,

Jc

dy + Fzjfdx+rkf

Jc

Jc

(xdy-ydx).

The first

two integrals in this expression

are

zero.

Using Green's theorem, it can be shown that the last integral gives twice the area enclosed by C. Hence the

vorticity moment A of the vortex loop F is normal to

the plane of

the

loop

and its

magnitude is twice the

loop's circulation F times the loop-enclosed area A:

A = 2FA = 2FAn

 

(2)

where n

is the unit

vector normal to the plane of the

loop and points in the direction of advance of

a right-

handed screw as the loop is traveled in the direction t.

A change with time of the vorticity moment A causes a

force F r on the solid which is, according to (1) and (2):

F r =-p-(FA )

(3)

The force F on the solid is the sum of F r over all loops of the system representing the vorticity field.

If the path C is divided into two parts, C\ and C 2 , as

shown in Figure

Ib, and the two dividing points are

connected by a line C', then one has two closed paths: a

path Cy formed by joining C' to C\ and another

path

C 2 ' formed by joining C' to C 2 . Consider a vortex loop FI on the path Q' and another loop F 2 on the path C 2 '.

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If F! = T 2 and t 2 = - tj on the line

C', then F, + F 2 = 0

and the combined strength of the vortex line on C'

is

zero. The two smaller vortex loops FI and F 2 together

are thus equivalent to a single vortex F on the path C. This means that any vortex loop F is divisible into two

smaller loops. Successive divisions give an arbitrary

number of smaller loops that are, in aggregate,

equivalent to the loop F. A non-planar vortex loop can

be divided into a number of small loops that are

approximately planar. Any specific vorticity distribution can be approximated by various systems of

vortex loops configured with a great deal of flexibility.

The

vector

area

A

can

be

expressed

in

the

component form A = A x i + A y j + A z k, where A x , A y , A z

are the projected

areas

of A

in the

y-z, z-x

and

x-y

planes respectively.

Also,

(2)

indicates

that

the

vorticity moment A of a vortex loop depends only on

the strength of the

loop and

its

size and direction.

Hence A is independent of the shape and location of the

loop. In other words, a planar vortex loop with a fixed

enclosed area may deform in its own plane and undergo rectilinear motions without altering its vorticity moment. These facts greatly facilitate the use of the

vortex-loop method in aerodynamic analyses.

  • 3. LIFTING LINE THEORY

The

lifting-line

theory models the

steady

flow

around a wing of finite span by a horseshoe-shaped vortex system l . This system is composed of a lifting

line representing the circulation F(y) around the wing

and a trailing vortex sheet representing a thin wake.

With this flow model, the Kutta-Joukowski theorem is

used to derive expressions for the lift L and the induced

drag Dj on the wing. The downwash, w, at the lifting-

line location is viewed as a modifier of the fresstream velocity, hence also the angle of attack, thus causing the

induced drag. The expressions for L and Dj are then:

fb/2

= pUj

J—b/2

r(y)dy

(4)

(5)

The vortex loop method is used to re-derive (4) and (5) as follows. Consider first the idealized case of a

wing with a constant circulation F. The vortex theorem

of Helmholtz -squires that this lifting line not to end in

the fluid. The lifting-line flow model is, in this case, a vortex line composed of the lifting line and two semi-

infinite vortex lines, called tip vortices, trailing from the

tips of the lifting line. One thus has an open-ended

horseshoe-shaped vortex system. This system is complete if the presence of the starting vortex is recognized 8 . The complete system is a rectangular vortex loop. The starting vortex connects the tip

vortices and closes the horseshoe-shaped system far

downstream. As the starting vortex moves away from

the wing, the tip vortices grow. The rectangular closed

vortex loop elongates and the loop remains closed.

Let

the lifting

line

lie

on

the

y-axis and

extend

between y = -b/2 and b/2, b being the span of the wing.

If the rectangular vortex loop lies in the z = 0 plane,

then t = j, i, - j, and -i respectively

on the lifting line,

the tip vortex at y = b/2, the starting vortex, and the tip vortex at y = -b/2. Then n = -k and the area A enclosed

by the loop increases at the rate Ub. Hence, according to (3), the growth of the rectangular vortex loop causes

a lift on the wing in the amount pUbF.

With the wing circulation F(y), the strength y(y) of

the trailing vortex sheet in the lifting-line flow model is

required

by the Helmholtz vortex theorem to be l

= -dF/dy

(6)

The complete flow model includes the starting

vortex

'closing'

the

trailing

downstream of the lifting line.

vortex

sheet

far

Consider a system of

rectangular vortex loops placed side by side in the z = 0 plane. The vortex loops are labeled sequentially from 1

to J. The vortex loop j has a lifting-line segment on the

y-axis with the strength Fj =F(Vj) and the length 8y = b/J. Let yj = -(b/2)+j8y and the jth lifting-line segment

be

in

the

range y- } .\

<

y <

yj. There

are two

trailing

vortices belonging to the vortex loop j, one at y = y^

with t = - i and the other at y = yj with t = i.

Coexisting

at y = ^ (except the tip points j = 0 and j = J) are two

vortex lines: the vortex line Fji belonging to the vortex

loop j and the vortex line -Fj+ii belonging to the loop

j+1. The combined strength of the two vortices is [F(Vj)

-

Fty,)].

As 8y-»0,

[F( yj ) -

r(y H )]/8y -> -dF/dy.

The tip vortices of the J vortex loops in the vortex loop

system become the trailing vortex sheet with the

strength given by (6). The set of J vortex loops is thus

an approximation of the lifting-line vortex system.

With the lifting-line flow model, the trailing vortex

sheet lies in the z = 0 plane. The jth vortex loop has the

strength Fj

and its

area Aj increases at

the rate U8y.

According to (3), this vortex loop causes a lift pUFjSy.

The total lift caused by the system of vortex loops is the

summation of this quantity over all the loops in the vortex loop system. In the limit 8y —•» 0, the summation becomes (4).

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With the vortex sheet lying in the z = 0 plane, the lifting-line flow model predicts a zero induced drag. Prandtl developed the flow model by assuming * "the

vortices move away from the wing backwards with the

rectilinear velocity V". To re-derive the induced drag expression (5) using the vorticity-moment theorem, this assumption needs to be modified to include the velocity component, w, in the analysis. With vortices moving

with the flow, w causes the vortex loops to be inclined

to the z = 0 plane. The disturbance velocity caused by

the wing is small compared to the freestream velocity. Thus w«U and the angle of inclination of each vortex loop to the z = 0 plane is very small. The z-component

of the area Aj, (Aj) z , is = A- r This component area

grows at the rate U5y and causes, as shown, the lift

pUFjSy. The x-components of the area Aj, (Aj) x , is = (w/U)Aj . This component area grows at the rate Wj5y

and, according to (3), causes a drag in the amount

-

Wjp Fj8y. The total drag caused

by the loop system is

the summation of this amount over all loops.

In the

limit 8y—»0, one has (5).

As discussed, vortex

loops can be divided

into

smaller loops. This fact

leads to a simpler way to re-

derive (4) and (5). At the time level t = T, introduce a cut at the plane x=xi >0 to divide the system of J vortex loops into two systems each containing J smaller loops:

a system S u upstream of the cut (in the region x < \\) containing the lifting line and a second system S d downstream of the cut (in the region x > x^ containing

the starting vortex, as subsequent time level

shown in Figure 2a.

T

+

8t,

the

system

At

S u

the

has

expanded and the system S d has moved downstream

with the flow.

If the shape and the inclination of the

vortex loops in S d

collectively remain unaltered during

the time period 8t, then, according to the discussions in the last paragraph of Section 2, the vorticity moment of

the system of loops in S d at the new time level T + 8t is

the same as that at the old time level T.

The

system S d

With a steady

time

level

I.

therefore does not cause a force. At the new time level

T + St, again introduce a cut at the plane x = Xi to divide

the system S u into two new systems.

flow, the new upstream system at the new time level is

identical

to

the

system

S u

at

the old

Therefore the change of vorticity moment that took

place during 8t is attributable entirely to the vorticity

moment of the new downstream system, shown in

shade in Figure 2b. This system occupies the region xi

< x < \i + U6t.

The jth loop in this region is inclined to

the z = 0 plane at a small angle. This vorticity moment

of the loop is 2FjWj5y8ti-2rjU8y8tk. This newly

emerged vorticity moment causes a lift pUFj8y and a

drag -pWjFj8y. Summing these forces over the loops in the new down-stream system and letting 8y —> 0, one has (4) and (5).

  • 4. WAKE INTEGRALS FOR THE FINITE WING

Using

(6), one obtains

F = d(yF)/dy +

yy.

The

integration of d(yF)/dy over the span of the wing is zero

since F=0 outside the wing tips. One thus has, from (4),

L = pU

pb/2

J-b/2

yydy

(7)

Using (6), one has wF = wd(yF)/dy +ywy.

For a

symmetric wing, the term wd(yF)/dy is anti-symmetric

with respect to y=0. The integration of this term over

the span of the wing is therefore zero and (5) becomes

f

/ 2

b/2

yw(y)y(y)dy

(8)

The strength y approximates the integrated vorticity

value across the wake layer. With the layer inclined at

a very small angle to the plane z=0, y is the integration

of £ respect to z over the wake region.

One thus re-

expresses (7) and (8) in the wake-integral form:

puJ

(9)

=p f

yw^dydz

(10)

where Wis the wake cross-section.

Equation (10) is a new wake-integral expression for the induced drag. An wake-integral expression for the induced drag, developed previously 5 on the basis the momentum theory, is in the form

(11)

where \|/ is a stream function in the y-z plane.

It has been shown 8 that the new expression (10) is equivalent to the previous expression (11). With

measured wake velocity values, corresponding vorticity

values can be computed easily. The induced drag can

then be evaluated using (10). The numerical procedure

required is simple and efficient. In contrast, the use of (11) requires the computation of the stream function

\|/ by integrating the velocity values. The procedure for

the integration is relatively complex and prone to error.

The use of the new wake-integral expression (10) is

therefore preferred over the previous expression (11).

The equivalence of (10) and (11) endorses the use of the vortex-loop method in aerodynamic analysis.

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A wake-integral expression for the profile drag 8 on

the finite wing can be established using the vorticity

moment theorem. The wake-integral expressions link

the footprints of the wing to the aerodynamic force on

the wing. This linkage is discussed in Section 6 in

connection with wake-integral results for the rotor.

  • 5. WAKE INTEGRALS FOR THE ROTOR

A cylindrical coordinate system (r, 0, z) with the

unit-vector set (e r , e e , e z ) is used in the present study of

the hovering rotor problem. The vectors r, v, and CO are

stated as r = e r r + e z z, v = e r v r + e e v e + e z v z , and (0 =

e r 0)r + ee (Oe + e z civ

A stationary reference frame at

rest relative to the fluid far from the rotor is used. The

rotor disk is placed in the z = 0 plane. The rotor rotates

about the z-axis with the angular velocity Q.

The circulation F(r) around the blade depends on

the span location. According to the Helmholtz vortex

theorem, the blade must leave behind wake vorticity as

it advances azimuthally. For a thin wake, the vorticity

content of the wake can be approximated by a vortex

sheet with the strength y = dF/dr. (The negative sign in

(6) is absent with the ordering of the unit-vector set e r ,

e e , e z .) For a rotor in hover or in climb, the velocity v z

transports the wake vorticity continually in the axial

direction. A helical wake is therefore present under the

rotor disk.

The blade circulation is connected through

this helical wake, which is in turn connected to the

starting vorticity at the far end of the helical wake.

Consider a system of J helical vortex

loops. Let

the jth loop contain a lifting-line segment of strength Fj

= F(VJ). Let this segment be on the r-axis in the z = 0

plane and occupy the radial range TJ.\

< r < TJ, with TJ =

rj_! + 5r, 6r = R/], R being the rotor disk radius. This

lifting line segment is trailed by two helical tip vortices.

These tip vortices are connected far downstream by a

starting vortex segment. This system of vortex loops

approximates the lifting line of the blade, the helical

vortex sheet, and the starting vortex.

At the time level T, designate the blade position by

6=0 .

Introduce a cut at the plane 6 = 81 < 0 to divide

the

system of

J vortex

loops into two systems each

containing J smaller loops: a system S u in the region 6 >

61, containing the blade, and a second system S d in the

region 0< 61, containing the starting vortex.

subsequent

time

l^^el

T

+

8t,

the

system

At the

S u

has

expanded. Introduce a new cut at the plane 0 =0i+ QSt

to divide the system S u into two new systems each

containing J smaller loops. Following the discussions

of Section 4, the newly emerged vorticity moment in

the pie-shaped region

0 t

<

0

<

0! + QSt

causes the

aerodynamic force on the rotor.

The jth vortex loop in the pie-shaped region

encloses the

area

-rjQ 8r8te z - (v z )j8r8te e .

Therefore,

according to (2) and (3), there is a thrust prjQFj8r and

an induced drag

p(v z )jF8r caused by the jth loop. The

thrust on the blade is the sum of prjQFjSr over j. In the

limit as Sr -»0, one obtains an expression for the thrust

on one blade. For an n-bladed rotor, the thrust T is

given by

C H

rFdr

T = npQ

Jo

(12)

Using

the

relation

y

=

dF/dr,

one

obtains

rF

=

V / id(r 2 F)/dr -Vx 2 y. Since F = 0 immediately outside the blade tip, the integration of Vkl(r 2 r)/dr over the span of

the blade is zero. One therefore obtains from (12)

C

npQ Jo r^ydr

(13)

The strength

y

is

the

integrated

vorticity

value

across the wake. With v z « rQ, y is the integrated (Oe

value across the wake with respect to z.

Equation (13)

is expressed as a wake-integral expression:

(14)

Wake integral expressions have been obtained for

the induced drag and the profile

drag 7 on

the rotor.

More important are wake-integral expressions for the

torque Qi due to the induced drag and the torque Q p due

to the profile drag. These expressions have been

derived using the vorticity-moment theorem 7 :

 

r

v co^drdz

 

(15)

 

I

Z

D

Q D =np

r zco r drdz

 

(16)

The

GO,, vorticity

 

layer

is

left

behind by boundary

layers surrounding the blade.

For

the thin

wake, the

computation of (Or can be avoided by placing o\ =

-d\o/dz into (16). By noting that z(3ve/3z) = 3(zv e )/3z

-v e , and that the integration of 3(zvq)/dz over the layer is 0, one obtains an expression in terms of v e :

Qo=nf

'iv

r

v^drdz

e

(17)

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  • 6. EXPERIMENTS AND RESULTS

Rotor tests were performed in the U.S. Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate (AFDD) 7' by 10' Wind Tunnel at the NASA Ames Research Center. A two-bladed model rotor was mounted in the settling chamber of the wind tunnel. The axis of the model rotor was aligned with the tunnel flow direction. The wake of the model rotor passed through the contraction section and the test section of the tunnel. In previous rotor tests in the AFDD 7' x 10' wind tunnel, F. Caradonna et al. M demonstrated the advantages of simulating rotor climb flows using this test configuration. Descriptions n of the test configuration, the physical layout, the rotor, and the instrumentation of these previous tests are for the most part applicable to the present tests. Modifications and additions were made to obtain particle images in the wake of the model rotor and to address the issue of rotor-driven flow returning to the settling chamber.

The flow circuit of the wind tunnel is shown in

Figure 3. A flow seeder was used to introduce particles

into the flow for particle imaging.

A three-dimensional

particle-image velocimetry (PIV) system was used to obtain particle images in the near wake of the model

rotor. Major components of the PIV system are two 2,000 x 2,000 pixel digital cameras, lens sets, remote focus system, high-speed interface and digital links, control cables, computers for acquiring and storing particle images, and laser light source and mirror systems. Figure 4 shows the camera and light sheet configuration used.

The AFDD 7' x 10' wind tunnel is a closed-circuit tunnel. The cross-section of the settling chamber is 30' x 31'. The cross-section of the test section is 7' x 10'. The model rotor has a nominal diameter of 7' and a true diameter of 6.283'. The wake of the model rotor was expected to flow through the test section with minimal interaction with test-section walls. With the tunnel drive-fan off, the model rotor acted as a substitute drive fan and created a flow through the tunnel's flow circuit. Thus, with the tunnel drive-fan off, a climb condition rather than a true hover condition was expected to exist in the settling chamber.

To evaluate the strength of the rotor-driven flow, a curtain was installed at the air exchanger section of the tunnel to block the rotor-driven flow from returning to the settling chamber. Fresh air was admitted to the settling chamber through openings downstream of the curtain, as shown in Figure 3. Prior to acquiring wake data using the PIV system, tests were run both with the curtain in place and with it removed. During these tests, the tunnel drive-fan was off and the rotor operated

at 870 rpm. Tests were run with the collective pitch angles of the rotor blade set at 1°, 3°, 5°, 7°, 9° and 11°. Thrust and torque were measured using the balance mounted on the rotor's drive shaft. The measurements showed that the thrust and the torque on the model rotor were not significantly affected by the blockage of the rotor-driven flow.

In these test runs, flow velocities were measured in the test section using vane- and thermo-anemometers. Total volume flow rates through the test section were determined from the measured test section velocities. It was found that the flow through the test section was reduced between 14% and 21% by the blockage of the rotor driven flow. Balance-measured thrust values were used to estimate the flow through the rotor disk using the axial momentum theory. It was found that flow through the test section was between 2.5 and 2.9 times the estimated flow through the rotor disk, indicating that a sizeable portion of the flow through the test section did not go through the rotor disk.

Measured velocity contours in the test section indicated that the rotor wake was diffused by the time it entered the test section. It is postulated that the wake, together with the fluid it entrained on its way to the test section, accelerated slightly in the contraction section. The acceleration lowered the static pressure in the test section slightly. This lowered test section pressure created a flow external to the 'slipstream' of the wake. The flow through the test section is therefore composed of the rotor wake and a flow external to the rotor wake.

The momentum flux at the test section was estimated using measured average velocities and found to be greater than the thrust on the rotor. This excess of momentum flux supported the view that a pressure difference existed between the settling chamber and the test section. The average settling chamber flow velocity was very low. (With the curtain installed, this velocity was 1.55 fps for the 11° case, of which 0.54 fps was due to the estimated flow of the rotor wake.) Only a minuscule pressure difference would produce the measured amount of flow through the test section. Experimental verification of this minute pressure difference is therefore difficult.

Wake-integral expressions presented in Section 5 are applicable to rotors in axial flight, with hover as a special case. The question as to what specific flow rate corresponds to the true hover state is not essential to the present work. Future test runs with the test section access doors open to equalize the static pressure in the test section with ambient air are desirable. With the access doors open, the measured flow rate through the test section can be used to establish the true hover state.

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The curtain at the air exchanger section of the

tunnel was installed to block the return of the rotor-

driven flow during PIV test runs. The tunnel drive fan

was off. Two pulsed laser-light sheets were introduced

in a plane parallel to the rotor's axis, as shown in Figure

  • 4. As the rotor rotated, its blades passed through this

light sheet repeatedly. The rotor was operated at 870

rpm to match the maximum pulse rate of the laser. The

blade-tip speed was about 286 fjps and compressibility

effects were not important. The light sheet was aligned

to the trailing edge of the blade at the instant the blade

advanced passed the sheet.

This instant of time was

used as a reference time level. A set of 25 images was

acquired at the same blade azimuth during a series of

blade revolutions. The images were combined to

produce time-averaged

velocity

fields

at

specific

relative positions between the blade and the wake-

survey plane.

Figure 5 shows the geometry of the rotor blade and

the position of the light sheet relative to the blade at the

time levels particle images were acquired. The light

sheet was stationary while the blade advanced during

the tests. The distance between the blade tip and the

light sheet designates the relative position of the

particle images (wake-survey plane) and the blade. For

example, a 2.0-c (two-chord) wake-survey plane

designates particle images acquired at the instant the

blade tip advanced two chords from the plane.

Particle images were acquired for two collective

pitch angles, 5° and 11°, in three contiguous rectangular

data patches along the blade span. Each patch covered

approximately 6" of span and 10" of axial distance.

The three patches together covered about 17.6" of span

extending between 20.9" from the rotor axis to 0.8"

outboard of the blade tip. In the axial direction, the

boundaries of each zone were about 3" upstream and 7"

downstream of the rotor disk.

Figures 6 and 7 show contours of the velocity v e

and the vorticity Cfle at the wake survey planes 2.0-c

for

the 5° and the 11° cases.

The v e velocity deficit layer

represents a layer of ov

This layer is the footprint of

the two boundary layers on the blade surface.

This

layer is composed of two sub-layers, one from the

upper boundary layer and the other from the lower

boundary layer. The (Or contents of the two sub-layers

have different signs.

vorticity

o\ in the two

The positive and negative

layers are

connected by ci>z to

form closed vorticity loops in the 9-plane. The

presence of the vorticity co z , though not shown, can be

inferred from the presence of the 0^ sub-layers. As time

progresses, vorticity loops emerge in successive 0-

planes.

With

downwash,

a

helical

wake

layer

composed of vorticity loops that lay in planes normal to

the helical layer is formed. In order to determine the

profile drag, the sub-structure of the helical o\ layer

must be recognized. If the a^ layer is approximated as

a vortex sheet, in other words, a layer of zero thickness,

then the profile drag cannot be detected. This is

because the approximation makes vorticity moment zo\

zero and therefore (16) gives a zero profile drag.

The

approximation masks the deficit of v e in the wake and

thus (17) gives a zero profile drag.

The (Oe vorticity in the wake is the footprint of the

circulation change along the span of the blade. This

footprint is linked by (14) and (15)

to the thrust and the

induced torque on the rotor. Figures 6 and 7 show that

the coe wake associated with each blade is composed of

a strong tip

vortex, i.e.,

a helical

tube of

intense co&

trailing the blade tip,

and

a weak helical

layer of

co&

inboard of the tip vortex.

The blades of the present

tests are twisted.

The observed (0& distribution

indicates that the circulation around the blade changes

slowly along the span and drops abruptly to zero

outside the tip.

 
 

The

sign of

co^ in the inboard

layer is opposite to

that

in

the

tip

vortex.

The

(Oe

layer

can be

approximated by a vortex sheet, without losing pivotal

information about either the thrust or the induced torque

on the rotor. This is because this inboard co^ layer,

unlike the co^ layer, is not composed of sub-layers

containing vorticity of different signs. This OG& layer is

a part of the vortex loops lying in the helical wake

sheet, not normal to the sheet. The presence of a hub

vortex and a starting vortex is inferred by the presence

of the helical layer of

cog.

The hub vortex and the

starting vortex, together with the circulation around the

blade, complete the vorticity loops containing the

vorticity 009. The hub vortex and the starting vortex are

both outside the three data patches of the present tests.

The presence of tip vortices is evident in Figures 6

and 7. Two traces of tip vortices appear in Figure 7 for

the 11° case. The one very close to the rotor disk is

associated with the blade that most recently passed

through the wake-survey plane. For convenience, this

blade is called the first blade. The second trace is

associated with the second blade, which is about 180°

from the survey plane at the instant particle images are

taken. A third trace of a tip vortex is observed in

Figure 6 for the 5° case. This third trace is the footprint

of the first blade during its previous passage through

the wake-survey plane.

 

The

layers of

C0r and

0)9 leave the blade together

and

they

are

transported

in

the

fluid

by identical

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physical processes of convection and diffusion. The

two layers therefore occupy the same physical space.

The structures of the rotor wake described above

are evident at all wake-survey planes. The thinness of

the inboard vorticity layers in Figures 6 and 7 indicates

that for both the 5° and the 11° cases, any significant

flow separation, if present, is restricted to the root

portion of the blade not covered by the data patches.

As the tip vortex moves axially, it also moves

inboard. Figure 6 shows that, for the 5° case, the tip

vortices move axially at a speed substantially slower

than that of the inboard wake layer. The movements of

the second blade's tip vortex bring it to the path of the

first blade's inboard wake layer. A strong interaction

between the inboard wake layer of the first blade and

the tip vortex of the second blade then occurs. For the

11° case, the axial speed

of the

tip vortex is greater.

The strong interaction between the inboard vorticity

layer of the first blade and the tip vortex of the second

blade is not observed in Figure 6.

Spurious vorticity along the boundaries connecting

the three data patches is observed in Figures 6 and 7.

This spurious vorticity is attributable to an inexact

matching of the three data patches in the tests. For

wake-integral analyses, this spurious vorticity is filtered

and disregarded. Figure 7 also shows widespread

traces of background noises. The noises are weak and

do not have significant effects on wake-integral results.

Wake data at the 0.5-c wake-survey plane contain

excessive spurious values. The quality of these data is

not sufficiently high for meaningful aerodynamic

analyses. For the 11° case, wake data for the innermost

data patch are either missing or not of sufficiently high

quality at the 1.0-c, 4.0-c and 5.0-c wake-survey planes.

The qualities of all other acquired wake data are

comparable to those shown in Figures 6 and 7.

Because of the strong interaction between the

vorticity layers left behind by the first blade and the tip

vortex left behind by the second blade, the wake data

for the 5° case are not suitable for the evaluation of the

profile torque. Profile torque values are determined

using (17) and wake data for the 11° case. As noted,

the three data patches cover only the outboard r > 20.9

portion of the wake. In evaluating the profile torque,

the contribution of the missing inboard wake data is

estimated by assuming the inboard o\ layer does not

change with the span in the root portion of the wake.

Based on this assumption, the missing c\ layers in the

wake-survey planes 2.0-c and 3.0-c are estimated to

contribute 17% of the total profile torque. For the

wake-survey planes 1.0-c, 4.0-c and 5.0-c, the missing

8

(Or layer in the root portion of the blade, including those

in the innermost data patch, is estimated to contribute

36% of the total profile drag.

Wake data at the 2.0-c and the 3.0-c wake-survey

planes for the 11° case show that the o\ content in the

wake layer does not change rapidly in the two inboard

data patches. The estimated contributions of the

missing inboard data do, however, introduce

uncertainties in the evaluation of the profile torque.

This uncertainty is due in part to the physical presence

of the root structure of the model rotor. Also, with the

twisted blade, it is possible that flow separates over a

root portion of the blade, especially in the 11° case.

The vorticity 0)9 in the inboard layer is found to be

very

weak.

For

example,

for

the

11° case,

the

magnitude of the integrated co& value in the inboard

layer is determined to be 1.4% of that in the tip vortex

at the 2.0-c wake-survey plane. As (15) and (14) show,

the contributions of (Oeto the induced torque and the

thrust are weighted by the factor r 2 . The missing data in

the root portion of the blade span is therefore

unimportant in the evaluation of the induced torque and

the thrust using wake-integrals. Since the tip vortex is

located in the outermost data patch, the induced torque

and the thrust on the rotor can be accurately determined

using only wake data in this outermost data patch.

Induced torque values, determined using (15), are

shown in Figure 8 for the 11° case. Total torque values

are obtained by adding the values of profile torque,

determined using (17), to the induced drag values. The

very good agreement between the balance-measured

value and the total torque values determined using wake

data at survey planes 1.0-c and 2.0-c is unforeseen

since, as discussed, the missing inboard wake-data

introduce uncertainties in computing the profile torque.

Figure 9 shows the thrust on the rotor determined

using (14). The agreements between the wake-integral

results and the balance-measured thrust at all wake

survey planes for both the 5° and the 11° cases are

reasonably good and encouraging.

Wake-integral expressions are derived in Section 5

by analyzing the rate of emergence of new vorticity

moment in the wake. It is therefore preferable to use

wake-survey planes close to the blade. As discussed,

the o>r layer is composed of two sub-layers containing

OT with opposite signs.

disperses the

vorticity

As the wake ages, diffusion

and partially

annihilates the

positive Or and the negative 0)r in the two sub-layers.

The wake-integral expression (16), or equivalently (17),

therefore provides more accurate profile torque values

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at wake-survey planes closer to the blade.

Diffusion

effects are less important in the determination of the

thrust and the induced torque since (0& resides

wholly in tip vortices.

nearly

7.

CONCLUSIONS

The wake-integral method connects the footprints

left behind by a solid body in flight to the aerodynamic

force

and

moment

on

connection, the task of

the

body.

Through

this

solving a three-dimensional

aerodynamic

flow

problem

is

reduced to

one

of

evaluating the footprints in a two-dimensional planar

area. Information about these footprints can be

acquired either experimentally or computationally. By

reducing the dimensionality of the information required

to determine the aerodynamic load from three to two,

the method offers major advantages in all three

branches of aerodynamics - theoretical, experimental

and computational. The method is efficient since the

required footprint information is restricted to the small

vortical wake region of the flow.

The central theoretical task of the wake-integral

method is the establishment of wake-integral

expressions. In the present research, a vorticity-loop

method was developed and used to derive new wake-

integral expressions for the finite wing problem.

Compared to previous wake-integral expressions for the

induced and the profile drags, the new wake-integral

expressions are remarkably simpler and more efficient.

New wake-integral expressions are also derived, using the vorticity-loop method, for the thrust, the

induced torque and the profile torque on the rotor.

These expressions connect the footprints of the rotor

blade to the aerodynamic load on the rotor. The

azimuthal component of the wake vorticity is connected

to

the thrust

and

the

induced

torque.

The

radial

component of the wake vorticity is connected to the

of the wake-integral method. The power of three- dimensional particle-image velocimetry in experimental

aerodynamics has also been demonstrated. In addition

to providing quantitative wake data, particle imaging

has brought into focus wake features often disregarded

in the past. These wake features are relatively

inconspicuous, but important to viscous and unsteady

aerodynamic analyses.

Efforts of the present program have laid the

foundation for continued efforts to construct a practical aerodynamic design tool using the wake-integral method.

Acknowledgements

The contribution of the wind-tunnel task-team for

the

present

research

is

gratefully

acknowledged.

Members of this team include Anita I. Abrego, Brian H. Chan, Steven Chan, Lauura Galvas, Joel T. Gunter, Elizabeth M. Hendley, Jon L. Lautenschlager and David W. Pfluger. Samuel S. Huang served as the on-

site engineer of Applied Aero throughout the planning and execution phases of the wind tunnel tests. Dr. Luiz

Lourenco designed the particle image velocimetry system and provided related technical support, including the processing of particle images. Dr. Chee

Tung's

support

and

timely

advice

throughout

this

research program is also gratefully acknowledged.

References

1. Prandtl, L. "Applications of Modern Hydrodynamics to Aerodynamics", Report No.l 16, National Advisory

Committee on Aeronautics, 1921

  • 2. Betz, A. "Ein Verfahren zur Direkten Ermittlung des Profilwiderstandes", Zeitschrift fur Flugtechnik und Motorluftschiffahrt, Vol. 3, 1925

profile torque. The axial component of the wake

  • 3. Anderson, Jr., J. D. "A History of Aerodynamics",

vorticity does not need to be known explicitly.

 

Its

Cambridge 1997

presence

in

the

wake

and

its

contribution

to

the

aerodynamic load are

inferred

from

those

of

the

  • 4. Maskell, E.

C.

"Progress Towards a Method of

azimuthal and

radial components of the wake vorticity.

With the new wake-integral expressions, the use of wake data very close to the trailing edge of the lifting

body

is

preferred.

This fact

offers

an

important

advantage to the use of CFD in wake-integral analyses.

Numerical methods capable of accurately simulating

the near wake are useful, even i* ihe far wake cannot be

accurately simulated because of numerical diffusion.

Experiments performed in the present research

have validated the practicality and the major advantages

Measurement of the Components of the Drag of a

Wing of Finite Span", Technical Report 72232, Royal

Aircraft Establishment, 1973

5.

Wu, J.

C.,

Hackett, J.

E.,

and Lilley, D.

E.

"A

General Wake Integral Approach for Drag

Determination in Three-Dimensional Flows", AIAA

Paper No. 79-0279, 1979

  • 6. Kroo, I. "Drag due to Lift: Concepts for Prediction and Reduction", Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 33, 2001

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

(c)2002 American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics or Published with Permission of Author(s) and/or Author(s)' Sponsoring Organization.

7.

Wu,

J.

C.

and

Wang,

C.

M.

"Separate

Determination of Coexisting Components of

Aerodynamic Drag on Rotors", USAAMCOM TR-

01-D10, Aviation Applied Technology Directorate, U.S. Army Aviation and Troop Command, 2001

  • 8. Wu, J. C. "Theoretical Aerodynamics based on Vorticity Dynamics", Applied Aero LLC, Report 2001-A1231,2001

  • 9. Wu, J. C. "Theory for Aerodynamic Force and Moment in Viscous Flows", AIAA Journal, Vol. 19, 1981

10.

Caradonna, F., Henley, E., Silva, M., Huang, S., Komerath, N., Reddy, U., Mahalingam, R., Funk,

R., Wong, O., Ames, R., Darden, L., Villareal, L.,

and

Gregory, J., "An

Experimental Study of a

Rotor in Axial Flight" Proceedings, Specialists'

Meeting for Rotorcraft Aeroacoustics and

Aerodynamics, American Helicopter Society,

1997.

Air Exchanger Section

J

Settling Chamber

Figure 3. Wind tunnel flow circuit.

r

Closed tube

of varticitv

Figure la. Vortex loop approximation of vorticity tube.

o r 2

Figure Ib. Division of vortex loop into smaller loops.

Figure 2a. Lifting-line vortex-loop systems at time t = T.

-1

KUSt

New upstream system

Transported Sd

Expanded S u Figure 2b. Lifting-line vortex-loop systems at time t = T + 5t.

10

Figure 4. Particle imaging system layout.

75.40-

4.03

7.55 degree linear twist

Figure 5. Blade geometry and wake-survey planes.

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

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-

velocity

-

I

:

_______©

u

-6.00

-7.36

-8.71

10.07

11.43

12.79

14 -

14

15^0

16>86

18^1

19^7

20.93

22.29

23.64

25.00

,

,

.

i

i

/

.

1

1

1

1

1

1

-

vorticity

t

VORX

500.00

463.57

:

i

-C*=>

o <=> 0

o

'

m

0

-=>

°

c

•*•

o

«

£K^OC^C-K

^~ir ^

$\

e

^-^~^~-^S^'

<

id

S

-f )

,

,

,

1

,

(

,,,!,

r(ln)

,

,

1

1

!

.

r

Figure 6. Streamwise velocity and vorticity contours.

2-chord wake survey plane

5-degree collective-pitch angle

velocity

:

vorticity

30

tin)

t

r<ln)

S

I

!-~!

^sw*

tea

B

S

P

B Ks>i

>W 427.14

M, 390.71

r*-n 354^9

r-TJ 317.86

281

H 245 -°°

li 208 57

-

n

43

-

S 172.14

l^ 135.71

99-29

62.86

26.43

-10.00

VORX

500.00

H

463.57

m

H

427.14

390.71

H

354.29

317.86

281.43

245.00

208.57

172.14

135.71

99.29

62.86

26.43

|

-10.00

Figure 7. Streamwise velocity and vorticity contours.

2-chord wake survey plane

11-degree collective-pitch angle

         
         
         
         
     

Batence-MeasuredJotal

   

a

Wake-Integral, Induced

   

Wake-Integral, Total

         
 

i

234

5

 

Distance between Blade and Wake Plane(chord)

Figure 8. Rotor torque, 11-degree collective pitch.

         
         

5-degree collective

     
       

Balance-Measured

     

Wake-Integral

   
 

Distance between Blade and Wake Plane(chord)

t

11 -degree collective

     
         
         
         
         
         
   

-

 
 

- - - Balance-Measured Wake-Integral

Distance between Blade and Wake>lane(chord)

Figure 9. Rotor thrust, 5- and 11-degree collective pitch.

11

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