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Three-phase Inverters

M.B.R. Correa, C.B. Jacobina, A.M.N. Lima, E.R.C. da Silva

Departamento de Engenharia ElCtrica, Universidade Federal da Paraiba

58109-970 Campina Grande, PB, Brasil, Caixa Postal 10105

Fax: +55-83-3 101015 Email: j acobina@dee.ufpb. br

to generate pulse width modulated signals to control four switches three phase inverters. The proposed method provides a simple scheme to select three or four vectors to synthesize the desired output voltage. The method is based on

the so called space vector modulation but the paper also presents its scalar version. The paper

presents a comparative study where the different

vector combinations are investigated. The paper

also discusses how the use of the wye and delta

connections of the machine windings affects the

implementation of pulse width modulator. Simulation and experimental results are presented to

corroborate the analytical developments.

R

e

C

t

I

f

I

e

r

A

I. INTRODUCTION

The conventional structure of a three-phase voltage inverter comprises three legs, six power switches (SSTPI),

a pair of complementary switches for each phase. The

four-switch three-phase inverter (FSTPI) employs only

two legs, that is four switches as shown in Fig. la. Several

papers have investigated this structure [l-91. The FSTPI

structure allows one to generate four active vectors in the

CY@ plane instead of six as usual in the SSTPI structure.

This paper presents a new method to generate pulse

width modulated signals to control four-switch threephase inverters. The method is based on the so called

space vector modulation but the paper also presents its

scalar version. The proposed method provides a simple

way to select three or four vectors to synthesize the desired output voltage during the switching period. In the

proposed approach the choice between the use of three

or four vectors is parameterized by a single variable and

this permits to simulate and implement 'all the alternatives making possible a fair comparison of the different

techniques. The influence of different switching patterns

on the output voltage symmetry, current waveform and

switching frequency are examined. The paper also discusses how the use of the wye and delta connections of

the machine windings affects the implementation of pulse

width modulator. The utilization of an induction machine with its windings connected in delta is studied here

link voltage used for the SSTPI. Simulation and experimental results are used to illustrate the use of the FSTPI

to supply a three-phase induction motor.

11. SPACEVECTORANALYSIS

With respect to the circuit of Fig. la let us assume that

the conduction state of the power switches is associated

to the binary variables 41 to 44. Therefore, from now on

the binary '1' will indicate a closed switch and the '0' an

open one. The pairs 41-43 and 42-44 are complementary

and, as a consequence, 43 = 1 - 41 and 94 = 1 - 92.

The voltages V A O ,V B O and V C O ,depend upon the states

of the power switches and may be expressed in terms of

the binary variables 91 and 4 2 , as follows:

94 1

41

42

v1

v42

v = vup + jv,

= [E/&)e-j2"I3

vco = 0.

(3)

The space vector modulation and the problem of selecting the appropriate switching sequence are better understood if the three-phase quantities are transformed into

(YPquantities. The transformed (YOvariables are given by

vupp

= AV123

transformation matrix being

A . Wye connection

(4)

vplT and the

the windings connected in wye. In this case the line-toneutral voltages are v1 = V A O - v ~ o 2,12 = vgo - v ~ o

and 213 = - U N O , with V N O being the voltage between the Fig. 2.

Vectors in the a@ plane for the same dc bus voltage. (a)

neutral ( N ) and the dc bus midpoint (0), as indicated wye connection and (b) delta connection.

in Fig. la. The induction machine is symmetric and the

neutral wire is disconnected. The a@ voltage components

TABLE 2. Available vectors in the cr@ plane for the delta connection

are given by:

(7)

The combinations of the states of the switches originate

four different vectors in the (YPplane as given in Table 1.

These vectors are 7r/2 away from each other. Using the

above vector definitions one may split the (YP plane into

four sectors, i.e. I , I I , I I I , and I V , as showed in Fig. 2a.

The vectors v2 and v 4 are opposite in directior? ( v 2 =

-vq) and their amplitude is 4 times bigger than the

amplitude of the pair v 1 and v 3 . Also, the vectors v1 and

v 3 are opposite in direction (VI = - v 3 ) .

B. Delta connection

Fig. IC also shows a three-phase induction machine but

in this case the windings are connected in delta. In this

case vi = V A O - V B O ,212 = OBO - vco and vg = vco- V A O

and consequently the (YP voltage components are given

by:

vup

- 42)E

(*)

"P

1

= -(41

fi

+ 42 - 1)E.

(9)

four different vectors in the aP plane as given in Table 2.

These vectors are also 7r/2 away from each other but their

amplitude is fi times bigger than the vectors of the wye

connection (see Fig. ab).

In the following sections the analytical formulation of

the space vector modulation will be~derivedfor the case

of wye connected load. Further, in section VI it will be

demonstrated how to map these results for the case of a

delta connected load.

111. SPACEVECTORPWM

Let v* represent the reference voltage to be synthesized by the FSTPI within a switching period of length T.

942

v*T = vltl

T = ti

Sector 11:

+ ~ 2 t +2 ~ 3 t +3 ~ 4 t 4

t4

(19)

restricted to

+t2 + t3 + t4.

(11)

weights given v * and T . In order to simplify the algebraic

manipulation let us introduce v* = v:

j v z , v, = V I =

-VQ = U,,

jv,p and Ve = ~2 = - v 4 = Ve,

jvep.

Replacing the vectors v, and ve into (10) results in

v*T

t13

(10)

= ~ , t 1 3+ v e t 2 4

t13

(20)

Sector IV:

t13

(21)

(12)

Rewriting (12) in terms of the (YP components gives

v:T = Voatl3

+ Wed24

(13)

v ~=

Tv o p t l 3

(14)

vept24.

Sector 111:

Note that equation (11) is always satisfied and the apportioning factor p indicates how many vectors with its

respective weights are employed. If U

, = 0 only three vectors are employed v 2 , v 4 and v 1 or v3 (see Table 3). If

0 < p < 1 all the four vectors are employed. If p = 1

only three vectors, V I , v 3 and v 2 or v 4 are employed (see

Table 4).

-d$,vea = &f and vep = -A$,then from (13)

one find that t 1 3 and t24 are given by

Vectors

As it can be seen from the above equations, the computation of the time weights is an under-determined problem

i.e., there are four unknowns but only three different equations. By considering that the switching frequency must

be constant there are two possibilities to solve this problem. The first alternative is to use all of the four vectors

while the second one is to select only three among the four

available vectors. The present paper proposes an elegant

way to pass from one alternative to another as it is shown

in the following.

From (12) the resultant odd vectors are applied during

t 1 3 and the resultant even vector are applied during t 2 4 .

Under these conditions the remaining time is given by:

- It131 - lt241.

t13

vqv1vz

0

0

0

Vectors

Sector

1

1

1

1

~ 1 V 2 ~ 3

VlVZV.?

VQV4V1

(17)

(18)

v2v3v4

p for vectors v1 and v 3 and 1 - Y, for vectors v 2 and v 4 .

The use of the apportioning factor depends on the signs

of t 1 3 and t24 as described below:

Sector I :

I

11

111

IV

v9vnv4

v3v4v1

6~ =

Sector

v4v1vZ

II

111

IV

are as close as possible of v * , i.e., avoiding the use of

the farthest vector for a given v * . Table 5 shows how

to select p in order to always use only the three closest

vectors for a given v ' . Fig. 3 illustrates how the value of

p is mapped into the voltage sectors A , B , C and D of

ap plane. The row labelled Condition in Table 5 indicates

when the reference vector v * enters in a given sector.

The use of the switching patterns given in Table 5 has

already been proposed by Blaabjerg et al. [8]. Also, the

switching patterns given in Tables 4 and 3 have already

943

TABLE 5.

Vectors

Condition

Sector

41L

*+

1.1

I;,-

I

I

I

41A

I

I

IC,

<

A I;,-.

,

<

..

.

.

.

..

.

,

,

.

.

.

-I3

IC2

,,

,

,

.

0

;4

71

f;

I2-1,*14*1~*1;-1~-

1-

*

I

in the a@ plane.

voltages may be given by

been proposed by Jacobina et al. [5]. However, the generic analytical development describing all these switching

patterns parameterized in terms of a single quantity has

not been presented previously.

The above analysis has demonstrated how the selection

of a specific switching sequence is decided by a single variable, the apportioning factor p.

IV. SCALARPWM

The use of the space vector approach provides simple

analytical way to explain the functioning of the FSTPI.

However, to implement the modulator with a timer based

hardware it is more appropriate to define a scalar and

equivalent version of the proposed technique. Moreover,

this development provides a good insight about how the

pulse width modulator should be implemented in software.

The basic modification to convert a scalar PWM

strategy defined for a SSTPI to be used to control a FSTPI

relies on the reference waveform generation. In this case

the line-to-neutral reference voltages vT0, vzo and wzo supplied to the modulator that controls the FSTPI must obey

specific phase shift relationships. From the Fig. l a and l b ,

the voltages vi0

vgo are given by vT0 = vio = U; +UNO,

v ;=

~ vh0 = v; + V N O , vzo = v;o = v z + v ~ o= 0, and then

V N O = -vB . This implies that vro = vT -U;, vfo = VI - v; .

Consequently, if the line-to-neutral reference voltages v; ,

944

AV;.

vfo =

(23)

Fig. 4 shows the typical waveforms of the command

signals for the switches q1 and 42 when t24 < 0 (Fig. 3a)

and t24 2 0 (Fig. 4b) both for 0 < p < 1. From (22),

the time intervals 7 1 and 7 2 , during which the switches

q1 and q2 must be switched on in order to obtain the

desired reference voltage at the output of the FSTPI, are

determined by

72

T

T

= -+ fi-v;.

2

E

It can be noted that for both cases represented in Fig. 4,

71 = t 2

t 3 and 7 2 = t 3

t 4 . These relationships demonstrate that both the space vector and the scalar techniques

give equivalent results.

The generation of the command of the switches of q1

and q2 is done by using programmable timers. Fig. 4

shows that for the geaeral case in which all the four vector

are employed, the pulse widths 7 1 and 7 2 can be split in

two parts: 71 and 7: (71 = 71+ 7:)and 75 and 72

at each time period T . Note that if one chooses to use

only three vectors, the timers are programmed once at

each time period T .

+ p=l

30

al

V. IMPLEMENTING

THE PWM/FSTPI

Based on the equations presented in the previous section it is possible to derive an algorithm that can be included in the ac drive software. This algorithm is described by the following steps:

i) compute 213 and t24 using (15) and (16)

ii) compute ST using (17)

iii) compute t l , t 2 , t3 and t4 based on equations (18) to

(21)

iv) If t24 < 0 program the timers to count as follows:

q 1 timer is first loaded with t,l = t3 and after with tLl =

tl +t4; q 2 timer is first loaded with tc2 = t3 +t4 and after

with tb2 = tl f t z .

v) If t24 >_ 0 program the timers to counts as follows:

q 1 timer is first loaded with t,l = tz + t3 and after with

tLl = t l t4; 42 timer is first loaded with tc2 = t3 and

after with tL2 = t 2 + tl.

The time intervals t e l l tLl, tc2 and tL2 are indicated in

Fig. 4. Observing Fig. 4a and Fig. 4b it can be noted that

the number of commutations of the FSTPI switches is not

equally distributed. The tests included in steps iv) and

v) have been added in order to obtain in the average the

same number of commutation for all the FSTPI switches.

Also, steps iv) and v) may be defined in terms of t13.

0'

p=o

p=O-l

0.2

i

I

rn

p=o.5

o j~=O.6

+ p=0.8

For the delta connection voa = 0, v,,p = -E/&, Vea =

E and v e p = 0, then from (13) one may find out

that t13 and t24 are:

sections I11 and IV. Note that Tyaap can also be used

when the delta connection is considered for the case of a

SSTPI.

VII. SIMULATIONS

RESULTS

(27)

Given (26) and (27) it is possible to use same procedure

presented in section V. However, it is also possible to

obtain v: and v; for the wye connection (named from

) terms of v z A and v i 4 (crp

now on as v:y and v ; ~ in

voltages for the delta connection). Using matrix A it can

be shown that v : ~and v i A are given by: *

the FSTPI as a function of the modulation index (m).

The THD presented in Fig. 5 has been calculated by

total root mean square voltage of the axis 2 and Vrmso(l)

is root mean square voltage of the fundamental in axis

x. The total harmonic distortion of the voltage vector is

calculated from Thda and T h d p as follows

T H D = Tldu+ T& .

Then the pulse widths for the delta connection can be

determined by using the same expressions presented in

(29)

vectors are used. In this figure the label p = 0-1 indicates

that p varies as indicted in Table 5. Fig. 5b presents

945

5

possible to study several PWM schemes, using three or

-1.5 I

0.01

0.02

0.03

four vectors to synthesize the desired output voltage during the switching period. The scalar version of the proposed modulation technique can be implemented by software and may easily included in drive software with a

negligible increase in the computational load. This study

have shown that is preferable to use three vectors, where

two are the small vectors. The paper also presented PWM

strategies suitable to applied with delta connections of

the machine windings. That type of connection permit to

supply the machine with the same phase voltage of the

standard FSTPI drive.

t (s)

REFERENCES

1.5 7

[l] H. W. Van der Broeck and J . D. Van Wyk. A compar-

-1.5

'

0.01

0.02

0.03

t (s)

same switching frequency, the period T used for the THD

in Fig. 5b is 1.5 times the period used in Fig. 5a. For

high m all the alternatives present similar THD, but for

medium and low values of m the alternative with p = 1

is sensibly the best.

VIII. EXPERIMENTAL

RESULTS

The proposed modulation scheme was implemented in

a microcomputer-based FSTPI drive system. The FSTPI

employs IGBTs that switches at 5kHz and supplies a

1/3hp three-phase squirrel induction motor. The motor

was started-up with a standard v/f law and when the

steady-state was reached the current of the phase 1 has

been recorded. Fig. 6 presents the stator current obtained

with the FSTPI supplying a induction machine for p = 1

and m = 0.8. Figs. 6a and 6b show the line current for the

wye connection and for the delta connection, respectively.

IX. CONCLUSION

This paper has presented a new method to generate pulse width modulated signals to control four-switch

946

drive with a component minimized voltage-fed inverter

under different control options. IEEE Transactions

on Industry Applications, 20(2):309-320, March/April

1984.

[2] W. McMurray. Modulation of the chopping frequency

in dc choppers and pwm inverters having currenthysteresis controllers. IEEE Transactions on Industry

Applications, 20(4):763-768, JulyIAugust 1984.

[3] F. Blaabjerg, S. Freysson, H. H. Hansen, and

S. Hansen. Comparasion of a space-vector modulation

strategy for a three phase standard and a component

minimized voltage source inverter. In Conf. Rec. EPE,

pages 1806-1813, 1995.

[4] F. Blaabjerg, S. Freysson, H. H. Hansen, and

S. Hansen. A new optimized space vector modulation

strategy for a component minimized voltage source inverter. In Conf. Rec. APEC, pages 577-585, 1995.

[5] C. B. Jacobina, E. R. C. d a Silva, A. M. N. Lima, and

R. L. A. Ribeiro. Vector and scalar control of a four

switch three phase inverter. In Proc. IAS Conf. Rec.,

pages 2422-2429,1995.

[6] G. Kim and T . A. Lipo. Vsi-pwm rectifierlinverter

system with a reduced switch count. In Proc. IAS

Conf. Rec., pages 2327 - 2332, 1995.

[7] R. L. A.Ribeiro, C. B. Jacobina, E.R. C. d a Silva,

and A. M. N . Lima. Ac/ac converter with four switch

three phase structures. In Proc. PESC Conf. Rec.,

pages 134-139, June 1996.

[8] F. Blaabjerg, S. Freysson, H.-H. Hansen, and

S. Hansen. A new optimizied space-vector modulation

strategy for a component-minimized voltage source

inverter. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics,

12(4):704-714, July 1997.

[9] D.T.W. Liang and J. Li. Flux vector modulation

strategy for a four-switch three-phase inverter for motor drive applications. In Proc. PESC Conf. Rec.,

pages 612-617, June 1997.

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