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1.

0 INTRODUCTION
Safety Audit is an important part of Companys control system. The techniques of safety
audit of a companys activity are a systematic critical examination with the object of
minimizing losses. Every component of the total system e.g. Management Policy,
Attitude, Training & Retraining, Features of the process and of design, Layout &
Construction of the plant, Operating Procedures, Emergency Plan & Preparedness,
Protection Standards, Examinations of the pressure Vessels, and Accident Analysis,
Records & Reporting Procedures etc. are included in the Safety Auditing System.

Safety Audit covers all aspects of safety of the undertaking including compliance with
statutory rules, organisation and administration, general hazard control, process hazard
control, training and motivation, accident investigation and cause analysis etc.

A Safety Audit examines and assesses in details the standards of all facts of a particular
activity. It extends from complex technical operations and emergency procedures to
clearance certificate, job descriptions, housekeeping and attitudes. It also involves labour
relations since people are asked about their training, their understanding of works policy
and whether they think they are making their contribution in the right way.
The safety audit has been carried out as per the guidelines given in the Indian Standard
Code of Practice on Occupational Safety and Health Audit (BIS-14489-1998).
The Audit findings and recommendations are based on the background information &
process data and discussions held with the plant personnel during onsite audit activities.
2.0 OBJECTIVES
The purpose of conducting Safety Audit is that a systematic critical appraisal of all
potential hazards involved, plant personnel, plant, services and operation methods to
ensure that occupational health and safety standards fully satisfy the legal requirements
and those of the companys written safety policies, objectives and programmes.
The specific objectives of safety audit are: -

Partial fulfillment of "Post Diploma in Industrial Safety" course from RLI,


Kanpur.
Identify the deviations from stands of implemented IMS systems which
contribute to the Protection of Workers from hazards and to elimination of work
related injuries, ill health, disease, incidents/ accidents and deaths.
Review safe operating procedures for necessary revisions.

To study existing systems, procedures, plants and programme on safety and health.

To review implementation status of existing safety system, procedures, plans and


programmes.

To recommend the measures for improving effectiveness of implementation of the


safety system, procedures, plans and programmes and also for improving the
existing procedures/setting up of new procedures, if required.

3.0 METHODOLOGY
The methodology of conducting safety audit is as follows:
-

Pre-audit activities

Audit-on site activities

Post-audit activities

Pre audit activities


The pre-audit session includes the collection of all background information from the
plant on a pre-designed comprehensive questionnaire such as:
Plant Information
Product Information
Process Information
Chemical Handled
Organization Structures.
Off site facilities etc
Accident details of past years with cause analysis
Details of Fire/Explosion/Toxic Releases in past years with cause analysis
Audit on site activities

Understand and evaluate Management System by

Preliminary discussions and Interviewing the plant personnel

Examination of the management policy, documents and data, evaluation of


physical conditions and work practices

Asses strength and weaknesses, Internal Risks And Internal Control Measures

Gather Audit Evidences by way of assessment, verification and sampling

Evaluate audit findings, summarize it, and work-out exceptions and observations

Exit meeting with plant officials

Post audit

Prepare Draft Report, which must include Environmental affairs, Legal affairs
along with the recommendation for each findings

Outcome of audit surveys is/was discussed with Plant's Management and all
findings were communicated to them.

Issue Final Report

Follow-up

4.0 SCOPE OF STUDY


As per the directives issued by the concerned authority. The Safety Audit of the plant was
conducted as per the norms and procedures mentioned in IS-14489-1998, which
adequately covers the various aspects as per requirements of Directorate of Factories,
U.P. The scope of the study is as follows:
1. Hazard identification: Identification of potential hazards which could trigger loss
causing events like fire, explosions, fatalities, work injuries, etc in process, storage
and loading/unloading areas.
2. Prevention of fire and toxicity hazards: Critical examination of all areas and
activities that involve fire and explosion hazards, and submit recommendations
wherever required, with an objective of minimizing losses.
3. Fire detection and protection arrangements: Providing comments on the adequacy
of existing fire detection and protection arrangements (portable as well as fixed) in
the plant premises and suggest improvements, wherever required.

4. Emergency preparedness: Assessment on the adequacy of available facilities like


first aid, security fire fighting, communication, etc. in view of effective handling of
the possible emergencies at the plant
5.0 AUDIT TEAM
The audit team comprises the members from EPGEC as well as plant representatives.
The details are as under:
Name of auditors

Organization &

Project

Sunil kumar yadav

Designation
PDIS student batch 2015-16

Designation
Safety officer

Mr. A.K Panday

Sr.Manger (F&S) and

Safety officer

Mr. A.K singh

Factory safety officer


Shift incharger (Ammonia)

Engineer

Signature

6.0 TEAM VISIT


A safety audit team the visit of the plant during 07-nov to 15 nov 2015. During the visit,
the whole plant was inspected and discussions were held with Engineers and Executives
of various sections besides Safety Department.
7.0 OVER VIEW OF THE SITE
The site is located at Latitude north 28.2 degree equator, Longitude east 19.2 degree
green witch, at a distance of about 28 km south-east of Bareilly, on Bareilly-Aonla
highway (SH-33, 22 KMS upto Bareilly- Bhamora-Badaun road and about 6km on
Bhamora-Aonla road). The site has a well laid out railway siding and is connected with
the rail link. IFFCO Aonla, Unit-I was commissioned in May 1988 and started
commercial production in 16th July 1988. Aonla Unit-II (expansion project) was
commissioned in 1996 and started commercial production on 25th December 1996. The
entire project site occupies an area of 1273 acres out of which about 673 acres is
occupied by the plant where industrial activity is performed and the balance is occupied
by the IFFCO residential township, Drains, open spaces, etc.

8.0 PLANT DESCRIPTION


8.1

GENERAL

Indian Farmers Fertilizer Cooperative Limited (IFFCO) Aonla operates fertilizer plant
for manufacturing Urea at P.O. IFFCO Township, Aonla, Distt. Bareilly (U.P.). It
comprises of two Ammonia Plant of 1520 MT per day and four streams of Urea plant
each of capacity 1310 MT per day and a captive power plant of 2 X 18.0 MW. Urea silo,
bagging plant and other related offsite facilities like - water treatment plant, effluent
treatment plant, inert gas plant, cooling towers, naphtha. Ammonia storage and supply of
utilities like compressed air, water etc. also exists for smooth operation of plant.
IFFCO, Aonla Unit has installed and commissioned Carbon Dioxide Recovery (CDR)
Plant for recovery of CO2 from Primary Reformer Flue Gases based on the technology
from M/s Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) Limited, Japan and Detailed Engineering
from M/s Tecnimont ICB (TICB) Private Limited, Mumbai. It reduces CO 2 emissions
(Green house gas) to atmosphere, contributes to cleaner environment, conserves carbon
intensive fossil fuels like Naphtha and thus has a great potential to be covered under
Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of UNFCCC. The trading of certified emission
reductions (CERs) through CDM generates additional revenues & increases the viability
of the CDR Project. Production of additional CO2 from CDR unit in place of costlier
Naphtha feed, shall decrease cost of production of Urea and hence shall reduce
Government of Indias annual subsidy outgo, reduce the inventory of Ammonia and it
has become a viable CDM .
8.2 MANPOWER AND SHIFT TIMING
The plant is in operation on continuous basis. The plant operates in four shifts namely A,
B, C & G shift. The timing of shifts and manpower in the plant is as under:
SN.

Shifts

Timings

General Shift

0815 hrs to 1730 hrs.

A- shift

0600 hrs to 1400 hrs

B-shift

1400 hrs to 2200 hrs

C-shift

2200 hrs to 0600 hrs

Total employees number of employees in the plant is 1016 apart from them plant also has
214 numbers of security personnel from different contrators and approximate 900
numbers of contract labour.
8.3 RAW MATERIAL, PRODUCTS AND BY-PRODUCTS
The list of raw materials and products used and handled in Fertilizer Plant is as given
below:
S N Name
A. Raw Material
1.
Natural gas
2.
Naphtha
3.
Liquid Nitrogen
4.
Chlorine
B. Products
1.
Urea (main product)
2.
Ammonia
3.
Power
4.
DM water

Requirement/ production

Inventory

3.6SM3(direct supply from GAIL)


6000 KL (2 tanks)
10000 KL (1 Tank)
600 NM3/hr at 7 kg/cm2
12 Cylinders

Continuous flow
3 nos. of storage
tanks
60 KL
12 Tonners

1310 X 4 MTPD
1520 X 2 MTPD
18 X 2 MW
140 X 6 M3/hr

10000 X 2 MT
8000 M3

8.4 MANUFACTURING PROCESS


8.4.1 PROCESS SECTIONS
Various sections and processing units are presented below. The plant layout is given at
Annexure-1.
Ammonia plant:
i)

Desulphurization.

ii)

High pressure catalytic reforming.

iii)

Water gas shift reaction.

iv)

Carbon-di-oxide absorption and stripping.

v)

Methanation.

vi)

Ammonia Synthesis

vii) Refrigeration.

Urea plant
i.

Urea synthesis and High pressure recovery

ii.

Urea Purification and low pressure recovery

iii.

Urea Concentration

iv.

Urea Prilling

v.

Waste water treatment.

8.4.2 PROCESS DESCRIPTION


IFFCO Aonla Plant consists of two 1520 MTPD (reassessed capacity) Ammonia Plants
and four streams of Urea Plants each of 1310 MTPD (reassessed capacity) capacity. The
Ammonia Plants are based on Haldor -Topsoe (Denmark) technology. But Ammonia-II
Process is slightly different from Ammonia-I. Urea Plants are based on Snamprogetti
technology and the process is same for all the four Plants.
Brief Process Description of Ammonia-I
For the production of Ammonia, hydrogen and nitrogen are required in the ratio 3:1. For
the gas based fertilizer plant the source of hydrogen is hydrocarbons in the form of
natural gas and water. The source of nitrogen is atmospheric air. Natural gas is supplied
by Gas Authority of India through under ground pipelines from Bombay High/South
Bassein and is used as feedstock. Natural gas is used as fuel also after letting down to
lower pressure.
The manufacture of Ammonia involves following operations/process.
i.

Desulphurization.

ii.

High pressure catalytic reforming.

iii.

Water gas shift reaction.

iv.

Carbon-di-oxide absorption and stripping.

v.

Methanation.

vi.

Ammonia Synthesis

vii.

Refrigeration.

Natural gas is supplied to the plant at a pressure of 40 kg/cm 2g from GAIL station inside
plant battery limit. The gas contains sulphur compounds in small quantities, which are
removed by passing the gas through desulphrization unit.
The gas is mixed with recycle hydrogen from 1st stage discharge of syn. Gas compressor
and preheated to 3900 C. Heated gas mixture is then passed over a Nickel Molybedenum
catalyst and the sulphur gets hydrogenated. Hydrogen sulphide formed is absorbed in a
zinc oxide bed and sulphur free gas is then sent to reforming section. In high-pressure
reforming section, gas mixture from desulphrisation section is mixed with superheated
medium pressure steam and passed through nickel catalyst packed in tubes. Primary
reformer is a balance draft furnace. Here the reforming reaction takes place, which is
endothermic. Heat is supplied by side-fired burners.

Primary reformer exit gas is a

mixture of hydrogen, carbon-di-oxide, carbon monoxide, methane, and steam at a


temperature of 8000 C. The gas is then sent to secondary reformer and part of this mixture
is burnt with measured quantity of air supplied by air compressor. The gas product at
elevated temperature is passed through nickel catalyst and the reforming reaction is
completed.

As the secondary reformer exit temperature is high, (990 0 C) heat is

recovered by waste heat boiler, producing steam and gas is cooled to 3600 C.
Shift conversion takes place in two temperature level high temperature shift reaction &
low temperature shift reaction. At the high temperature level the shift reaction rate
increases where as at lower temperature, conversion is more. The gas at 360 0 C passes
through high temperature shift converter containing iron-based catalyst. The exit gas is
cooled down by waste heat boiler, trim heater and BFW pre heater to a temperature of
2000 C. It passes through Low temperature Shift Converter containing zinc copper
catalyst. In both these reactors carbon monoxide is converted to carbon dioxide and
hydrogen. The exit gas from low temperature shift converter contains mainly Hydrogen,
Nitrogen, Carbon-Di-Oxide and small quantities of Methane, Carbon Monoxide and
Argon.
Shift converter exit gas is sent to carbon di oxide absorber where the gas is scrubbed
with hot aqueous GV solution containing 27% by wt potassium carbonate, 1% diethanol

amine, 1.2% glycine and 0.4% vanadium pentaoxide for absorbing carbon dioxide. After
absorbing carbon-di-oxide the GV solution is stripped at low pressure in the GV
regenerator. Here carbon-di-oxide is liberated which is then cooled and sent to urea
plant. Stripped solution is circulated back for absorbing carbon di oxide again.
The gas leaving the absorber contains small amount of carbon monoxide and carbon
dioxide. These oxides are poisonous to synthesis catalyst. Hence these oxides are
converted into methane in methanator to reduce them to very low levels. In metahnator
the oxides of carbon reacts with hydrogen at 320-340 0 C over nickel catalyst to form
methane. Methane is inert to the synthesis catalyst. After methanation gas is cooled
down to 380 C and sent to synthesis compressor.

Purified synthesis gas is compressed in three stages of syn. gas compressor. The recycle
gas for hydrogenation is taken from first stage discharge. Syn. gas is cooled after every
stage and condensate is separated out. Final discharge pressure of syn.gas compressor is
220 kg/cm2g compressed gas is cooled in water cooler, in make up gas chiller and is then
mixed with cooled converter outlet gas. The mixture of make up gas and recycle gas is
finally cooled to 120 C in ammonia chillers.

Ammonia gets condensed and is separated in Ammonia separator. The liquid thus
separated is the product ammonia. Uncondensed gases that come out of the separator
(also known as recycle gas) is then warmed in heat exchanger, compressed in recycle
stage of the syn.gas compressor and sent to ammonia converter containing iron catalyst
after getting heated by converter outlet gases. About 30% conversion takes place in the
converter. The Ammonia converter is Haldor Topsoe radial flow converter.

Product Ammonia is let down from the high-pressure separator to the let down vessel.
Liquid Ammonia from the let down vessel is sent to Urea Plant. Ammonia chillers
operate at different pressure levels. Pressure in each chiller is maintained by booster and
refrigeration compressors in series. The discharge of the refrigeration compressor is
cooled in cooling water-cooled condenser and collected in Ammonia accumulator. From
here it is distributed to various chillers. Whenever Urea Plant is shutdown product

Ammonia is taken to flash drum and the Ammonia is pumped to atmospheric pressure
tank at 330 C. Although the percentage of methane and argon in the make up gas is
small, during recirculation, the percentage goes up and to keep the inert level below a
particular value in the synthesis loop, part of the gas is purged from the converter exit
gases. It is cooled down in chillers and Ammonia is separated out and then sent to a
water wash unit. In this unit final trace of Ammonia is removed from the purge gas by
washing it with water before it is mixed with the fuel gas.

Boiler Feed Water, Steam and Condensate System


Demineralised water supplied from water treatment plant is stored in DM water tank
located in Ammonia Plant. DM water is pumped from DM water tank by pumps to top
of the deaerator. Here DM water is stripped by direct contact with low-pressure steam to
remove the dissolved oxygen in DM water since oxygen presence will cause corrosion.
Hydrazine is injected at the bottom of deaerator to remove the final traces of dissolved
oxygen. Ammonia is injected at the suction line of the BFW pumps to maintain pH of
the boiler feed water. Boiler feed water is pumped to steam drum. En-route to steam
drum feed water gets preheated after passing through different BFW preheaters. BFW
preheaters are after HT shift converter, after LT shift converter and after synthesis
converter. Preheated water goes to waste heat boiler in synthesis loop and to steam drum
which supplies water to waste heat boilers (RG Boiler).
Steam drum provides water for high-pressure waste heat boilers. Small quantity of trisodium phosphate solution is injected continuously to precipitate the hardness and silica
in the steam drum water and to keep it suspended in water. The boiler water flows from
steam drum to HP waste heat boilers after secondary reformer and HP waste heat boiler
after HT shift converter and back by natural circulation (thermosyphonic). Steam gets
separated in steam drum. A blow down from steam drum ensures proper quality of steam
drum water. Steam generated in synthesis loop waste heat boiler joins the steam outlet of
steam drum. There are three pressure levels of steam in Ammonia plant viz. High
pressure (105 kg/cm2g), Medium pressure (37 kg/cm2g) and low pressure (3.5 kg/cm2g).
High-pressure steam is produced in waste heat boilers. Steam produced from the steam
drum and synthesis converter outlet waste heat boiler is superheated in two superheater

coils situated in convection section of the Primary Reformer and in a NG fired steam
superheater (Auxiliary superheater).
Most of the HP steam goes directly to synthesis gas compressor back pressure turbine
(extraction cum condensing type). When the back end of Ammonia Plant is not running
a let down station lets down the full quantity of high-pressure steam to MP steam header
and maintains 37-kg/cm2g pressures in the header. Out of three let down stations
commonly known as PRDS (pressure reducing and De superheating station) two are
hydraulically operated & are of 300 tones capacity.
Brief Process Description of Ammonia-II
Natural gas is supplied to the plant at a pressure of 40 kg/cm 2g. The gas contains sulphur
compounds in small quantities, which are removed by passing the gas through
desulpharization unit. The gas is mixed with recycle hydrogen and preheated to 390 0 C.
Heated gas mixture is then passed over a Nickel Molybdenum catalyst and the sulphur gets
hydrogenated. Hydrogen sulphide formed is absorbed in a zinc oxide bed and sulphur free
gas is then sent to reforming section. In case of short supply of Natural gas the hydro carbon
feed can be supplemented by Naphtha after heating it to 380 0 C in Naphtha preheater and
Naphtha superheater and then passing this through Naphtha desulpheriser containing cobalt
molybedenum catalyst to convert sulphur to hydrogen sulphide. This hydrogenated Naphtha
is mixed with the hydrogenated Natural gas feed before entering the zinc absorber. Naphtha
is supplied to the plant through rail tankers and stored in Naphtha tanks.
In reforming section, gas mixture from desulpherisation section is mixed with superheated
medium pressure steam and passed through nickel catalyst packed in tubes in Primary
reformer. Here the reforming reaction takes place, which is endothermic. Heat is supplied by
side-fired burners.

Primary reformer exit gas is a mixture of hydrogen, carbon-di-oxide,

carbon monoxide, methane, and steam at a temperature of 800 0 C. The gas is then sent to
secondary reformer and part of this mixture is burnt with measured quantity of air supplied
by air compressor. The gas product at elevated temperature is passed through nickel catalyst
and the reforming reaction is completed. As the secondary reformer exit temperature is high,
(9900 C) heat is recovered in RG waste heat boiler, producing steam and then in process gas
superheater where steam is superheated and gas gets cooled to 3500 C.

The gas at 3500 C passes through high temperature shift converter containing copper
promoted iron based catalyst. The exit gas is cooled down by shift waste heat boiler, trim
heater and BFW pre heater to a temperature of 200 0 C. It passes through Low temperature
Shift Converter containing zinc copper catalyst. In both these reactors carbon monoxide is
converted to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The exit gas from low temperature shift converter
contains mainly hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon di oxide and small quantities of methane, carbon
monoxide and argon.
Shift converter exit gas is sent to carbon di oxide absorber where the gas is scrubbed with
hot aqueous GV solution containing 27% by wt potassium carbonate, 1% diethanol amine,
1.2 % glycine and 0.4% vanadium pentaoxide for absorbing carbon dioxide. After absorbing
carbon-di-oxide the GV solution is stripped at low pressure in two GV regenerators. Here
carbon-di-oxide is liberated which is then cooled and sent to urea plant. Stripped solution is
circulated back for absorbing carbon di oxide again.
The gas leaving the absorber contains small amount of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide.
These Oxides are poisonous to synthesis catalyst. Hence these oxides are converted into
methane in methanator to reduce them to very low levels. In metahnator the oxides of
carbon react with hydrogen at 320-3400 C over nickel catalyst to form methane. Methane is
inert to the synthesis catalyst. After methanation, gas is cooled down to 38 0 C and sent to
synthesis gas compressor.
Purified synthesis gas is compressed in three stages of syn. gas compressor. The recycle gas
for hydrogenation is taken from first stage discharge. Synthesis gas is cooled after every
stage and condensate is separated out. Final discharge pressure of synthesis gas compressor
is 220 kg/cm2g. Compressed gas is cooled in water cooler, in make up gas chiller and is then
mixed with cooled converter outlet gas. The mixture of make up gas and recycle gas is
finally cooled to 120 C in Ammonia chillers.
Ammonia gets condensed and is separated in H.P. Ammonia separator. The liquid thus
separated is the product Ammonia. Uncondensed gas that comes out of the separator also
known as recycle gas, is then warmed in heat exchangers, compressed in recycle stage of the
syn.gas compressor and sent to Ammonia converter containing promoted iron catalyst after
getting heated by converter outlet gases. About 30% conversion takes place in the converter.

Product Ammonia is let down from the ammonia separator to the let down vessel, from
where liquid Ammonia is sent to Urea Plant. Ammonia Chillers in synthesis loop operate at
different pressure levels. Pressure in each chiller is maintained by refrigeration compressor.
The discharge of the refrigeration is cooled in water-cooled ammonia condensers and
collected in Ammonia accumulator.

From here it is distributed to various chillers.

Whenever Urea Plant is shutdown product Ammonia is taken to flash vessel and the
Ammonia is pumped to atmospheric pressure tank at 33 0 C. Although the percentage of
methane and argon in the make up gas is small, during re-circulation, the percentage goes up
and for maintaining the inert level below a particular value in the synthesis loop, part of the
gas is purged from the converter exit gases. The purge gas is cooled down in the chiller
partly Ammonia is separated out and then purge gas is sent to purge gas recovery unit in
Aonla-I. The tail gas after separation of Ammonia and hydrogen is sent back to Ammonia
Expansion Plant to be used as fuel gas in Primary Reformer.
Boiler Feed Water, Steam and Condensate System
Demineralised water supplied from water treatment plant in the steam condensate is stored in
a DM water tank located in Ammonia Plant. DM water is pumped from DM water tank by
pumps to top of the deaerator. Boiler feed water is pumped to RG waste heat Boiler, Loop
waste heat Boiler and the heat recovery unit at gas turbine exhaust. En-route to these
consumers, feed water gets preheated after passing through different BFW preheaters. BFW
preheaters are located after HT shift converter, LT shift converter and Loop waste heat Boiler
in synthesis loop. Preheated water goes to Loop waste heat boiler and to steam drum which
supplies water to waste heat boilers in the front end.
The boiler water flows from steam drum to H.P. waste heat boilers after secondary reformer
and HP waste heat boiler after HT shift converter and back by natural circulation. Steam
gets separated in steam drum. Steam generated in loop waste heat boiler joins the steam
outlet of steam drum. There are three pressure levels of steam in Ammonia plant viz. High
pressure (105 kg/cm2g), Medium pressure (37 kg/cm2g) and low pressure (3.5 kg/cm2g).
High pressure steam is produced in waste heat boilers in the front end and synthesis loop and
is super heated first in H.P. superheater from 320 0 C to 3950 C and then in two superheater

coils situated in convection section of the Primary Reformer to 515 0 C. About 120 t/hr of HP
superheated steam at 5150 C is produced in Heat Recovery Unit of Gas Turbine.
The HP steam produced in HRU of gas turbine is sent to Urea Plant for CO 2 compressor
turbine drive. Most of the HP steam produced in Ammonia Plant goes directly to synthesis
gas compressor turbine. When the back end of Ammonia Plant is not running a let down
station lets down the full quantity of high-pressure steam to MP steam header and maintains
37-kg/cm2g pressures in the header. MP steam header pressure is controlled by the control
valve, which vents excess steam to atmosphere.
Brief process description of Urea Plants
Aonla unit is having two Urea plants. Each Urea Plant consists of two streams of 1100
MT/day each with a single urea prilling tower of 2200 MT/day capacity. The urea
technology is from Snamprogetti, Italy. The manufacture of Urea involves following
operations/process.
-

Urea synthesis and High pressure recovery

Urea Purification and low pressure recovery

Urea Concentration

Urea Prilling

Waste water treatment.

The reaction of NH3 and CO2 to produce Urea takes place in 2 stages at elevated pressure
and temperature.
(1) 2NH3 + CO2

NH2COONH4 + 38.1 Kcal/gm-mol

(2) NH2 COONH4

NH2CONH2 + H2O 7.1 Kcal/gm-mol

Urea Synthesis and High pressure (H.P.) Recovery


Urea is produced by synthesis from liquid Ammonia and gaseous carbon-di-oxide, both
being supplied by Ammonia Plant.

The liquid Ammonia is pumped at high pressure (240 kg/cm 2) through an ejector which
drives the carbamate from carbamate Separator into the reactor. Carbon-di-oxide, mixed
with a small measured quantity of air (for passivation) is compressed in a four stage
carbon-di-oxide compressor and is also fed to the reactor (at 160 kg/cm 2). The liquid
Ammonia and Carbon-di-oxide react together here. A high mole ratio of 3.6:1 of NH 3 &
CO2 is maintained. The product formed is carbamate which dehydrates, in the Reactor
itself, to form Urea and water. The oxygen in the air forms a passive oxide layer on the
insides of vessels surfaces to prevent corrosion by carbamate and Urea.
The reaction products from the Reactor containing 33.8% Urea overflow the HP stripper
where the unconverted carbamate is decomposed back into Ammonia and carbon-dioxide. Heat of decomposition is supplied by MS steam, admitted in Stripper shell side
(at 24 kg/cm2). The condensate obtained is sent to MP Decomposer shell side. Urea
solution thus obtained flows out to the MP section through a level control valve
(containing 45.9% urea).
The vapours produced on decomposition in HP stripper enter the HP carbamate
condenser through a mixer, along with weak carbamate solution from MP section. Here
they condense to form carbamate again and flow to the HP Carbamate Separator. During
this condensation, LP steam is generated in the HP carbamate condenser shell side.
Vapours mostly inerts, from carbamate separator are sent to the bottom of MP
decomposer to passivate the MP section. The pressure of HP section is 145 kg/cm2.
Urea-Purification and low pressure recovery
Medium Pressure section
Urea solution from the bottom of the HP stripper now enters the MP decomposer after
pressure reduction through a level control valve (pressure of MP section-18 kg/cm 2).
During expansion and further heating in decomposer much of the remaining carbamate
flashes forming NH3 and CO2 vapours, thereby concentrating urea in the solution. This
urea solution is further let down in pressure by a level control valve and enters the LP
section (at 3.5 kg/cm2).

The vapours from the MP decomposer are condensed in an MP condenser using


Ammonium carbamate solution from the LP section, with cooling water on the tube side.
The carbamate solution overflows from the MP condenser into an MP absorber where the
excess Ammonia, inerts and little CO2 separate to form the vapours. CO 2 in vapours are
removed in the top section of the absorber with reflux Ammonia. Ammonia with inert
gases leaving the top of MP absorber is mostly condensed in an Ammonia Condenser,
with cooling water on tube side. From Ammonia condenser both liquid and gas phases
are sent to Ammonia Receiver along with incoming liquid Ammonia. The inert gases,
saturated with Ammonia, leaving the receiver enter the Ammonia Recovery Tower. Here
ammonia is further condensed by direct contact with cold Ammonia from the battery
limits and flow down to the Ammonia Receiver.
The inerts with residual Ammonia from the tower are sent to an MP ammonia absorber
where the later gets absorbed in cooled condensate and recycled to MP absorber as
Ammonia water. The inerts are vented to atmosphere through a pressure control valve.
Low-pressure section (at 3.5 kg/cm2)
The urea solution from MP decomposer bottom enters the LP decomposer after
expansion through a level control valve (63.28% Urea). As a result of expansion, most of
the remaining carbamate undergoes decomposition.

Thus urea solution is further

concentrated and is then sent to the vacuum section through a level control valve.
The vapours enter the LP condenser shell and get absorbed in an aqueous carbamate
solution from wastewater section. LP condenser has cooling water in tube side. The
liquid thus formed goes to the carbonate solution tank from where it is recycled back to
MP condenser.
The inert gases from the Tank containing Ammonia is absorbed in cooled condensate in
LP Ammonia Absorber, washed in inert washing Tower and sent to vent stack. The
liquid flows down to the tank.

Urea concentration at vacuum of 0.3 ata and 0.03 ata

The liquid from the bottom of LP decomposer is further concentrated in two Vacuum
concentrators in series. Here with the help of low-pressure steam, urea solution is
concentrated from 72% to 99.8 by wt. The vacuum is created and maintained by a set of
steam ejectors and condensers.
Urea melt thus obtained is then pumped to the prilling section. The vapours from both
the concentrators are condensed in the cooling water condensers and sent to the
wastewater tank.
Urea Prilling
The molten urea thus obtained from the 2nd vacuum concentrators is pumped to the top of
a Common Prill Tower, into a Prill Bucket. The Urea comes out of the holes in the
rotating Prill Bucket and fall down the Prill Tower. Air, by natural draught, flows
upwards counter current to the Urea droplets & cools and solidifies the prills. The solid
prills thus formed fall to the bottom and sent on to a Belt Conveyor by means of rotating
scrapper. They are then transported to Bagging Plant.
Waste Water Treatment
The vapours containing water and a little NH3 and CO2 from process and condensate of
ejectors in the concentration section are condensed and collected in a wastewater tank.
From here it is pumped to a Buffer Waste Water Tank and then to a Distillation Tower.
After first stripping of Ammonia in the upper part, the solution contaminated with urea is
sent to Hydrolyser (at 35 kg/cm2). Here urea is decomposed by means of saturated high
pressure steam and the vapours are sent to the distillation Tower over head condenser.
The solution from the Hydrolyser goes back to the distillation Tower for further removal
of Ammonia. Vapours from the top of the Tower go to the overhead condenser and are
condensed along with vapours from the Hydrolyser. One part of this solution is recycled
back to the distillation tower top as reflux and the remaining portion to the LP condenser
of both units.
The solution from the bottom of the Distillation Tower called the effluent or purified
wastewater is sent to the cooling tower as make-up (containing 5 ppm Urea, 30 ppm
Ammonia).
9.0 ELEMENTS OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH (OS&H)
SYSTEM COVERED IN THE AUDIT

AREAS COVERED
The Safety Audit of Indian Farmers Fertilizer Cooperative Limited (IFFCO), Aonla Unit
as mentioned earlier is being carried out as per the guide notes mentioned in IS-144891998. The areas of Occupation Safety and Health System covered in this audit are as
follows:
1. Occupational Health and Safety Policy
2. OS&H Organizational set up
3. Safety related education and training
4. Employees participation in OS&H Management
5. Motivational and promotional measures for OS & H
6. Safety manual and rules
7. Compliance of the statutory requirements
8. New equipment review/inspection
9. Accident reporting, analysis, investigation and implementation of recommendations
10. Risk assessment including hazard identification
11. Safety inspections
12. Health and safety improvement plan / target
13. First aid facilities
14. Personal protective equipment
15. Good house keeping
16. Machine and general area guarding
17. Materials handling equipment
18. Electrical and personal safeguarding
19. Ventilation, illumination and noise
20. Work environment monitoring system
21. Prevention of occupational diseases including periodic medical examination
22. Safe operating procedure/system
23. Work permit system
24. Fire prevention, protection and fighting system
25. Emergency preparedness plans
26. Process/plant modification procedure
27. Transportation of hazardous substances
28. Hazardous waste treatment and disposal
29. Safety in storage and warehousing
30. Contractor safety system
31. Safety for customers.
10. OBSERVATIONS
10.1 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY POLICY

As per the legal requirement of section 7-A (3) and 41-B (2) of Factories Act 1948
(as amended to date). Plant has a written Safety, Health and environment policy,
which is signed by Senior General Manager, the official Occupier of the plant. The
copy of the policy enclosed as Annexure-2 for ready reference.

Plant also has a Corporate Safety, Health and environment Policy, which is prepared
in 1999 and signed by Managing Director. The copy of the corporate policy enclosed
as Annexure-3 for ready reference.

The policy has been prepared as per the guidelines of the statuary requirement.

At the inception of the plant policy was declared and adopted.

The policy was time to time updated and scrutinized by U.P. Factory Inspectorate and
safety consultants, the last updation made in year 2003.

The content of the declared policy includes the commitment of top management to
health, safety and environment and compliance with the entire relevant statuary
requirement.

Arrangement for making the policy effective. Policy is documented in regional


language (Hindi) and circulated, displayed at various conspicuous places to ensure
that policy is well drawn and known to all employees. The safety performances are
also highlighted in annual report.

10.2 SAFETY AND HEALTH ORGANIZATION


10.2.1 Safety Department:

IFFCO has a well-defined Fire & Safety Department headed by Joint General
Manager (Env., Fire & Safety)/Chief Manager (F&S). Plant also has well-qualified
Safety Officer, as per the requirement under U. P. Factories (Safety Officers) Rule1984. The details of safety officer in the plant is as follows:

Name
Designation
Qualification
Experience

:
:
:
:

Shri. A. K. Pandey
Dy. Manager (F&S)/ designated factory Safety officer.
M.Sc., Post Diploma in Industrial Safety from RLI
21 years

The strength of safety & fire department is 27 in number, which includes officers and
staff.

The Head of Safety Department reports to Chief Executive of the plant through
General Manager (Tech).

Safety officer retained to latest technique of total safety management through


attending national and international seminars, conferences and training programs,
which is time to time organized by the NSC, RLI, CLI, LPA and Factory Directorate
at least once in a year.

Safety officer has exclusively responsibility for safety & fire service. No other
responsibility has been given to safety officer, which are inconsistent with or
detrimental to the performance of his duties.

At the time of any emergency, safety officer reports to the top management, who
have the power of shut down the plant. Safety officer may stop the work in any
emergency condition until hazards is rectified but before shutting down the plant he
must inform/discuss with concerned top management/production manager/in-charge
because the process in the plant are mostly continuous and thus can not be abruptly
stopped.

10.2.2 Safety Committee


The plant has 13 members Central Safety Committee 06 members each from workers
and management staff. IFFCO, Aonla also has 10 members Plant Level Safety
Committees 05 members each from works & management staff. The organization
structure of the Central Safety Committee is as follows:
Chairman
Secretary
Members

: Shri. Rajiv Srivastava JGM (Production)


: Shri. A.K. Pandey Dy.Mgr. (Amm)
: Shri. S.K. Gupta DGM (Urea)
Shri. Atul Garg CM (P/P)
Shri. Gridhar Mishra CM (Mech.)
Shri. S.K. Singh SM (Instt.)
Shri. Danveer Singh Dy. Mgr. (Pers.)
Shri. S. Badola Chief Tech. (Ele.)
Shri. Tejveer Singh Chief Tech. (Mech.)
Shri. Rajneesh Bhargava Sr. Tech. (Civil)

Shri. K.M. Singh Optr. (Amm)


Shri. Rajiv Chaudhary Optr. (Urea)
Shri. D.P. Singh Optr. (PH)s

The tenure of safety committee is one years.

The management representatives of safety committee are selected by nominations


and worker representative are elected.

The Plant Level Safety Committees as well as Central Safety Committee meeting is
held once in every three months.

At meeting overall assessment is being done and various problems as per the
requirement are discussed in the meeting such as prevailing unsafe condition and
practices, incidents, financial sanctions, review of the points of the last meeting and
any points with the permission of the chairman.

The recommendations of the Safety Committee meeting are implemented after


processing for technical review and financial approval through the concerned
department within the specific time period.

Before the next meeting, safety officer and members of safety committee follow up
the implementation. In next meeting progress of implementation is reviewed.

The minutes of the safety committee meetings are circulated among the members
both management representatives and workers representatives as well as and top
management.

The minutes of the meeting sent to chief executives of the plant and Trade Union
through the workers representatives.

Both management and union actively participate in HSE activities, and the
recommendations of the safety committees well accepted.

The safety committee members are apprised of the latest development through
discussion in safety committee meeting and through attending in-house training
program arranged by fire & safety department as well as out side training programs.
Top management is kept updated with literature posed by safety department on LAN.

10.2.3 Safety Budget

Plant has approximate 30 lakhs annual safety budget, which is .05 % of the total turn
over of the plant.

80% of approved budget has been utilized till date in maintenance contracts, fire &
safety appliances, PPE, consumables, safety day celebration, safety audits,
implementation of safety committee recommendations.

Safety budget not specially reflected in the annual report of the company. It is
included in the general expenditure.

10.3 SAFETY RELATED EDUCATION AND TRAINING

There is a separate training department.

The new recruitment attains the induction training (comprising of plant information
and safety aspects).

The duration of induction training is 2 weeks including 2 lectures on safety and 4


weeks orientation programme for engineer trainees.

The assessment of the trainee worker as well as trainers is done on a pre-designed


format such as feed back form, oral and written tests etc.

The facilities such as audio visual aids, overhead projector, white board, conference
hall, classroom, are available for conducting training.

The training programmes cover general safety topics and aspects related to chemicals
and hazards, specific to the plants.

The training programs are imparted both in English as well as in Hindi. Safety & Fire
department personnel are sent to NSC (Mumbai), RLI (Kanpur) and NFSC (Nagpur).

Frequency of training is decided by the training need of the employee. There is a


formal procedure to identify need of training through departmental heads.

There is no formal training of employees by their supervisors. However, on-the-job


training is given.

The senior management personnel get safety training by attending training program,
seminars, conferences etc.

The employees trained in safety and health in the last five years are as under:
2002 - 2003

478

2003 - 2004

830

2004 - 2005

1698

2005 - 2006

1611

2006 - 2007

1813

2007 2008

2200

In 2007 2008, 1100 man-days were used for training all employees.

Employees performance assessment includes safety consciousness and feedback


from the plant/ section.

Training record such as training need identification, analysis of feed back of training,
pre and post program skill evaluation, internal & external training is maintained.

10.4 EMPLOYEES PARTICIPATION IN OS&H MANAGEMENT

The management has involved the participation of employees in Plant Safety


Committee as well as Central Safety Committee.

10.5 MOTIVATIONAL AND PROMOTIONAL MEASURES FOR OS&H

There is no suggestion scheme at present. It is proposed to be implemented.

The company actively participates in national award schemes and got the prizes.
These are as under:

SN
1.

Award Name
NSCI -2006 SAFETY AWARD-

Foundation Name
National Safety Council of India,

2.

Prashansha Patra
ICQESMS-2007, Excellence Award

C.B.D Belapur, Navi Mumbai.


Central Board of Worker Education

3.

Excellence in Energy Conservation

& Jadhavpur University


Confederation of Indian Industries

4.
5.

Management-2006
Second Prize for the Energy onservation
NSCI -2004 SAFETY AWARD-

Ministry of Power, Govt. of India


National Safety Council of India,

6.

Prashansha Patra
ICQESMS-2005

C.B.D Belapur, Navi Mumbai.


Central Board of Worker Education

7.

Excellence Award
NSA-2004 Runner Up Award for

& Jadhavpur University.


Ministry of Labour & Employment.

8.

longest Accident Free year-2003


Govt. of India
Golden Peacock Special Commendation World Environment Foundation

9.

of Environment Management Award-2005


.Certificate of Participation Corporate

TERI

Environmental Awards-2002/03

Awards

Corporate

Environmental

10.

NSCI Awards-2002 Prasansha Patra

National Safety Council of India

The safety contest such as Slogan and Cartoons Competition, Safety Quiz
Competition, Safest Shop Competition are organized in the plant for the motivations
of the employees.

The plant has two in house the publications viz. IFFCO magazine and IFFCO News
contain health & safety topics.

The literature on safety is available in library for the employees.

The information regarding safety and health is publicized through bulletin boards,
posters, wall writing etc. On 4th to 12th March-2015 plant celebrated National Safety
week.

10.6 SAFETY MANUALS AND RULES

IFFCO has detailed safety manual, which is updated time to time.

10.7 COMPLIANCE WITH STATUTORY REQUIREMENT


The management was found committed to comply with all statutory requirements as per
the respective Acts and Rules made there under of the concerned authorities. A brief
assessment report of the same is as under:
SN

Details of inspections

01

Statutory

requirements

Status in Plant
of -

Controller of Explosives

License to store compressed gas in cylinders


(Chlorine): valid up t0 30/09/16.
License to store compressed gas in cylinders
(Oxygen): valid up t0 30/09/18.
License to import and store petroleum in
installation (Class A): valid up to 31/12/2016
License to import and store petroleum in
installation (Class A & C): valid up to
31/12/2016
License to import and store petroleum in
installation (Class B & C): valid up to
31/12/2016
License to import and store petroleum in
installation (Class B): valid up to 31/12/2016.

02

Statutory

requirements

of -

U.P. Pollution Control Board.

Air consent: valid up to 31/12/16


Water consent: valid up to 31/12/18
Hazard authorization valid up to 20/11/2018
Authorization under Bio-Medical Waste valid up
to 31/12/2017.

03

Statutory requirements of Factory license: valid up to 31/12/18


U. P. Factories Rule- 1950
10.8 NEW EQUIPMENTS REVIEW/INSPECTION

The management of IFFCO has a tendency of reviewing and inspecting the efficacy
of all new equipment and ensures all safety requirements for any change in the
process, equipment or facility.

All the engineering work requisition (EWR) is sent to Technical services department
for detailed analysis. After obtaining the comments from all concerned departments,
the modification is processed for approval by the competent authority.

All major scheme involving process changes are carried out in consultation with the
process licensor/equipment manufacturer.

Drawings are available in the plant for all modifications and new schemes and
updating of P & I diagrams to incorporate the modification is completed.

10.9 ACCIDENT

REPORTING,

ANALYSIS,

INVESTIGATION

AND

IMPLEMENTATION OF RECOMMENDATIONS

All accidents are generally classified. These accidents are to be classified under the
categories agency, plant/ section, machinery, material, part of body, etc. All the
accidents resulting in either minor or major injuries which have the potential of
causing human injury and/or property damage are reported and investigated as per
the specified procedures framed based on U.P. Factories Act and Rules & record is
maintained.

The investigation report of accident retained at more than ten years. The safety
officer maintains accident statistics and data on computer and as well as in hard copy.

The near miss accidents are also investigated promptly and recommendations are
given to concerned department for implementation to prevent recurrence of such
incidents/accidents.

Last five years accident data is available in the plant. Year wise details is as under:
Year

Fatal
Injury

Non-Fatal
Injury

2003-04

Nil

Nil

2004-05

Nil

02

2005-06

Nil

Nil

2006-07

Nil

Nil

2007-08

Nil

Nil

Nature of Injury

Man-day Lost

Nil

Cold burn

20

Nil
Nil

Hot Burns

113

Remedial measures, if needed are taken to prevent similar accidents/incidents in


future. Such recommendations are considered seriously and implemented
expeditiously. These are monitored by safety department and implementations are
also discussed in the Safety Committee meetings and compliance is ensured.

10.10 RISK ASSESSMENT INCLUDING HAZARD IDENTIFICATION AND


CONTROL

The plant has identified the hazards, which may arise in the factory, on the basis of
the chemicals being handled and any deviation in operational conditions.

The identified hazards in the plant are Noise, heat, toxic release, fire & explosion.
Following steps have been taken to prevent these hazards:
-

In- built safety systems incorporated in Plant Design.

International and Indian codes/ standards

For Engineering and construction.

Proven technology adopted for process plants

Advanced instrumentation with alarms, trips & Interlocks

Gas monitors with alarms

Periodic inspection & testing

The quantitative risk assessment, vulnerable analysis of the plant is done, based on
the on-site and off-site losses.

Continuous monitoring will be done for gas leak detectors for ammonia
and chlorine. LEL indicators are also installed for hydrogen and other flammable
gases.

Ambient air monitoring stations with high volume samplers are installed
in four locations around the plants.

Internal safety inspections are conducted periodically. Safety audits by


external agency are conducted every year. Topsoe conducted HAZOP study for
Ammonia-II plant in 1997.

The plant runs continuously round the clock in three shifts. Therefore, most of the
areas normally remain occupied and none of the accidents is likely to remain
unnoticed for a long duration.

10.11 SAFETY INSPECTIONS AND MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE

Following routine safety inspections is carried out by the plant:

Safety personnel (daily)


Plant personnel (daily)
Plant safety committee (quarterly)
Central safety committee (as required)
Housekeeping committee (every 3 months).
Hazardous Installation Inspection Committee (Annually)
In addition to routine inspection, plant equipment and piping are inspected by
Inspection department during annual shutdown (e.g. furnace tubes, pressure vessels,
heat exchangers). Critical equipment are also monitored by NDT during operation.

The safety inspection recommendations are submitted to concerned Department Head


who takes necessary action for implementation of the same as well as to top plant
management viz. JGMs, GM and S.GM.

IFFCO has a preventive maintenance schedule of checking every equipment.

The pressure vessels are provided with pressure gauge and pressure rupture and
pressure safety valves, which keep the pressure below the maximum working
pressure.

All the Factory Rules are followed in operation and maintenance of pressure vessels.

The pressure vessels are subjected to hydraulic and ultrasonic testing by competent
person and record is maintained.

10.12 HEALTH AND SAFETY IMPROVEMENT PLAN

IFFCO has the medical and health center in the plant, which conforms the provision
of Factory Rules. Apart from them plant also has own hospital in our town ship,
which is with in 1 km from the plant.

The doctor and attendant are available round the clock in the center/hospital. The
medical center/hospital is equipped with various facilities for treatment of plant
personnel in case of emergency arising in the plant. These facilities are described
below:
i. Ambulance: There are four ambulance van, which remains available in the
hospital to transfer the injured/affected persons.
ii. Emergency medicines: Various emergency medicines/oxygen facilities/life
saving drugs required for the treatment of the persons affected by the exposure to
hazardous chemicals being used in the plant are kept readily available in the
medical center/hospital.All necessary life saving medicines are maintained in
sufficient quantities.
iii. Stretchers: There are 8 Stretchers. Plant medical center/hospital is provided with
stretchers.
iv. Suction apparatus: There are 6 (six) Nos. Suction apparatus.
v. Bandages/Dressing Material: These are found in sufficient quantities.
vi. Decontamination Facilities: Water (Eye,face & bath) showers and istalled at
crucial location in all the plants, where hazardous chemicals are handled.
vii. Strength and status of medical staff:

1. Permanent Doctors

-4

2. Visiting Doctors

- 3+2*

3. Chief Female Nurses

-5

4. Chief Male Nurses

-3

5. Chief Pharmacist

-2

6. Chief Lab. Technician

-1

7. Record Keeper
-4
Plant has Liaison with 20 hospitals in Bareilly for specialist medical treatment.

10.13 FIRST AID FACILITIES

The first-aid boxes available in each section of the plant, which are periodically
checked by the medical department and record is maintained.
At present, about 20% of the employees in each section are trained in first aid.

10.14 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENTS

The PPEs available and used in the plant is as under:


1. Breathing Apparatus:
45 minutes Self Contained Breathing Apparatus: 24 nos.
10 minutes Self Contained Breathing Apparatus: 20 nos.
3 hours duration air trolley
: 01 set
2. Suits:
- Gas Tight Suits
: 03 nos.
- Chemical splash Suits
: 30 nos.
- Aluminised Suits
: 04 nos.

Apart from them plant also has following PPEs:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

Safety Helmet
Chemical Goggles
Dust Goggles
Ear Muff
Ear Plugs
Dust Masks
Leather Apron
PVC Apron
PVC Suit
Asbestos Suit
Aluminized Suit
Chemical Gas Tight Suit
Leather Hand Gloves
Asbestos Hand Gloves
Rubber Hand Gloves
Cotton Hand Gloves
Blue Overall (Dangree)
Ammonia Gas Mask
Spare Canister for Ammonia Gas
Chlorine Gas Mask
Spare Canister for Chlorine Gas
Carbon Monoxide Gas Mask
Spare Canister for CO2 Gas
Leslico Air Lines Mask
Spare Mask Assembly for Air Line Set

26.
27.

31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.

B.A.Set (Dragger Make)


Spare Cylinder for Dragger Make
B.A.Set
Safety Belt
Explosimeter - Digital (Microguard
-MSA Make)
Combustible Gas and Oxygen Alarm Model 261 (MSA make)
MSA Pump
Dragger Pump
Dragger Tubes (CO2)
Blowman Apparatus
Chlorine Handling Kit
Wind Sack
Spare Cloth for Wind Sack
Eye Wash Shower
Spares for Eye Wash Shower
Firefly
Face Shield

42.

Safety Tag (White for Production)

43.

Safety Tag (Pink for Electrical)

44.

Safety permit Book (Hot)

45.

Safety Permit Book (Cold)

28.
29.
30.

Selection of PPEs was done after the consultation of safety department as well as
workers.

The PPE are selected as per BIS or the best available standards.

Cup boards in the plant/ selection for general equipment and lockers are provided for
all the workers to safely place the PPEs after use.

Plant personnel and safety department regularly check PPEs. Safety department
arranges any maintenance of the equipment.

Necessary PPE for contract workers are issued under the responsibility of the
respective section-in-charge. These include helmets, gloves, gumboots, earplugs,
masks, and safety belts.

10.15 HOUSE KEEPING

Plant has well-developed drainage system all over the plant with pits/sump, pumps
are provided for up lifting of drained materials.

The sufficient numbers of disposable bins are provided. Where required dip tray are
provided all over the plant.

It was observed that Extraction and scrubbing system is provided for urea dust.

Housekeeping competition is conducted with 4 planned visits and one surprise visit.
There are 2 groups. Shields are awarded to winners and runners-up in both the groups
and a token gift for individuals of that plant.

Specific standards have been developed for housekeeping. However, concepts for
cleanliness and Plant-inside-Garden have been well developed.

In product handling area, spillage of urea on epoxy painted floor causes slippery
surface. To prevent any mishaps due to slippery surface prompt cleaning of floors
and spillage control are practiced.

All roads inside the plant are concreted/ bituminized and maintained clean. There is
no dust evolution.

10.16 MACHINE AND GENERAL AREA GUARDING

As per section 21, 22, 26 of The Factories Act and rules made thereunder in respect
of safeguarding of dangerous parts of machinery is a measure in accident prevention,

which receives considerable attention. The high severity rate of accidents caused by
dangerous parts of machinery justifies the importance attached to machine guarding.
While taking the audit round, it was observed that most of the moving parts of the
machines and storage area of hazardous chemicals are well guarded/fenced in the
plant.

10.17 ELECTRICAL AND PERSONAL GUARDING

The processes and equipments capable of generating and accumulate static charge

have been identified (Naphtha system & all critical equipment).


All such equipment are properly bounded and earthed (Naphtha lines in loading,

storage and ammonia/power plant).


The qualified electrical engineers carry out electrical earth resistance measurement

and continuity tests periodically and electrical department maintains record.


Electrical department has a preventive maintenance schedule for as battery charger,

motors, transformer etc and record are maintained. Electrical department also has
equipment history of all equipment on a pre-designed format.
Adequate earthing arrangements are made at the terminal points where hazardous
chemicals are used through pipe.

10.18 PRESSURE VESSEL (FIRED AND UNFIRED)

Complete lists of pressure vessels in the plant are available in the inspection

department and respective units such as ammonia, urea, captive power and utility
plants.
Pressure is controlled with pressure transmitters, controllers and control valves for

flow/ pressure/ temperature.


Control valves, quick closing emergency valves, manual isolation valves and vent

valves are provided to prevent rise in pressure in vessels.


All the pressure vessels are designed as per ASME and API codes.
Hydraulic test, pneumatic test, visual inspection, ultrasonic testing is carried out by

the competent person approved by Directorate of Factories, U.P.


The safety devices provided in the vessels are Safety relief valves, rupture disks,

vents, high pressure cut-out switches and alarms.


The pressure vessels operation records are available in plant log book and DCS.

10.19 MATERIALS HANDLING EQUIPMENT

1. Lifting machines
All lifting machines are marked with their SWL. SWL is marked on almost all EOT

and moving cranes.


Competent person certifies the examination/testing of lifting machines and the Inspection

department maintains records.


Adequate lifting tackles are provided at all places where it is required and are

maintained in good conditions.


The trained operators are engaged for operating the equipment. Special training

classes and on-the-job training do the training of operators.


All lifting machines and chain pulley blocks are well maintained and test records are
available with inspection department.

B. Mobile equipment and vehicular traffic


IFFCO has hand trolleys as well as forklift, crane/hydra, trucks for transportation of

materials/ spare parts.


All the mobile equipments are in the good condition.
Trained drivers are engaged for forklift, crane/hydra and trucks. Adequate number of

warning signs/signals is displayed at vulnerable points. They are dedicated


forklift/crane operators.
Supervisor on job performance does assessments of driving of these drivers. This is

also reflected in the persons performance record.


Hazards associated with transportation within the plant identified. Vehicles are not
permitted beyond certain points in ammonia plants and naphtha tank area. Pipe rack
crossing the roads has adequate vertical clearance for cranes.

10.20 VENTILATION, ILLUMINATION AND NOISE


Ventilation

The natural as well as artificial ventilation system is provided in the work


environment. Most of the plant is located in the open or in shed with open sides.

Urea dust is generated in the bagging plant, for the controlling of urea dust in
bagging plant scrubbers is provided.

No ventilation systems re-circulate the exhaust air in the work areas.

Preventive maintenance is carried out as and when required and records are
maintained by Mechanical Section.

All electrical sub-stations are equipped by the blower system. The work environment
is assessed and monitored.

The personal protective equipments are given to the workers such as Dust/Cloth
Masks, Safety Goggles etc.

Illumination

All work environments are found adequately illuminated. Sufficient and suitable
lighting, natural or artificial or both have been provided. Lux meter is available in the
plant monitoring is carried out when required.

All light fittings and lamps are periodically checked and cleaned.

Annual optometry tests are conducted for all drivers and employees above 35 years.

Noise

The noisy equipment in the plant is identified these are Compressors, turbines & DG
sets and noise monitoring is done at every 6 months.

The high noise level areas in the plant are near some machines (mainly compressors)
is in the range 88 92 db. However, personnel are required to be near the machines
only for short periods during operation wear ear muff/plug.

Soundproof control rooms and acoustic enclosures will be installed to reduce noise
exposure and in high noisy area Ear muffs and plugs are provided to the employees.

Audiometric test will be done of the employees working in the high noisy area.

Caution boards are displayed in high noise areas. Hazards of noise are highlighted to
the employees.

10.21 WORK ENVIRONMENT MONITORING SYSTEM

Work environment monitoring is carried out in bagging plant.

10.22 PREVENTION OF OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES

Every employee of the Company at the time of recruitment is subjected to pre-

employment medical examination and is recruited only when he has been declared
medically fit by the competent Medical Authority.
Every employee declared medically fit would conform to the medical fitness norms

in accordance with the rules and standards, as prescribed by the company.


All health-screening examinations are aimed at evaluation of general as well as
occupational health status of employees. These examinations will include screening
and diagnostic tests as may be deemed necessary from the occupational exposure
point of view.

All the employees are encouraged to report any adverse symptoms immediately to

their departmental heads/safety officer/medical officer.


All medical records of the employees are maintained in factory premises and treated
as confidential documents but accessible to respective employees as and when
required as per U.P. Factories Acts and Rules.

10.23 SAFE OPERATING PROCEDURE


Technical aspects

Work instructions and operation manuals with the safe operating process are

available for all operations.


Safety manual in English and Hindi has been issued to the plant personnel. The

operating procedures are displayed on boards in English as well as in Hindi.


Safety Department as well as production department jointly prepares the manuals and

Safe Operating Procedures.


When any change made in the process manuals and safe operating procedures will be

updated.
All workers engaged in process operation know the failure consequences of safe

operating procedure.
No contractor workers are deployed in process/ operation although contractor

workers are trained by safety department.


Access

All accesses are regularly inspected.

In some places portable platforms are used to access valves and some instruments.
These are well maintained.

Oiling and greasing points are located at safe places not liable to drip into walkways.
Such workers were trained and they are provided with fitting clothing and registered
is maintained.

All drains in the work place are covered and in good condition However, the covers
are not flushed with floor in some places.

10.24 WORK PERMIT SYSTEM

A written permit to work system is in place. Two types of safety permits are used i.e.
cold & hot work permits. Vessel entry is included in Hot work permit. Electrical
isolation is included in both the permits.

The hazardous chemicals, handled in the plant Natural gas, CO, CO 2, hydrogen,
ammonia, chlorine, sulphuric acid, hydrochloric acid, caustic lye, hydrazine,
potassium carbonate, monoethanolamine, vanadium pentoxide.

Tag out procedure is used for electrical isolation and locks are not used. Electrical
isolation is ensured by removing the power & control fuses, and/ or racking out the
switch gear.

10.25 FIRE FIGHTING ARRANGEMENTS AND FACILITIES

IFFCO has a well-organized fire & safety department within the plant.

The entire fire & safety provisions made available in the plant such as hydrant lines,
fire extinguishers, fire tender etc. All the fire fighting system and equipment are TAC
approved and the equipment conform to BIS.

The fire fighting equipment available in the plant is as under:


1. Fire Vehicles:
a.

One DCP tender with 2 nos. 1000 kg (each) DCP vessels and Nitrogen
Cylinders for propellant

b.

Two Foam Tenders combined foam; DCP & CO2 cylinder

c.

Fire Jeep (1 no.)

d.

DCP Trolley (3 nos.)

2. Portable Fire Extinguishers


a. Foam Extinguishers

150 ltr. capacity

12nos.

b. Foam Extinguishers

45 ltr. capacity

04 nos.

c. Foam Generator

02 nos.

d. Foam Extinguishers

09 ltr. capacity

09 nos.

c. DCP Extinguishers

02 kgs

18 nos.

d. DCP Extinguishers

05 kgs

205 nos.

e. DCP Extinguishers

10 kgs

37 nos.

f. DCP Extinguishers

22.5 kgs

09 nos.

g. DCP Extinguishers

70 kgs

01no.

h. DCP trailer

75x2 kgs

03 nos.

i. CO2 Extinguishers

02 kgs.

36 nos.

j. CO2 Extinguishers

6.8 kgs

129 nos

k. CO2 Extinguishers

09 kgs

12 nos.

l. CO2 Extinguishers

22.5 kgs.

40 nos.

m. Soda Acid Extinguishers 09 ltrs.

51 nos.

n. Sada Acid Extinguishers

05 nos.

50 ltrs.

Apart from the above facilities plant provides automatic acting foam pourer system is
provided on each Naphtha Storage Tanks. M.V. water spray system also installed on
Naphtha Tank.

Smoke detectors and heat detectors are provided on all the important buildings,
transformer & houses of the plant.

Manual Brake Glass calls points also installed in the plant at strategic location.

All extinguishers are checked once in three months, by fire service department and
record is maintained.

The fire hydrant network covers all the plant areas. Pressure of the network is
maintained by running a fire pump. Auto start system is provided for firewater
pumps.

The power is supply to the fire hydranth pump ensured by captive power plant with
gas turbine generator.

Fire alarm system is available in some plants. The system is under revamp.

The plant also has following immovable fire fighting equipment:

(1) FIRE HYDRANT NET WORK PROVIDED IN PLANTS


Sr. No.
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J

Name of Items
Yard Hydrant Post
Hydrant Post on Landing
Water Monitors
Total Pipe length of closed loop system
Pressure in hydranth system
Dia of Hydrant pipe
Single Headed Ground
Double Header ground hydrants
Internal hydrants points
Water Jet monitors

Quantity
419 Nos
117 Nos.
27

Nos.

20 Km Approx
8.8 Kg/cm2
500 mm to 80
mm
389 Nos.
18 Nos.
123 Nos.
25 Nos.

(2) FIRE PUMPS INSTALLED IN PUMP HOUSE


A
B
C
D

Electrical Fire Pumps of each 410 m3/hr. Capacity


Diesel Fire Pumps of each 410 m3/hr. Capacity
Jockey Pumps of each 30 m3/hr. capacity
Air Compressor

5 Nos.
3 Nos.
2 Nos.
2 Nos.

(3) FOAM PUMPS INSTALLED IN NAPTHA STORAGE AREA


A
B

Foam Pumps
Foam monitors

2 Nos.
08 Nos.

(4) FIRE DETECTORS INSTALLED THROUGHOUT THE PLANT AREA


A
B
C
D

Ionization Detectors
Optical Detectors
Heat Detectors
Manual Call Point

754 Nos.
234 Nos.
71 Nos.
122 Nos.

Plant has water reservoir of capacity 14400 m 3. Water is received from 16 nos. of
bore well.

The plant has own Captive power plant with gas turbine generator. Alternative source
of power is UPPSEB grid supply.

The plant has well established fire department, the details are as under:
Joint General Manager (E&S)

: 01

Chief Manager (F&S)

: 01

Manager (F&S)

: 01

Deputy Manager (F&S)

: 03

Fire Inspector

: 17

Apart from them all the plant personnel are trained in fire prevention and protection
measures.

Fire resistant doors are installed in Bagging plant as per TAC requirement.

Colour coded bands on aluminum painted/insulation pipelines, with direction of flow


marked as per BIS.

There is no major fire incident occurred in the recent past. Only minor grass fires
have occurred in factory and township. Action taken for removing grass regularly.

The system is On-site emergency mock drills are conducted once in 6 (six) months.

There is no large industry around 50 km radius. The company has understanding with
Bareilly fire brigade and air force station for the help during emergencies.

10.26 EMERGENCY PREPARREDNESS PLAN (EPP)

Plant has an On Site Emergency Plan, which is prepared as per Schedule 11 of


Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemical Rule, 1989 (as amended to
date).

The mock drills are conducted once in six month as per DCMP and record is maintained.
Last drill was conducted on 24/12/2015

Two Emergency Control Center (ECC) is located in the plant (1) Near fire station (2)
Township Guest House. There are ten 14 assembly points and many of them are airtight rooms.

The emergency team and key personnel have been identified in the On Site
Emergency Plan.

Suitable numbers of adequate protective and rescue equipments are available in


control rooms and fire station. The emergency team members are trained in use of the
rescue equipments.

The telephone is the primary mode of communication service at IFFCO through


centralized EPABX system and in case of emergency, a good number of alternative
communication systems like P&T line, Mobile Phone, manual call points; WalkieTalkie, P A System, portable mike, etc. are available.

Two numbers of emergency sirens are available in the plant; (1) At Fire Station & (2)
At Power Plant.

Emergency power is available from DG set.

First Aid Centre is in the plant with trained medical staff & township hospital within
1 km. Understanding with 20 hospitals in Bareilly for specialized treatment.

10.27 PROCESS/PLANT MODIFICATION PROCEDURE

In case of any modification, the detail of estimated expenditure and audited benefits
are highlighted and the proposal is rooted through different departments such as

safety, maintenance and other concerned departments for their comments and finally
put to Plant Head for his comments.

In Ammonia-I, fuel gas preheat coils have been installed in primary reformer for
energy saving. This was carried out with technical consultancy from Topsoe, the
original process designer. Other modification was done in the plant like LTSGUARD, CDR UNIT, S-50 Convertor in Ammonia I & II, CT-1 expansion with the
approval of competent concerned authority.

10.28 TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES

Hazardous materials transported to or from the plant, which are either raw material,
product or waste are Naphtha, ammonia, HSD furnace oil, sulfuric acid, hydrochloric
acid, caustic, chlorine tonners.

Sulphuric acid, hydrochloric acid, caustic, chlorine tonners, ammonia & HSD are
transported by road and Naphtha, furnace oil, ammonia is transported by rail and
only natural gas transported by pipe line.

Outside vehicles are used for road tankers and chlorine tonners. Naphtha & furnace
oil tankers are owned by others. Ammonia rail tankers are owned by IFFCO.

The loading /unloading procedures and safety precautions of hazardous chemicals are
displayed.

Separate parking yard for loaded tankers or trucks is available near the material gate.

All the truck and tanker drivers carry TREM cards or instruction booklet.

Pipelines are over ground in the plant. All the over ground pipelines are painted by
Anti corrosion paint periodically to avoid any rusting. Cathodic protection system is
provided for underground piping for firewater and cooling water.

The pipelines are protected by safety valves, Remote shut off valves are provided
for ammonia and NG pipes. Written procedure for tackling leakage in pipelines is
available.

The pipeline regularly checks with explosimeter for leaks from flanges, valves.
Inspection of pipeline will be done during plant turnaround. NDT is carried out for
selected critical pipelines.

Anti corrosion painting for above ground pipeline & cathodic protection in the under
ground pipelines are provided for the protection of corrosion.

The NG & Ammonia pipelines are protected by safety valves & remote shut off
valves.

10.29 HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL

The manufacturing process yields variety of waste. The waste generated at IFFCO in
the form solid, liquid as well as gaseous viz. spent catalysts, spent lube oil spent acid
& alkali, heavy metals, used lead acid batteries etc.

For the effluent treatment, the industry has a well efficient Effluent Treatment Plant
and domestic wastewater from the plant as well as township is treated in the sewage
treatment plant. Treated water is used in plantation.

Following gaseous effluent are emitted by the plant:

Flue gas from the stacks of HRSG.


Flue gas from the stack of service boiler.
Flue gas from the stack of reformer.
Exhaust air from the prilling tower.
Following systems/ measures adopted by the plant for controlling air/ water/ land
pollution

High pressure hydrolyzed system for urea waste incorporated in urea


plants;

Collection and recovery of urea spillage lumps;


Oil separators;
Bag filters for catalyst dusts;
Low sulphur fuels;
Prilling tower design for low dust emission.
Due to the use of natural gas and low sulphur naphtha the emission of air pollutant
into atmosphere are far below the stipulated limits.

All the hazardous waste being only sold to the authorized vendor of the
pollution control board and other treated waste dumped at authorized sites provided
with impervious lining.

10.30 SAFETY IN STORAGE AND WARE HOUSING


Material handling

The management has adequate facilities for storing of materials in the plant.

The storage areas are clearly marked/ defined. All the tanks are not found marked by
name of the content in side the tank.

In stores all the racks are kept in good condition.

The plant has adequate equipment for material handling such as Trolleys, forklifts,
battery operated mini trucks.

The workers, handling the material, are acquainted with the hazardous associated
with the material. Also, they are trained in safe procedure of handling the material
and they are also practiced this. The workers follow safe procedures for storage of
materials.

Separate training classes in safety are conducted for contact workers before engaging
them for the job. The system for the handling over plant to the maintenance
department and receiving back is maintenance work requisition and safety work
permits (Hazards/Non Hazards). The system is consistently applied.

The system for the preventive and predictive maintenance is on-line monitoring
instruments for vibration/ axial displacement and bearing temperature for large
compressors and turbines, remote temperature monitors for refractory lined
equipment & reformer tubes, ultrasonic test for wall thickness. Specialist outside
agencies for inspection of critical items such as reformer tubes, stripper etc.

Tank storage vessel area

Only Liquid Ammonia storage tank is cryogenic pressure vessel in the plant and
other tanks are atmospheric storage.

Ammonia storage tanks and Naphtha storage tanks are the storage vessels/tanks in
the plant have exceeding threshold quantities of hazardous material as specified in
MSIHC Rules, 1989. The sizes and capacity in tones of these tanks is as under:

S.N.

Tank

Capacity

Ammonia tank

2 x 10000 MT

Naphtha tank

2 x 6000KL

Naphtha tank

1X10000 KL

The material of construction of Ammonia tank is low temperature carbon steel and
Naphtha tank is carbon steel.

1. Ammonia tank: 350 mm WG, (-) 33 0C


2. Naphtha tank: atmosphere, ambient temperature

All these tanks are above ground and provided with flameproof electrical fittings.
Plot plan indicating the locations of the tank is available. The earthing resistance is
checked periodically and records maintained.

Flameproof/increased safety electrical equipment and fittings are installed in naphtha


tank and ammonia tank areas.

Naphtha tanks have dyke wall. The dyke capacity is more than 110% of the tank
capacity. The installation is approved by CCE. Ammonia tanks are double wall
double integrity type. The earthing resistance is checked periodically and records
maintained.

Remote operated valves are provided at ammonia tanks. Manual isolation valves are
provided for Naphtha tank. The vessels are fitted with remotely controlled isolation
valves.

All necessary instrumentation and safety devices are provided such as emergency
vents, relief valve, bursting disc, level indicator, pressure gauge and over flow line.

Ammonia tank vent is discharged to flare stack.

High level, high temperature and high-pressure alarm system is provided in storage
tanks.

Stand by empty tanks are provided for emptying material in case of emergency.

Fire hydrants with Water monitors, automatic fixed foam system is provided in
Naphtha storage tanks and Ammonia storage tanks provided with Firewater hydrants
and monitors.

The approved component persons are certifies tests and log sheets are filled up on
daily basis for recording the permanent of these vessels.

Both ammonia tanks have been thoroughly inspected during 2001-2002 by expert
agency (PDIL) and Naphtha tanks are also hydro tested.

On-site gas cylinders storage area

Chlorine, LPG, nitrogen, oxygen, argon, dissolved acetylene, calibration gases


(hydrogen, methane, CO, etc.) are stored in cylinders.

All cylinders are stored in licensed covered storage sheds.

Fire hydrants and portable fire extinguishers are the measures taken to cambat any
emergency in the cylinder storage area.

Valid licenses have been obtained in storing these cylinders and chlorine tonners.

The integrity test certificate has been obtained from the supplier of these cylinders.

10.31 CONTRACTOR SAFETY SYSTEM

No contract workers are directly involved in plant operations.

10.32 SAFETY FOR CUSTOMERS (INCLUDING MATERIAL SAFETY DATA


SHEET)
The material safety data sheets of all hazardous chemicals are available in the plant.

11.0 RECOMMENDATIONS

1. We suggest to more HAZOP study training to the plants engineers. We


also advised to provide HAZOP study report in the plant..
2. We are advice to develop manual control procedure of process parameter
for the sensitive/ critical trip & control system in case of failure of
automatic control system.
3. We advice to display HIGH TEMPERATURE caution board on cold
collector.
4. It was observed that emergency alarm in lift installed in Urea-I was out
of order so management is recommended that get it repaired as soon as
possible.
5. It was find out that ammonia gas mask box was empty, so management is
advised to make it well maintained.
6. Management is advice to record CCTV live coverage of critical
equipment, which may helpful in case any emergency & for the analysis
of any misshapes occurred.
7. Management is advice to develop procedure for the treatment/first aid in
case of ammonia leaked and also implement it.
8. We recommended that temperature of reformer taken by the personnel
should be use goggles/face shield because there is high temperature.
11.It was observed that SWL was not mentioned at the chain pulley installed
ammonia storage area. In this regards management is advised to mention
SWL on it.
12.Wind sock placed at the ammonia storage tank is required change with
new one. In this regard management should take necessary action.
13.Management is advice to provide valve at the outlet of the sump placed
in the dyked area of H2SO4 storage tank in ammonia storage area.
14.Management is advice to provide jumper in the manhole also.

15.We suggest that make a proper railing on stair of the dyked area of
naphtha storage tank and also suggest increasing the width of stair.
18.

We suggest that Spend Catalyst (Hazardous


Waste) storage shed dyke should not be open. We are also suggesting that
the height of the dyke wall increase & size of the shed also requires more
space as per the quantity of the hazardous waste.

19.

The audit team observed that storage area of


waste oil is not have good housekeeping, so in this regard management is
advised to improve housekeeping of storage area of waste oil.

20.

It is also recommended that make a proper


bounding at opening/entrance to prevent the spillage of waste oil out side
the dyked area.

21.

We are suggesting that to collect oil sludge from


the waste oil storage area & naphtha storage area and degrade by
bacterial treatment.

22.

We observed that the first aid and fire training


program in a year covered approx. 200 employees. As compared to the total
strength (approx. 1100 employee & 900 contract labour) of the plant we are
recommended that more training program should be done in the field of
first aid, fire fighting & other safety especially for the contract labour.

Other recommendations
23.

We were observed that the most of the trolley was


without cover on engine, so management is advised to provide cover on
the engine of the trolley.

24.

We was observed that hydrant points were


without hose pipe, in this regard management should ensure, kept hose

pipe in hose box installed near hydrant points because in case of


emergency these are helpful for fire fighting.
25.

Management is advice to place sand bags in the


whole plant at conspicuous places for the disposal of bombs in case of
terrorist attack.

26.

We are also suggesting that management should


provide training of plant personnel for the terrorist attack.

27.

We was observed that contract labours were not


using helmets, shoes & other PPEs, so management is advised to ensure
use of PPEs by the contract labours.

28.

It was observed that back horn on Omega 20 was


out of order, so management is advised to get it repair & also ensure that
all the moving vehicle have back horn.

29.

Management is advice to identify trained


workers/personnel for the work in confined space and always ensure that
work is carried out by the trained personnel in confined space.