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2.10 2.

12

2.10 2.12

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PREPARED BY JJ MRLEON
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2.10 2.12
UNDERSTANDING WORK, ENERGY AND EFFICIENCY
A Work
1.

Work is the product of applied force and displacement in the direction of the applied force.

2.

When the work is done energy is transferred from one object to another.

3.

The work done is equal to the amount of energy transferred.

4.

The SI unit for work is joule.

The formulae of work;

W : work in Joule/J

WORK = FORCE X DISPLACEMENT

F : force in Newton/N

W =Fxs

s
: displacement in
meter/m

Work done
Force and displacement in the same Force and displacement in different directions
direction
FY

FY

F
F

W = F. s

W = Work
F = Force
s = displacement

Fx

Fx

W = FX . s
W = F s cos

W = work
F = force
s = displacement
= angle between force
and displacement

No work is done when:


1) The object is stationary
2) The direction of motion of the object is perpendicular to that of the applied force

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2.10 2.12

Diagram (a)

Diagram (b)

Diagrams (a) and (b) shows a boy pushing a load and a weightlifter lifting a
load of 60 kg
a) Calculate the work done
i. by the boy
W = F.s
= 20 x 2
= 40 Nm or 40 J
ii. by the weightlifter
W = F.s
= mgh
= 60 x 10 x 2
= 1200 Nm or 1200 J
2.

Azman is pulling a box with a force of 50 N at an angle of 60o from the horizontal.
Calculate the work done to move the box to a distance of 3 m.

Displacement = 3 m
Work

=
Component of force
(In the direction of displacement)
=
50 cos 60o x 3
=
25 x 3
=
75 J

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displacement

2.10 2.12
Example 1;
Force, F

s
W = Fs
If, F = 40 N and s = 2 m
Hence, W = 40 x 2

Example 2;

= 80 J

80 N
600
s= 5m

W = Fs
= 80 cos 600 (5)
= 80 (0.5) (5)
= 200 J

Example 3;
T

F = 30 N
h = 1.5 m
W=Fs=Fh
= 30 (1.5)
= 45.0 J

Example 4;
F = 600 N
W=Fs
= 600 x 0.8

S = 0.8 m

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= 480 J

2.10 2.12

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2.10 2.12

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2.10 2.12
Energy
1.

Energy is the potential to do work.

2.

Energy cannot be created nor be destroyed.

3.

Exist in various forms such as potential energy, kinetic energy, electrical energy, sound energy,

nuclear energy, heat and chemical energy


Energy is defined as the capacity to do work.
Work is done when energy is converted from one form to another.
The unit of work is Nm or Joule(J)

A.Work done and the change in kinetic energy


Force, F

1.

Kinetic energy is energy of an object due to its motion.

2.

Refer to the figure above,

Work = Fs

Through, v2 = u2 +2as
u=0

= mas

and, as = v2

= m ( v2)
The formulae of Kinetic energy, Ek = mv2
3.

Example

Solution :

A small car of mass 100 kg is moving along a flat road. The


resultant force on the car is 200 N.
a) What is its kinetic energy of the car after moving through 10 m?
b) What is its velocity after moving through 10 m?

Given : m = 100 kg , F = 200 N


a. Kinetic energy,

Ek = Fs
= 200 x 10= 2000 J

b. Velocity, v mv2 = 2000


v = 6.32 m s-1

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2.10 2.12

B. Work done and gravitational potential energy

h = 1.5 m
1.

Gravitational potential energy is energy of an object due to its position. (possessed by an object due to

its position in a gravitational field)


2.

Refer to the figure above


W = F s = mg h
where, F = mg
So, Gravitational energy, Ep = mgh

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2.10 2.12

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2.10 2.12
Principle of conservation of energy
the principle of conservation of energy.
1.

Energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be changed from one form to another form.

2.

Example : a thrown ball upwards will achieve a maximum height before changing its direction and falls
Maximum Potential energy

Kinetic energy decrease

potential energy decrease

and potential energy

and kinetic energy

Increase

increase

Maximum
kinetic energy

3.

Example in calculation : A coconut falls from a tree from a height of 20 m. What is the velocity of
coconut just before hitting the earth?
Given : h = 20 m, u = 0 , g = 9.8 ms -2 , v = ?

Ep = Ek
mgh = mv2
m(9.8)(20) = mv2
v2 = 392,

v = 19.8 m s-1

Power
1.

Power is the rate of doing work.

rate of energy transformation.


workdone
timetaken
Therefore,

power, P =

W
t
, so,

P=

Where, P : power in watt/W


W : work in joule/J
t : time to do work in seconds/s

2. Unit: Joule per second (J s-1) or Watt (W)


3.

A weightlifter lifts 180 kg of weights from the floor to a height of 2 m above his head in a time of 0.8 s.
What is the power generated by the weightlifter during this time?
-2
g = 9.8 ms-2) Solution : Given : m = 180 kg, h = 2 m, t = 0.8 s and g = 9.8 ms . P = ?
W
t
P=

mgh
t
=
180 9.8 2
0.8

=
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= 4 410 W

2.10 2.12

Efficiency
as the percentage of the energy input that is transformed into useful energy.

1.

Defined...

2.

Formulae of efficiency :
Efficiency

3.

Useful energy output


100%
Energy input

Analogy of efficiency;
unwanted energy

Energy input, Einput


Energy

4.

Useful energy, Eoutput

transformation

Given
= 0.12
kg, s=
0.4 m,a height
t = 5 s,
Example; An electric motor in a Solution
toy crane: can
lift :am
0.12
kg weight
through
of 0.4Einput
m in= 0.8
5 s. J
During this time, the batteries supply 0.8 J of energy to the motor. Calculate
(a) Eoutput = ?
(a) The useful of output of the motor.

(b) The efficiency of the motor

Eoutput = F x s
= (0.12 x 10) x 0.4
= 0.48 J
(b) Efficiency = ?

Eoutput
Einput

x 100%

Efficiency

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0.80

x 100%

60%

2.10 2.12
Principle ff conservation of energy

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2.10 2.12
Samy releases a 2 kg metal ball from a building 40 m high (Take acceleration
due to gravity as 10 ms-2)
Metal ball

40 meter

a) At the height of 40 m, the metal ball has (gravitational potential energy/kinetic energy)
b) Just before the metal ball hits the ground, the maximum energy that it has is (gravitational
potential energy/kinetic energy).
c) Calculate
i)
The energy of the metal ball at the height of40 m.
Egravitational = mgh
= (2) (10) (40)
= 800 J
ii)

the kinetic energy of the metal before it hits the ground.


Ekinetic

= Egravitational
= 800 J

d) What is the principle used in c ii)?


The principle of conservation of energy
5. A motor lifting a weight 1 kg to a height of 4.0 m in 4 s. The input energy supply to the motor in one
second is 20 J. Calculate
a) power of the motor
Power

=
P

work done
time taken
=
mgh
t
=
(1) (10)(4.0)
4
=
10 watt

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2.10 2.12
b) the efficiency of the motor
Efficiency

=
=
=

Useful energy output


Energy input
10 x 100%
20
50 %

x 100%

2.10

APPRECIATING THE IMPORTANCE OF MAXIMISING THE EFFICIENCY OF DEVICES

1.

During the process of transformation the input energy to the useful output energy,
some of energy transformed into unwanted forms of energy.
..

2.

The efficiency of energy converters is always less than 100%.


...

3.

The unwanted energy produced in the device goes to waste


Example of wasting the energy;

Kinetic energy

..
Input enegy
from the petrol
Energy loss due to

output
energy
Energy loss

Energy loss

Energy loss due to friction at

. .
friction in
....

as heat
as sound
other
parts in the
..
..
.

moving parts
....

engine
. . .

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