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# CHAPTER 8: Electromagnet

## SUPER EDUCATION GROUP (JO

CHAPTER 8: Electromagnet

PREPARED BY JJ MRLEON
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COPYRIGHT BY SUPER EDUCATION GROUP (JOHOR JAYA)

CHAPTER 8: Electromagnet

PREPARED BY JJ MRLEON
Page 2
COPYRIGHT BY SUPER EDUCATION GROUP (JOHOR JAYA)

CHAPTER 8: Electromagnet

## 8.3 Electromagnetic Induction

1. A steady magnetic field can be produced by a Solenoid or wire carrying electric current ,
permanent magnet.

2. When we move a coil without any current flow is in a magnetic field, an induced e.m.f (electromotive
force) is produced.
induced current
3. An
flows through the conductor and this phenomenon called
electromagnetic induction

4. Electromagnetic induction requires relative motion between magnet and the coil to produce an induced
current.

## For Figure (c),

a)closing and opening switch S continuously
b) adjusting rheostat R (R decrease)
For Figure (d), oscillating the pendulum bob in the magnetic field
When there is relative motion between a conductor or a magnet, the conductor cut the magnetic
flux across the magnetic field lines or change of magnetic flux occurs.

PREPARED BY JJ MRLEON
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CHAPTER 8: Electromagnet
1. Flemings Right-hand rule can be use to determine the direction of the induction current produced.
Thumb (
motion )
First finger ( Field
)

current )

## Induced e.m.f by a moving conductor

Action
The wire is moved upwards
The wire is moved downwards
The wire is move horizontally
Magnet is moved upwards

Obseravtion
Galvanometer deflect to left
Galvanometer deflect to right
No deflection
Galvanometer deflect to right

## Induced e.m.f by coil

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Inference
Current flows in wire
Current flows is reversed
No current flows
Current flows is reversed

CHAPTER 8: Electromagnet

No deflection
on the
galvanometer

Magnetic
field lines
are being
cut.

No current is
induced

## Moving the coil

towards a
magnet also
induces current

Current induced
in opposite
direction

Lenzs Law
1. Lenzs Law also can be use to determine the direction of induced current produced.
2.

Lenzs Law states that the direction of the induced e.m.f is such that its magnetic effects always
oppose

## When the N pole

is moved
towards the
coil, end of coil
becomes N pole.

moved away
from the coil,
end of coil
becomes S pole.

## Faradays Law of electromagnetic induction

directly proportional

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CHAPTER 8: Electromagnet
Faradays Law states that the magnitude of the induced e.m.f. is .. to the rate of
change of magnetic flux (rate of cutting magnetic flux) experienced by the conductor.
5. The magnitude of the e.m.f in a wire increases when:
i

## The wire is moved faster

ii .
A stronger magnet is used
iii ...
The length of wire in e.m field is
increased

i

## The relative motion between magnet and coil is

.
increased

ii .
The number of turns on coil is increased
iii ....

## 7. The magnitude of induced current depends on

i.
The magnitude of the induced e.m.f
ii.
the resistance of the circuit
Applications of electromagnetic induction
1

A generator is basically the inverse of a motor. There are many coils of wire wound that can rotate in a
falling water
magnetic field. The axle is turned by some mechanical such as ..,
steam
.
or wind turbine.

The dc generator and ac generator make use of electromagnetic induction to produce Induced e.m.f ,
thus produce the induced current.

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CHAPTER 8: Electromagnet
DC Generator
Handle to rotate

Split rings
commutato
r

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CHAPTER 8: Electromagnet

## When coils is at its horizontal

position
900

Change of rates of
magnetic flux is maximum
Induced e.m.f is maximum

270
0

...........................
When coils is at its vertical position
00
1800
..
3600

No changes of magnetic
flux

No induced e.m.f is

AC Generator
Draw the graph of output current from the ac generator above

90
position

2700

position
00

1800

..
3600

Handle

## Change of rates of magnetic

flux is maximum
Induced e.m.f is maximum
(+ve /-ve)
No changes of magnetic
flux
No induced e.m.f is
induced

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CHAPTER 8: Electromagnet

## Alternating and direct current (a.c/d.c)

Current, I/A

AC Current

DC Current
Graphs
Current, I/A

Time, t/s

Current, I/A

Time, t/s

Current, I/A

Time, t/s

Time, t/s
Direction

variable
1 ac generator

constant
Examples of sources and symbols
1 dc generator

2 dynamo

## 2 dry cells // batteries

3 home plug

3 electrolyte cells

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CHAPTER 8: Electromagnet

PREPARED BY JJ MRLEON
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COPYRIGHT BY SUPER EDUCATION GROUP (JOHOR JAYA)