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CHAPTER 2 : FORCE & MOTION

ANSWER
2.1Linear motion
Question 1
(a) Scalar quantity
(b) Arrow:

(d) (i) the first tape

(ii) the last tape

(e) acceleration

(f)
(c) 700
(d) Zero
Question 2
(a) A.c current (b)
(i) 0.02 s
(ii) constant velocity
(iii)

2.2Motion Graph
Question 4
(a)(i) velocity
(ii)

(b)(i) acceleration (b)


(ii)
Question 3
(a) Ac current
(b) Tape chart

(b)(iii)

Question 5
(a) Displacem
ent Time
(b) R : from
AB (c)
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(ii)

(c) Constant acceleration


Question 6
(a) 15 m
(b) Velocity
(c) (i) constant velocity
(ii) at rest

2.4 Momentum
(a) Inelastic collision

(b)
.

c) mv = 2 x 100 = 2 x 1 = 2 kg ms
Question 7
(a)(i) acceleration (a)
(ii) displacement (b)
Section
Type of
of the
motion of
graph
the car
Constant
OA
accelerati
Constant
AB
velocity
Question 8
(a)(i) constant velocity
(a)(ii) constant acceleration and
constant velocity after 2.01 pm
(b)(i) zero
(b)(ii)the car moves with constant
velocity
(c)

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-1

(c) 0 = (50 x 2) + (20)v


-1
v = - (100)/20 = - 5 m s
(d) Rocket

(e) mPuP = (mP + mQ)v


(2)(1) = (2 + m)
(0.4) m = (2 0.8)/
0.4
= 3 kg

Question 10
(a) quantity of matter in object
(b) (i) equal but opposite direction
(ii) 0 = MV +
mv MV =
- mv

(iii) principle of conservation


of momentum
(c) (1200)v = (4)(60) = 240
-1
v = 240/1200 = 0.2 m s

Question 12
(a) Mass x velocity
(b) Momentum = 0.08 x 100
-1
= 8.0 kg ms
(c) Decrease
(d) To lengthen the time of impact /
to reduce the impulsive force
Question 13
(a) Inelastic collision
(b) (1200)(30 ) + (1000)( 20)
= (1200 + 1000)v
-1
v = 7.27 m s
(c) Inertia
(d) The larger the mass and
velocity,
the
higher
the
momentum.
Momentum = mass x velocity

Question 11
(a) Principle of conservation
of momentum
(b) Momentum of the man
(forward) is equal with the
momentum of the boat
(backward) but in opposite
direction
(d)
.

Truck with higher


mmomentum
is difficult to
or
stop
higher
impact if accident occurs
2.6Impulsive force
Question 14
(a) Change of momentum
(b) (i) Force on surface B is
larger than surface A
(ii) Time of impact on surface A is
longer than on surface B
(iii) Constant/unchanged
(iv) The shorter the time of
impact, the larger the
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Question 17
(a) The position between the two
force //force Inversely
proportional to the time of
impact
(v) Sponge/mattress
(c) Higher mass high velocity, high
impact / high momentum / high
impulsive force

(ii)

Question 15
(a)(i) gravitational potential energy
kinetic energy (b)(i) mgh
2
= mv

v = 2gh = 2 x 10 x
-1
2.5 v = 7.07 m s

balls are equal.


The distance between the
two balls increase.
(b) Gravitational force
(c) (i) gravitational acceleration, g
2
(ii) 10 m/s
(iii) Mass does not affect g
(d) (i) Velocity decreases
(ii) moves against
gravitational force.
Question 18
(a) Gravitational force
(b) Surface area of the feather
is larger
(c) Velocity increases
constantly / constant
acceleration
Final velocity is constant.
Final velocity for water
droplet is higher than final
velocity for feather.
(d) Final velocity is inversely
proportional to surface
area
(e) Graph

(ii)

(c)(i) soft/spongy
Lengthen the time of
impact Reduce the
impulsive force
(ii) use parachute
To reduce
velocity/momentum
Question 16
(a) Impulsive force
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(b) High impulsive force/short impact


time

(c) 0.05 x 5 = 0.25 kg m/s


(d) Use sponge, mattress /
soft material
2.8Gravitational Force
2.9Equilibrium of forces
Question 19
(a) Diagram

(b) F = ma
-2
a = 5 / 2 = 2.5 m s
(c) 5 N but in opposite direction
Question 19(spm 08)
(a)(i) magnitude: equal
Direction: opposite
(ii) zero
(iii) equilibrium of forces (b)
(i) Acceleration
(ii) there is resultant force, force is
directly proportional to
acceleration
Question 20
(a) 650 = 300 +
P P = 350 N
(b) The bicycle moves with
constant velocity. The
resultant force equals
zero.
(c) Velocity increases /
accelerate
(d) Inertia
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(e) The time of impact is short.


High impulsive force.
Question 21
(a) 500 N
(b) 1. At rest
2. moving down or up with
constant velocity
(c) F = R mg
(d) There is a resultant force acts
upward.
R = mg + ma (e)(i)
decreases

(ii) R = mg ma / R < mg
Question 22
(a) Force is anything
that can move a
stationary object //
stop a moving
object // change
direction / shape /
speed of an object.
(b) Label force

(c) (i) Fx = 120 cos 30 = 104.4


N
(ii) FY = 120 sin 30 = 60 N
Question 23
(a) Force is anything that
can move a stationary
(a)

500 N
(b) (i) increased
(ii) decreased
(iii) Unchanged
(c) Resultant force = 0 (d)
R = (46)(10) = 460 N
F = mg - R = ma
50a = 500 460
-2
a = 0.8 ms
Question 25
(a) Attraction force
(b) (i) same magnitude,
opposite direction
(ii) equal in magnitude,
opposite direction
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object // stop a moving


object // change direction /
shape / speed of an object.
(b) Diagram

(c) Fx = 1500 x cos 60 = 750 N


(d) (i) Fx : to make car move
forward //
overcome frictional
force
(ii) Fy : to lift the car off the
ground // to move the
car upwards// to
overcome the weight of
the car

Question 24
(c) (i) zero
(ii) equal
(d) The net force is zero, at rest
The net force is zero, moves
with constant velocity.
(e) Equilibrium of forces
2.10 Energy
Question 26
(a) To gain maximum kinetic
energy before he begins to
jump.
Kinetic energy increases with
velocity.
(b) To gain elastic potential energy
from the pole.

Change to gravitational
potential energy.
(c) mgh = 60 x 10 x 52 = 3 120 J
-2
(d) 10 m s
(e) To lengthen the time of
impact between the athlete
and the mattress.
So reduce the impulsive force
Question 27
(a) Work = force x displacement
(b) (i) 220 x 0.5 = 110 J
(ii) 20 x 10 x 0.5 = 100 J
(c) (i) Work done in 4(b)(i) is
larger

(ii) energy lost to


heat/frictional force
Question 28
(a) Gravitational potential energy
(b) (i) E = mgh = (30)(10)(2.5)
= 750 J
2
(ii) E = mv = (30)(4)(4)
= 240 J
(c) (i) Energy consumes in (b)(i)
is larger than in (b)(ii)
(ii) energy lost to heat /
frictional force
Question 29
(a) (i) Diagram 29.2 is further
than in diagram 29.1
(ii) decreases
(b) Streamline
(c) W = 70 x 10 = 700 J
(d) (i) kinetic energy to
gravitational potential
energy to kinetic energy
(ii) sound / heat
Question 30
(a) (i) Trolley Q has less mass
(ii) Newtons second law
(b)

(c) Velocity of the


trolley decreases
(d) Trolley Q moves faster
along frictionless slope
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(e)(i) mgh = 0.5 x 10 x 0.7


= 3.5 J

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(ii) Total energy at the top of


the slope:

Kinetic
energy
+
gravitational potential energy
= 3.5 + 3.0 = 6.5 J
2.11
Elasticity
Question 31
(a) (i) Newton, N
(ii) e is directly proportional to
W
(iii) Hookes Law
(b) (i) 12 N
(c) Gradient = 12 = 240 N/m
0.05
(d) E = Fx = x 10 x 0.04 = 0.2 J
(e)

Question 32
(a) (i) Hookes Law
(b) (i) elastic potential energy
(ii) E = x 60 x 0.08 = 2.4 J
(c) (i) 80 N
(ii) Spring Q
The elastic limit for spring Q
is 100 N which more than 80
N.