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Gerak lurus adalah gerak suatu obyek yang lintasannya berupa garis lurus. Dapat pula jenis

gerak ini disebut sebagai suatu translasiberaturan. Pada rentang waktu yang sama terjadi

perpindahan yang besarnya sama.

Daftar isi

[sembunyikan]

• 1 Pengelompokkan

• 2 Lihat pula

[sunting]Pengelompokkan

Gerak lurus dapat dikelompokkan menjadi gerak lurus beraturan dan gerak lurus berubah

beraturan yang dibedakan dengan ada dan tidaknyapercepatan.

Gerak lurus beraturan (GLB) adalah gerak lurus suatu obyek, dimana dalam gerak ini

kecepatannya tetap atau tanpa percepatan, sehingga jarak yang ditempuh dalam gerak lurus

beraturan adalah kelajuan kali waktu.

v = kecepatan (m/s)

t = waktu (s)

Gerak lurus berubah beraturan (GLBB) adalah gerak lurus suatu obyek, di mana

kecepatannya berubah terhadap waktu akibat adanya percepatan yang tetap. Akibat

adanya percepatan rumus jarak yang ditempuh tidak lagi linier melainkan kuadratik.

dengan arti dan satuan dalam SI:

a = percepatan (m/s2)

t = waktu (s)

s = Jarak tempuh/perpindahan (m)

In mechanics we are interested in trying to understand the motion of objects. In

this chapter, the motion of objects in 1 dimension will be discussed. Motion in

1 dimension is motion along a straight line.

2.1. Position

The position of an object along a straight line can be uniquely identified by its

distance from a (user chosen) origin. (see Figure 2.1). Note: the position is fully

specified by 1 coordinate (that is why this a 1 dimensional problem).

Figure 2.2. x vs. t graphs for various velocities.

For a given problem, the origin can be chosen at whatever point is convenient.

For example, the position of the object at time t = 0 is often chosen as the

origin. The position of the object will in general be a function of time: x(t).

Figure 2.2. shows the position as a function of time for an object at rest, and for

objects moving to the left and to the right.

The slope of the curve in the position versus time graph depends on the velocity

of the object. See for example Figure 2.3. After 10 seconds, the cheetah has

covered a distance of 310 meter, the human 100 meter, and the pig 50 meter.

Obviously, the cheetah has the highest velocity. A similar conclusion is

obtained when we consider the time required to cover a fixed distance. The

cheetah covers 300 meter in 10 s, the human in 30 s, and the pig requires 60 s.

It is clear that a steeper slope of the curve in the x vs. t graph corresponds to a

higher velocity.

2.2. Velocity

An object that changes its position has a non-zero velocity. The average

velocity of an object during a specified time interval is defined as:

If the object moves to the right, the average velocity is positive. An object

moving to the left has a negative average velocity. It is clear from the definition

of the average velocity that depends only on the position of the object at time t

= t1 and at time t = t2. This is nicely illustrated in sample problem 2-1 and 2-2.

You drive a beat-up pickup truck down a straight road for 5.2 mi at 43 mi/h, at

which point you run out of fuel. You walk 1.2 mi farther, to the nearest gas

station, in 27 min (= 0.450 h). What is your average velocity from the time you

started your truck to the time that you arrived at the station ?

The pickup truck initially covers a distance of 5.2 miles with a velocity of 43

miles/hour. This takes 7.3 minutes. After the pickup truck runs out of gas, it

takes you 27 minutes to walk to the nearest gas station which is 1.2 miles down

the road. When you arrive at the gas station, you have covered (5.2 + 1.2) = 6.4

miles, during a period of (7.3 + 27) = 34.3 minutes. Your average velocity up to

this point is:

Suppose you next carry the fuel back to the truck, making the round-trip in 35

min. What is your average velocity for the full journey, from the start of your

driving to you arrival back at the truck with the fuel ?

It takes you another 35 minutes to walk back to your car. When you reach your

truck, you are again 5.2 miles from the origin, and have been traveling for (34.4

+ 35) = 69.4 minutes. At that point your average velocity is:

After this episode, you return back home. You cover the 5.2 miles again in 7.3

minutes (velocity equals 43 miles/hour). When you arrives home, you are 0

miles from your origin, and obviously your average velocity is:

The average velocity of the pickup truck which was left in the garage is also 0

miles/hour. Since the average velocity of an object depends only on its initial

and final location and time, and not on the motion of the object in between, it is

in general not a useful parameter. A more useful quantity is the instantaneous

velocity of an object at a given instant. The instantaneous velocity is the value

that the average velocity approaches as the time interval over which it is

measured approaches zero:

2.3. Acceleration

The velocity of an object is defined in terms of the change of position of that

object over time. A quantity used to describe the change of the velocity of an

object over time is the acceleration a. The average acceleration over a time

interval between t1 and t2 is defined as:

Note the similarity between the definition of the average velocity and the

definition of the average acceleration. The instantaneous acceleration a is

defined as:

From the definition of the acceleration, it is clear that the acceleration has the

following units:

A positive acceleration is in general interpreted as meaning an increase in

velocity. However, this is not correct. From the definition of the acceleration,

we can conclude that the acceleration is positive if

This is obviously true if the velocities are positive, and the velocity is

increasing with time. However, it is also true for negative velocities if the

velocity becomes less negative over time.

Objects falling under the influence of gravity are one example of objects

moving with constant acceleration. A constant acceleration means that the

acceleration does not depend on time:

where v0 is the velocity of the object at time t = 0. From the velocity, the

position of the object as function of time can be calculated:

Note 1: verify these relations by integrating the formulas for the position and

the velocity.

Note 2: the equations of motion are the basis for most problems (see sample

problem 7).

Spotting a police car, you brake a Porsche from 75 km/h to 45 km/h over a

distance of 88m. a) What is the acceleration, assumed to be constant ? b) What

is the elapsed time ? c) If you continue to slow down with the acceleration

calculated in (a) above, how much time would elapse in bringing the car to rest

from 75 km/h ? d) In (c) above, what distance would be covered ? e) Suppose

that, on a second trial with the acceleration calculated in (a) above and a

different initial velocity, you bring your car to rest after traversing 200 m. What

was the total braking time ?

(1)

(2)

* x(t1) = 88 m

* a = constant

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

* x(t3) = 200 m

(10)

(11)

The time t3 can now easily be calculated:

(12)

A special case of constant acceleration is free fall (falling in vacuum). In

problems of free fall, the direction of free fall is defined along the y-axis, and

the positive position along the y-axis corresponds to upward motion. The

acceleration due to gravity (g) equals 9.8 m/s2 (along the negative y-axis). The

equations of motion for free fall are very similar to those discussed previously

for constant acceleration:

where y0 and v0 are the position and the velocity of the object at time t = 0.

Example

A pitcher tosses a baseball straight up, with an initial speed of 25 m/s. (a) How

long does it take to reach its highest point ? (b) How high does the ball rise

above its release point ? (c) How long will it take for the ball to reach a point

25 m above its release point.

Figure 2.4. Vertical position of baseball as function of time.

* g = 9.8 m/s2

The highest point is obtained at time t = t1. At that point, the velocity is zero:

The ball reaches its highest point after 2.6 s (see Figure 2.4).

where y is the height of the ball at time t. This Equation can be easily solved for

t:

Using the initial conditions specified in (a) this equation can be used to

calculate the time at which the ball reaches a height of 25 m (y = 25 m):

t = 1.4 s

t = 3.7 s

The velocities of the ball at these times are (see also Figure 2.5):

t = 2.6 s, the ball reaches its highest point (v = 0). After t = 2.6 s, the ball starts

falling down (negative velocity). At t= 3.7 s the ball is located again at y = 25

m, but now moves downwards.

Particles versus Extended Objects [edit]

Position [edit]

First, we will talk about one of the most basic concepts of physics, position. There are many ways

to express the position of a point particle, one of the simplest and most well known way being the

Cartesian Coordinate System. In a Cartesian Coordinate System, the position of a particle is

expressed as an ordered pair, the x-coordinate, a y-coordinate in a two or three dimensional

space, and a z-coordinate in a three dimensional space.

The point (0, 0, 0) is commonly known as the origin. The x, y, and z axis pass through the

origin at right angles to create the foundation for point-plotting.

Displacement [edit]

Velocity [edit]

The velocity is defined to be the rate of change of position with respect to time. For

now, this basic definition should hold. Just knowing the basic definition of velocity

should be enough to answer many of the problems we will investigate later. The SI unit

for velocity is the meter/second. This should not surprise you as the SI unit for length is

the meter and the SI unit for time is the second.

Since velocity is the rate of change of position, one can conclude that

And since

object given the initial position, a constant velocity, and the time

elapsed.

is a vector - It has two pieces of information: a magnitude and a

direction. Speed is the magnitude of velocity, a scalar value. An

important example of this distinction is centripetal acceleration. Since

the definition of acceleration is a change in velocity, there can be a

change in speed, direction or both. In centripetal acceleration, the

speed of a particle in uniform circular motion (such as a weight

attached to a string swung above one's head) does not have to

change, though since its direction is constantly changing it

experiences acceleration.

Examples [edit]

simply use the formula we derived earlier

Speed [edit]

Speed is the magnitude of velocity. It is a scalar.

Acceleration [edit]

Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity. It is the

derivative of velocity over time, as well as the second

derivative of position over time.

Momentum [edit]

Momentum is mass times velocity. Momentum

is always conserved, this is known as Conservation

of Momentum.

Force [edit]

According to Newton's Second Law of Motion,

force is mass times acceleration. Force is

commonly confused with momentum. The SI

unit of force is the newton.

accelerating at 5 m/s/s. Since F = ma, you

can calculate the force to be 1000 Newtons

constant velocity of 5 m/s, the force is 0N

because the car is not accelerating.

Simple Forms of

Motion [edit]

Constant Velocity [edit]

Category: Physics

• Friday Aug 8,2008 10:02 AM

• By san

• In Kinematika

kecepatannya selalu konstan. Kecepatan konstan artinya besar kecepatan alias kelajuan dan

arah kecepatan selalu konstan. Karena besar kecepatan alias kelajuan dan arah kecepatan

selalu konstan maka bisa dikatakan bahwa benda bergerak pada lintasan lurus dengan

kelajuan konstan.

Misalnya sebuah mobil bergerak lurus ke arah timur dengan kelajuan konstan 10 m/s. Ini

berarti mobil bergerak lurus ke arah timur sejauh 10 meter setiap sekon. Karena kelajuannya

konstan maka setelah 2 sekon, mobil bergerak lurus ke arah timur sejauh 20 meter, setelah 3

sekon mobil bergerak lurus ke arah timur sejauh 30 meter… dan seterusnya… bandingkan

dengan gambar di samping. Perhatikan besar dan arah panah. Panjang panah mewakili besar

kecepatan alias kelajuan, sedangkan arah panah mewakili arah kecepatan. Arah kecepatan

mobil = arah perpindahan mobil = arah gerak mobil.

S = X = v . t ; a = ∆ v/∆ t = dv/dt = 0

Kinematika adalah cabang fisika yang mempelajari gerak dengan menghiraukan

penyebab gerak. Mengenai penyebab gerak akan dibahas dalam Dinamika.

Soal-Solusi GLB

Faiz mengendarai sepeda motor dengan kelajuan tetap 36 km/jam selama 30 menit. Tentukan

jarak tempuh Faiz dalam satuan meter !

Diketahui

V = 36 km/jam

= 30 (60 sekon)

= 1800 sekon

Ditanyakan

X = … meter

Jawab

Rumus

X =Vxt

= 10 m/s x 1800 s

= 18.000 meter

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