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Linguistics =the signs of language

General Linguistics describes the properties that are common to all languages
Grammar means lexicon plus rules of how to use words
Linguistics is a science, a body of statements which describe an empirical domain
Empirical= accessible to the senses
Teleological fact (telos=cauza)- a decision that serves a purpose
Language is a natural kind
Human Language is a natural language
Formal Language= computer language
Languages can be described in grammar
Languages are effable(can be described in words)
Grammars most important use is writing
Grammar=means of analyzing a text
Linguistics in the xx th century is marked by the advent of structuralism that can
be classical(1900-1990) analytical structuralism or generative grammar (1957)
synthetic structuralism
National Definitions transcend language and express the relation between
language and the world
Formal Definitions look at the internal structure of objects inside a language
Formal Definitions do not exhaustively present objects from the point of view of
their intention or extention.They merely attempt to establish the place of the
object defined in relation to the other objects, similarly defined or taken as
Phrase= a group of words surrounding a head.
A method is a procedure which is followed to obtain a certain result.
Structuralist methods were also refered to as discovery procedures.
A message is independent from the theory
A theory is a body of statements which interprets the result of the method
Linguistics structure: phonology,morphonoly, syntax, semantics
Usage: pragmatics

Phonology studies the order of the sounds in a natural language, establishes the
inventory of phonemes.
Morphology studies the structure of words
Syntax studies the structure of sentences ( constituency)
Semantics studies the meaning.
Pragmatics use of language __ theory of communication
__types of texts
An important idea of structuralism is that the levels are isomorphic ( the same)
Structuralist theory as conceived by important linguists is maximally simple and
the main idea is that the language is a system of signs.
There are relations and oppositions between the units of language.
Oppositions are used to discover the units of language.
The units of language entertain relations.
The properties of the linguistic sign : it is supposed to be arbitrary: there is no
necessary connection between the sound structure and the concept.
Oppositions only differ through sonority.
Privative oppositions- one term is positively marked by a feature absent in the
other term.These are the most important oppositions in a language.
Looking at relations the structuralist systematics are paradigm( declinations and
verbs conjugations)
The forms of relations are mutualy exclusive.
The forms of relations in a language relation a vertical axis.
On the syntagmatic axis ( orizontal) the units co-occur and one of them selects
the other.
The selective elements are the verb and the adjectives and the noun is selected.
The methodology analysis of structuralism:
Segmentation: cutting a string into units
Classification: means placing units in a group that has similar properties
Distribution: the class were the units occur
Language imposes binary cuts.
Empirical problems:

Linguistic creativity
Language acquisition
Creativity is the ability to produce and use new sentences.
The solution to creativity is the assumption made by Chomsky that people
possess grammar, they have a lexicon in their mind and they know the rules to
form sentences
Grammar is a set of rules that produces all and only the correct sentences of a
Language acquisition : children are born with the ability to learn the
language.We are born with a faculty of language. People are born with an
universal grammar: a device that helps the child process the linguistic stimulence
around him.