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3/17/2012

MaintenanceofRoadsinPakistan
NHAsPerspective

BY

Engr.Tabjeel Ashraf
P.E.,BSc.(CivilEngg),MSc (CivilEngg),MPM
MPEC,MPMI,MIEP,MASCE

Presentedat
InstitutionofEngineersPakistan(IEP)
Islamabad

Saturday, March 17, 2012

3/17/2012

ROAD NETWORK OF
PAKISTAN AND ITS
IMPORTANCE

PAKISTANS GEO-STRATIGIC LOCATION

URALSK

KAZAKHSTAN

UKRAINE

GURYEV
DZHURALY

ARAL SEA

SHEVCHENKO

BLACK

SEA

GEORGIA
AZARBIJAN

KYRGYZSTAN
C H I N A

UZBEKISTAN

TAJIKISTAN
TURKMENISTAN
JAMMU
&
KASHMIR
DISPUTED
TERRITORY

TURKEY
I R A N
I N D I A

ARABIAN

SEA

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ROAD TRANSPORT DATA COMPARISON

UNIT

1947

2010

TOTAL ROADS

KM

50,367

260,000

REGD VEHICLES

NO

30,577

5,000,000

REGD TRUCKS/TRAILERS NO

800

184,000

NATIONAL HIGHWAYS &


Motorways

KM

NIL

11,485

ROAD DENSITY

KM/KM

0.06

0.32

+
+

3.50

3.07

ROAD DENSITY
COMPARISON

0.23

0.20

0.17

0.15

0.08

Malaysia

Indonesia

China

Argentina

0.50

Brazil

0.65

USA

0.32

0.68

1.00

India

1.00

Spain

1.04

1.50

Italy

1.70

Hungary

1.62

1.72

2.00

France

2.50

Pakistan
Pakistan

UK

0.00

Japan

Road Length / Sq. Km. of Area

3.00

Countries

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MODAL SHARE
PAKISTAN TRANSPORTATION MODE
100

95% 90%

70
60

% 50

40
30
20
10

Passenger Traffic

80

Freight Traffic

90

5%

8%

0% 2%

ROAD

ROAD

RAIL

RAIL

AIR

IMPORTANCE OF
MAINTENANCE OF ROADS

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Life Cycle Cost Analysis


The Costs, Involved during the Design Life
of any Pavement, may be Broadly
Categorised into Following Three Types.
Construction Cost
Maintenance Cost
Road User Costs

Components of Total Road


Transport Costs in the Economy

Maintenance
- Fuel Consumption
- Oil Consumption
- Tyres Wear & Tear
- Parts Replacement
- Vehicle
Depreciation
- Travel Time
- Accidents

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Key Statistics from


Emerging Countries
Transport sector is 5 to 10 per
cent of GDP.
Every Rupee not spent on
maintenance increases
transport costs by Four Rupees.
Transport fuels and machinery
account for 40% of import bill.

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The Impacts of Road Maintenance


The effects of road maintenance can be
assessed in terms of the various impacts:
Level of service (road condition)
Socio economic impacts
Road user costs
Accident levels and costs
Road administration costs

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SOME CHALLENGES

Over Loaded Truck

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Over Loaded Truck

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19

PERCENTAGE OF FREIGHT VEHICLES


BY COMPOSITION
OVERLOADED PERCENTAGE

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21

22

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Pavements

Definition
y ThestructureofroadWhichactuallycarriesthe
trafficloadsiscalledPavement.

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PavementPurpose;ABroadDefinition
y Loadsupport
y Smoothness
y Drainage

DC to Richmond Road in 1919 from the Asphalt Institute

PavementPerformance
y FunctionalPerformance
y ProvidingUsersasafeandcomfortableRide
y Consistsof
RideQuality
SurfaceFriction
Otherfactors(Noise,Geometricsetc)

y StructuralPerformance
y Abilitytowithstandtrafficandenvironmentalloadings

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PavementTypes
y FlexiblePavement
y Bituminouspavements
y Called"flexible"sincethetotalpavementstructure

bends(orflexes)toaccommodatetrafficloads

y RigidPavement
y Portlandcementconcrete(PCC)pavements
y CalledrigidsincePCCshighmodulusofelasticity

doesnotallowthemtoflexappreciably

y CompositePavements
y Portlandcementconcrete(PCC)overHMApavements
y HMAOverPCCPavements

FlexiblePavement
y Structure
y Surfacecourse
y Basecourse
y Subbasecourse
y Subgrade

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TypesofFlexiblePavement

Dense-graded

Open-graded

Gap-graded

FlexiblePavement Construction

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FlexiblePavementTypes
y FlexiblePavement
HotMixAsphaltSurface
9 WithGranularUnboundBase
9 WithStabilised (Bound)Base
9 FullDepthHMA
BituminousSurfaceTreatment
9 WithGranularBase
SingleSurfaceTreatment
DoubleSurfaceTreatment
TripleSurfaceTreatment

RigidPavement
y Structure
y Surfacecourse
y Basecourse
y Subbasecourse
y Subgrade

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TypesofRigidPavement
y JointedPlainConcretePavement(JPCP)

TypesofRigidPavement
y JointedReinforcedConcretePavement(JRCP)
SteelMesh0.1to2.0%ofCrosssectionalArea
JointSpacing7.5to30m
SlabThickness:150to400mm
Granularstabilizedbase

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TypesofRigidPavement
y ContinuouslyReinforcedConcretePavement(CRCP)

Photo from the Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute

DesignParameters
y Subgrade
y Loads
y Environment

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MaintenanceAlternatives
y RoutineMaintenance
y Resurfacing
y Recycling
y Restoration
y Reconstruction

TypesofDistressesinFlexible
Pavements
A.Cracking
1.FatigueCracking
2.BlockCracking
3.EdgeCracking
4.LongitudinalCracking
5.ReflectionCrackingatJoints
6.TransverseCracking
B.PatchingandPotholes
7.PatchDeterioration
8.Potholes

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TypesofDistressesinFlexible
Pavements
C.SurfaceDeformation
9.Rutting
10.Shoving
D.SurfaceDefects
11.Bleeding
12.PolishedAggregate
13.Raveling
E.MiscellaneousDistresses
14.LanetoShoulderDropoff
15.WaterBleedingandPumping

FATIGUE CRACKING
y Occursinareassubjectedtorepeated

trafficloadings(wheelpaths).
y Canbeaseriesofinterconnectedcracksin
earlystagesofdevelopment.
y Developsintomanysided,sharpangled
pieces,usuallylessthan0.3meters(m)on
thelongestside,characteristicallywitha
chickenwire/alligatorpattern,inlater
stages.
y Musthaveaquantifiablearea.

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FATIGUE CRACKING ; Severity Levels


y LOW

An area of cracks with no or only a few connecting cracks; cracks


are not spalled or sealed; pumping is not evident.
y MODERATE
An area of interconnected cracks forming a complete pattern;
cracks may be slightly spalled; cracks may be sealed; pumping is
not evident.
y HIGH
An area of moderately or severely spalled interconnected cracks
forming a complete pattern; pieces may move when subjected to
traffic; cracks may be sealed; pumping may be evident.

FATIGUE CRACKING

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BLOCK CRACKING
y Apatternofcracksthatdividesthe

Pavementintoapproximatelyrectangular
pieces.
y Rectangularblocksrangeinsizefrom
approximately0.1m2to10m2.

BLOCK CRACKING

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LONGITUDINAL CRACKING
y Crackspredominantlyparalleltopavement

centerline.Locationwithinthelane(wheel
pathversusnonwheelpath)issignificant.

LONGITUDINAL CRACKING

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REFLECTION CRACKING (At Joints)


y Cracksinasphaltconcreteoverlaysurfaces

thatoccuroverjointsinconcrete
pavements.

REFLECTION CRACKING

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TRANSVERSE CRACKING
y Cracks

that
are
predominantly
Perpendicular to pavement centerline.

TRANSVERSE CRACKING

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POTHOLES
y Bowlshaped holes of various sizes in the

pavement
surface.
dimension is 150 mm.

Minimum

plan

POTHOLES

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RUTTING
y A rut is a longitudinal surface depression

in the wheel path. It may have associated


transverse displacement.

RUTTING

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SHOVING
y Shoving is a longitudinal displacement of

a localized area of the pavement surface.


It is generally caused by braking or
accelerating vehicles, and is usually
located on hills or curves, or at
intersections.
y It also may have associated vertical
displacement.

SHOVING

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RAVELING
y Wearing away of the pavement surface

caused by the dislodging of aggregate


particles and loss of asphalt binder.
Raveling ranges from loss of fines to loss
of some coarse aggregate and ultimately
to a very rough and pitted surface with
obvious loss of aggregate.

RAVELING

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Maintenance Principles

Treatments,TriggersandResets
Decay in Condition
(DETERIORATION)
EXCELLENT

ROAD
CONDITION

Condition
Improvement

(RESET)
Treatment
Applied
POOR

Minimum
Acceptable
Standard
(TRIGGER)

TIME

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DeteriorationManagement
EXCELLENT

ORIGINAL DECAY
OPTIMAL
CONDITION
BAND

ASSET CONDITION

Maintenance
Treatments

OPTIMAL RENEWAL
STRATEGY

POOR
TIME

Requirement - Optimization to Minimize


COSTS

Total Transportation Cost (TTC)

OptimumMaintenance

TotalTransportCosts
RoadUserCosts

MaintenanceCosts
ConstructionCosts
MAINTENANCELEVEL

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Means of Maintenance

An ideal system for the maintenance

should be based on some scientific basis


and all the data required should be
collected on some standards.
For

decision making process, many


countries have developed Pavement
Management System (PMS) according to
the their need.

In Pakistan, Different agencies are using

various PMS varying from excel sheets to


state of art Models like HDM-4

NETWORK ANALYSIS PROCESS


Main components include:
Forecasting of Revenue Generation/Investment
Statement
Road and Bridge Distress Survey
Roughness Measurement Survey
Strength Evaluation Survey
Traffic Survey
Historical Data
Performance Standards
Feedback from Stakeholders
Treatment Rules

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3/17/2012

NHA RAMS DATABASE

GIS
System
Regional Office
Connectivity

Bridge
Management
System

Road
Database

Pavement
Management
System
Contract
Management System

Data Collection

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PLEASE DOCUMENT YOUR EXPERIENCE

Data Collection
Following Data is collected each year
Pavement Condition Data
Traffic Data
Falling Weight Deflecto-meter Data
Roughness Data
Profilo-graph Data
Economic Data for Traffic Fleet
Revenue Data From Toll Plazas

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3/17/2012

Pavement Condition Data


Pavement Distress type, Extent and
Severity is recorded for EACH KM of the
every Road. The Data is Collected by
WINDSHEILD SURVEY.
Following Distresses with measuring units are
identified for Data Collection
Cracking

(%age of length effected & Crack Width)

Rutting

(Length of Rutted Portion & Rut Depth)

Potholes
Ravelling

(Number of Potholes in KM)


(%age of length effected & Disintegration Type)

Edge Step

(%age length effected & Depth)

Erosion from Original Edge

(%age length effected & Depth)

Drainage Condition

(Performance Indicator)

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71

72
72

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74

37

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75

76

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77

78

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79

80

40

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81

PAVEMENT CONDITION SURVEY FORM

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Traffic Data
24 Hours Classified Traffic Counts at Chosen

Stations is Carried Out.


Traffic Data is also Retrieved from NTRC, NHA,

NH&MP and Other Highway Consultants.


This

Data
Analysis.

iss,

then,

Sorted

for

Different

Axle Load Data is Collected from NH&MP and

NHA Weigh Stations.


Axle Load Studies by NTRC, RAMD and JICA

Japan are also consulted.

FWD Data
FWD data is collected by NHA itself.
KUAB Falling Weight Deflectometer is

used to collect the data.

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STIFFNESSCONCEPT
Wheel load

WEAK

STRONG

Poor load spreading

Subgrade

Wheel load

Good load spreading

Compressive stress on subgrade

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FWD Deflection Basin

FWD Machine

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Pavement Roughness
Data

Pavement Roughness Data is Collected by ROMDAS

Bump Integrator Unit & Profilograph.


The BI unit Gives the Number of Bumps, it received

from the pavement, which were, then, converted to


IRI values.
IRI is a standard to measure the smoothness of the

Pavement and measures Pavement Roughness in


terms of the number of mm per Km that a vehicle
receives during its operation

Bump Integrator Unit

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Profilograph

Front bar with 13 roughness lasers (16 kHz)


and 2 texture lasers (64 kHz)

HDM-4 APPLICATION
PRIORITIZATION CYCLE

Analysis Tools

APPLICATIO
N OF
HDM MODEL

Project Program Strategy

ANNUAL
BUSINESS
PLAN

Central Data
Bank

Data Managers

BUDGET
Road
Network

Vehicle
Fleet

Road
Works

HDM
Config .

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3/17/2012

HDM-4 Overview
The Highway Design and Maintenance

Standards Model (HDM-4), Developed by


the World Bank, has been Used for over
two Decades to Combine Technical and
Economic Appraisals of Road Projects, to
Prepare Road Investment Programmes
and to Analyze Road Network Strategies.

HDM Workspace

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Road Network

Vehicle Fleet
Vehicle Fleet is Developed by Considering
Different Types of Vehicles which are Using
the Road Network in Pakistan. Following
Data is Provided for 12 Type of Vehicles:
Type & Class of Vehicle
Physical Characteristics
Utilisation of Vehicle
Specifications of Tyres
Axle Loading and Spacing
Vehicular Resources
Time Value
Fuel & Lubrication Pricings

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Economic Costs of Motorcycles &


Cars

Vehicle Fleet

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Work Standards
24 Maintenance Standards are Developed and Costing of Each
of Them is Carried out. These Standards are Then Imported
to HDM-4 for Choosing Best Alternative for any Road
Section: Following are Cconsidered for the Formulation of
These Standards:
Desired Service Indicators
Maximize the Net Present Value
Maximize the Internal Rate of Return
Minimize the IRI
Minimum Cost for Maintaining a Road.

Rate Analysis for All the Maintenance Standard is


Carried out in Excel Sheets

Work Standards
Each
Maintenance
Standard
is
Associated with Responsive Criteria.
And it Triggers when That Criteria is
Met. Like
Rehabilitation Triggers when

IRI=>5 &

Cracked Carriageway =>35 %

Similarly
120 mm Structural Overlay Triggers
when 4=< IRI <=5 & Cracked Carriageway =>15 % , <35%

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Work Standards

UNCONSTRAINED WORK PROGRAM


AS PER HDM-IV ANALYSIS - 2008

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103

104

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105

106

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EndNote
AStichinTimeSavesNine

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