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University of Puerto Rico Campus of Mayagez

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Heat & Mass Transfer Project #2

Name
Section
Heat & Mass Transfer
Professor

Project 1
The governing equations for flow over a flat plate are:

For the flow conditions over the flat plate

u L
=200,000
v

which is laminar flow. Figures 1.1 & 1.2 are respectively the temperature and
velocity profiles obtained from CCM+. Figures 1.3 & 1.4 are the numerically
obtained temperature and velocity profiles. These were obtained by solving the
appropriate equations using the 4th order Runge-Kutta method. The solutions
obtained from the mentioned method can be found in figures 1.5 & 1.6. The profiles
obtained in the problem are similar to each other and therefore we conclude that
the Runge-Kutta method was a success.

Project 2
The cooler simulation was done two times, one where the fluid was air and
second case where the fluid was water. To achieve this, the simulation was kept with
all the same conditions but one changes the properties of the air to match the
properties of water. This is due to the fact that the most important properties in
convection are dynamic viscosity, thermal conductivity, density, and specific heat,
as well as the fluid velocity of the flow. Since can change these values from one
substance to another thats all one has to do to change the environment of the
simulation.
To obtain the theoretical heat transfer coefficient one first calculates the heat
transfer with CCM+ and uses the initial temperatures (Ts = 100C & Tinf = 30C)
along with the surface area of the fins to calculate to obtain an average value.
For water we have that:

Q=h A s ( T s T )=106 W
h=

Q
W
=246.23 2
A s ( T s T )
m K
3/ 2

=Lc

h
=0.52
k Ap

With these values we can go to the efficiency curves and obtain that the magnitude
for the efficiency is:

n=0.85
And therefore that the theoretical heat transfer is:

Q=h ( T bT ) ( A uf + n A f ) =91.14 W
And an error of 15.1% is obtained when compared to the numerical value of 106W.
When the fluid is air we instead have that:

Q=h A s ( T s T )=14.3 W
h=

Q
W
=33.22 2
A s ( T s T )
m K

=L3/c 2

h
=0.19
k Ap

Then the efficiency is:

n=0.96
Obtaining a theoretical heat transfer rate of:

Q=h ( T bT ) ( A uf + n A f ) =13.77 W
This value gives us an error of 3.8% with the numerical heat transfer rate of 14.3W.

Project 3
Since Re = 100 this is laminar flow with uniform heat flux. For laminar flow

Lh 0.05 D D 0.10 m
Since the heat flux starts being applied at 0.25 m from the start of the tube we can
say that the flow is hydro dynamically developed before entering the heated region.
Similarly

Lt 0.05 D D Pr Lh Pr 0.067 m
And considering that the heated region is 0.5m long we can say that the flow is
thermically developed before exiting the heated region.
To obtain the maximum temperature, which is located at the surface at the
end of the heated region, we first must calculate the mean temperature at the end
of the heated region.

q ''s A s
T mo=T mi+
mC
p

''

q DL
T mo=T mi+ s

u D2 C p
4
T mo=T mi+

4 q ''s L
=548.76 K
u DC p

After calculating the mean temperature one determines the heat transfer coefficient

Nu=

hD
=4.36
k

h=4.36

k
W
=6.54 2
D
m K

And lastly the maximum temperature

T so=T mo+

q 's'
=586.99 K
h

MATLAB code to solve the differential equations


clc, clear all, close all;
dn = 0.05; vN = 0:dn:30;
%Initial Conditions
Y0 = 0; Y1 = 0; Y2 = 0.332;
%Function Vectors
vY0 = Y0;
vY1 = Y1;
vY2 = Y2;
for i = 2:length(vN)
%Calculate next vY0 using Y1
k1 = Y1;
k2 = Y1 + dn/2*k1;
k3 = Y1 + dn/2*k2;
k4 = Y1 + dn*k3;
dY0 = dn/6*(k1+2*k2+2*k3+k4);
vY0(i) = vY0(i-1) + dY0;
%Calculate next vY1 using Y2
k1 = Y2;
k2 = Y2 + dn/2*k1;
k3 = Y2 + dn/2*k2;
k4 = Y2 + dn*k3;
dY1 = dn/6*(k1+2*k2+2*k3+k4);
vY1(i) = vY1(i-1) + dY1;
%Calculate next
k1 = -Y0*Y2/2;
k2 = -Y0*Y2/2 +
k3 = -Y0*Y2/2 +
k4 = -Y0*Y2/2 +

vY2 using Y3 = -Y0*Y2/2


dn/2*k1;
dn/2*k2;
dn*k3;

dY2 = dn/6*(k1+2*k2+2*k3+k4);
vY2(i) = vY2(i-1) + dY2;
%Set
Y0 =
Y1 =
Y2 =

new values
vY0(i);
vY1(i);
vY2(i);

end
figure; plot(vN,[vY0;vY1;vY2]'); legend('f','f''','f''''');
%Constants
Pr = 1;
%Initial Conditions
Z0 = 0;
Z1 = 0.332 * Pr^(1/3);

%Function Vectors
vZ0 = Z0;
vZ1 = Z1;
for i = 2:length(vN)
%Calculate next vZ0 using Z1
k1 = Z1;
k2 = Z1 + dn/2*k1;
k3 = Z1 + dn/2*k2;
k4 = Z1 + dn*k3;
dZ0 = dn/6*(k1+2*k2+2*k3+k4);
vZ0(i) = vZ0(i-1) + dZ0;
%Calculate next vZ1 using Z2 = -Pr/2 f Z1
k1 = -Pr/2*vY0(i)*Z1;
k2 = -Pr/2*vY0(i)*Z1 + dn/2*k1;
k3 = -Pr/2*vY0(i)*Z1 + dn/2*k2;
k4 = -Pr/2*vY0(i)*Z1 + dn*k3;
dZ1 = dn/6*(k1+2*k2+2*k3+k4);
vZ1(i) = vZ1(i-1) + dZ1;
%Set new values
Z0 = vZ0(i);
Z1 = vZ1(i);
end
figure; plot(vN,[vZ0;vZ1]'); legend('T*','T*''');
%Constants
Umax = 2; % [m/s]
x = 0.5; % [m]
Vkin = 10^-5; % [m^2/s]
nAlpha = sqrt(Umax / Vkin / x);
Tinf = 300; % [K]
Ts = 400; % [K]
%Plot Velocity Profile
vVelocity = Umax * vY1;
vY = vN / nAlpha;
figure;
plot(vVelocity,vY);
ylim([0 0.03]);
xlabel('Velocity [m/s]');ylabel('Y Position [m]');
%Plot Temperature Profile
vT = vZ0 * (Tinf - Ts) + Ts;
figure;
plot(vT,vY);
ylim([0 0.03]);xlim([280 420]);
xlabel('Temperature [K]');ylabel('Y Position [m]');

Figure 1.1
Temperature Profile obtained from CCM+

Figure 1.2
Velocity Profile obtained from CCM+

0.03

0.025

Y Position [m]

0.02

0.015

0.01

0.005

0
280

300

320

340
360
Temperature [K]

380

400

420

Figure 1.3
Temperature Profile obtained analytically

0.03

0.025

Y Position [m]

0.02

0.015

0.01

0.005

0.5

1
1.5
Velocity [m/s]

Figure 1.4
Velocity Profile obtained analytically

2.5

30
f
f'
f''

25

20

15

10

10

15

20

25

30

Figure 1.5
Runge-Kutta solution for the Blasius Equation

1.4
T*
T*'

1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0

10

15

20

25

Figure 1.6
Runge-Kutta solution for the Temperature Equation

30

Figure 2.1
Air Temperature in a Section Plane

Figure 2.2
Air Velocity in a Section Plane

Figure 2.3
Water Temperature in a Section Plane

Figure 2.4
Water Velocity in a Section Plane

Figure 2.5
Heat Transfer from the Cooler in Air

Figure 2.6
Heat Transfer from the Cooler in Water

Figure 3.1
Temperature across the whole tube

Figure 3.2
Velocity Profiles in the Entrance Region

Figure 3.3
Temperature at the Tube Surface

Figure 3.4
Mean Temperature at the end of the Heated Region