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A Linear Static Analysis of a Plate with a Hole - OS-1000

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A Linear Static Analysis of a Plate with a Hole - OS-1000


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This tutorial demonstrates how to create finite elements on a given geometry of a plate with a hole, apply boundary
conditions, and perform a finite element analysis of the problem. Post-processing tools will be used in HyperView to
determine deformation and stress characteristics of the loaded plate.
The following exercises are included:
Setting up the problem in HyperMesh
Applying Loads and Boundary Conditions
Submitting the job
Viewing the results

Setting Up the Problem in HyperMesh


To load the OptiStruct user profile and retrieve the geometry:
1.

Launch HyperMesh.

2.

Choose OptiStruct in the User Profile dialog and click OK.


This loads the OptiStruct user profile. It includes the OptiStruct template, macro menu, and import reader,
paring down the functionality of HyperMesh to what is relevant for use with OptiStruct.

User Profiles can also be accessed from the Preferences pull-down menu on the toolbar.
3.

Select the Files panel toolbar button

4.

Select the hm file subpanel using the radio buttons on the left-hand side of the panel.

5.

Click retrieve .

An Open file browser window pops up.


6.

Select the plate_hole.hm file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
<install_directory>/tutorials/os/.

7.

Click Open.
The plate_hole.hm database is loaded into the current HyperMesh session, replacing any existing data. The
database only contains geometric data.
Note the location of plate_hole.hm now displays in the file: field.

8.

Click Return.

To set up the material and geometric properties:

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Create the material collectors before creating the component collectors. This is the most efficient way of setting up the
file since components need to reference materials.
1.

Select the Collectors toolbar button.

2.

Select the create subpanel using the radio buttons on the left-hand side of the panel.

3.

Click the collector type switch and select materials from the pop-up menu.

4.

Click name = and enter steel.

5.

Click card image = and select MAT1 from the pop-up menu.
Three additional fields are displayed when you select MAT1.

6.

Change the value of E= to 2e5 and leave the default value for NU as 0.3 and the value for RHO as 7.9e-09.

7.

Click create/edit.
The MAT1 card image pops up.
If a quantity in brackets does not have a value below it, it is off. To change this, click the quantity in brackets
and an entry field will appear below it. Click the entry field and enter a value.

8.

Click return.
A new material, steel, has been created. The material uses OptiStruct's linear isotropic material model, MAT1.
This material has a Young's Modulus of 2E+05 and a Poisson's Ratio of 0.3. It is not necessary to define a
density value since only a static analysis will be performed. Density values are required, however, for other
solution sequences.
At any time, the card image for this collector can be modified using the Card Editor

9.

Click the collector type switch and select components from the pop-up menu.

10.

Click name = and enter shells.

11.

Click card image = and select PSHELL from the pop-up menu.

12.

Click material = and select steel.

13.

Click the shell thickness toggle and select thickness.

14.

Click Thickness = and enter a thickness value of 10.

15.

Click color and pick a color from the palette.

16.

Click create/edit.
The PSHELL card image pops up.

17.

Click return.
A new component, shells, has been created. This component uses the PSHELL property definition with a
thickness value of 10.0. The material steel is referenced by this component. The component has been assigned
the color chosen from the palette.
All elements organized into this component collector should be shell elements. They will have a thickness of 10,
the material properties defined in the material collector steel, and be displayed in HyperMesh using the color
chosen.
At any time, the card image for this collector can be modified using the Card Editor
and the material
referenced by this component collector can be changed using the update option in the Collectors panel.

18.

Click return to go to the main menu.

To mesh the geometry:


The automeshing module is used to create a quad dominant mesh. Since the shells component was just created, it is the
current component; elements generated will now be organized into this component.

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1.

From the 2D page, select the automesh panel.

2.

If the surfs entity selection is not selected by default, click on the entity selector switch and select surfs.

3.

Click surfs and select displayed from the pop-up selection menu.

4.

Click mesh.

5.

After elem size =, enter the value 40.

6.

Click recalc all.


Notice how the node density along all of the edges is adjusted in the display.

7.

Select the mesh style subpanel using the radio buttons on the left-hand side of the panel.

8.

Click the switch in the elem type: section and select quads from the pop-up menu.

9.

Click set all (in the elem type: section).


All surfaces will now be meshed with a quad-dominated mesh.

10.

Click on the switch in the mesh method: section and select autodecide from the pop-up menu.

11.

Click set all in the mesh method: section.


All surfaces will now autodecide the best meshing algorithm to use.

12.

Click mesh.

13.

The mesh is constructed based on the node density along the surface edges, the algorithm, and the mesh type
chosen. The figure below shows what the mesh should look like.

Plate mesh using element size of 40mm.

14.

Click return.
This saves the mesh into the current component shells.

15.

Click return to go to the main menu.

Applying loads and boundary conditions to the model


In this section, the model is constrained so that two opposing edges of the four external edges cannot move. The other
two edges remain unconstrained. A total load of 1000N is applied at the edge of the hole in the positive z-direction.
To create load collectors (spcs and forces):
1.

Click the Collectors toolbar button

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2.

Select the create subpanel using the radio buttons on the left-hand side of the panel.

3.

Click the collector type switch and select load collectors from the pop-up menu.

4.

Click name = and enter spcs.

5.

Click color and pick a color from the palette.

6.

Click the creation method switch and select no card image from the pop-up menu.

7.

Click create.
A new load collector, spcs, is created.

8.

Click name = and enter forces.

9.

Click color and pick another color.

10.

Click create.
A new load collector, forces, is created.

11.

Click return to go to the main menu.

To create constraints:
1.

on the header bar. This opens a new window through which the collector
Click comp:
types can be set as current collectors.

2.

Click on loadcol and select spcs from the list of load collectors.

3.

From the Analysis page, select the constraints panel.

4.

Select the create subpanel using the radio buttons on the left side of the panel.

5.

Click the entity selection switch and select nodes from the pop-up menu.

6.

Click nodes and select by window from the pop-up extended entity selection menu.

7.

Draw a window in the graphics area encompassing the nodes to be selected (shown in the figure).
The window is polygonal, and every mouse click creates a window vertex.

Illustration of which nodes to select for applying single point constraints.

8.

Check the box beside interior and click on select entities.

9.

Constrain dof1, dof2, dof3, dof4, dof5, and dof6.


Dofs with a check will be constrained while dofs without a check will be free.
Dofs 1, 2, and 3 are x, y, and z translation degrees of freedom.

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Dofs 4, 5, and 6 are x, y, and z rotational degrees of freedom.


10.

Click create.
This applies these constraints to the selected nodes.

11.

Click return to go to the main menu.

To create forces on the nodes around the hole:


1.

Set your current load collector to forces using comp: on the header bar as before.

2.

Select the forces panel on the Analysis page.

3.

Select the create subpanel using the radio buttons on the left-hand side of the panel.

4.

Click the entity selection switch and select nodes from the pop-up menu.

5.

Click nodes and select by window from the pop-up extended entity selection menu.

6.

Draw a window in the graphics window encompassing the nodes you wish to select.
The window is polygonal, and every mouse click creates a window vertex.
The following figure indicates which nodes should be selected.

Nodes selected for creating loading around hole.

7.

Check the box beside interior and click on select entities.

8.

Click nodes, and select save from the extended entity selection menu.

9.

Click return to exit the forces panel.

10.

Select the count panel on the Tool page.

11.

Select the model subpanel using the radio buttons on the left-hand side of the panel.

12.

Click the entity selection switch in the lower left-hand corner of the panel and select nodes from the pop-up menu.

13.

Click nodes and select retrieve from the pop-up extended entity selection menu.

14.

This retrieves the nodes that you just saved in the forces panel.

15.

Click selected.
This counts the number of entities selected, which in this case is the number of nodes about the hole.

16.

Make a note of the number of nodes.

17.

Click return to exit the count panel.

18.

Select the forces panel on the Analysis page.

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19.

Click nodes, and select retrieve from the extended entity selection menu.

20.

Set the coordinate system toggle to global system.

21.

Click the vector definition switch and select constant vector.

22.

Click magnitude = and enter a magnitude such that the total load on the nodes around the hole is 1000. i.e. 1000
divided by the number of nodes.

23.

Click the direction definition switch below magnitude =, and select z-axis from the pop-up menu.

24.

Click create.
This creates a number of point forces, with the given magnitude in the z-direction, to be applied to the nodes
about the hole.

25.

Click return to return to the main menu.

To create an OptiStruct subcase (also referred to as a loadstep):


1.

Select the subcase panel on the Analysis page.

2.

Click name = and enter lateral force.

3.

Make sure that the export option is toggled to export.

4.

Click the type: switch and select linear static if it is not already selected by default.

5.

Check the box preceding SPC.


An entry field appears to the right of SPC.

6.

Click on the entry field and select spcs from the list of load collectors.

7.

Check the box preceding LOAD.


An entry field appears to the right of LOAD.

8.

Click on the entry field and select forces from the list of load collectors.

9.

Click create.
An OptiStruct subcase has been created which references the constraints in the load collector spcs and the
forces in the load collector forces.

10.

Click return to go to the main menu.

Submitting the Job


To launch OptiStruct:
1.

Select the OptiStruct panel on the Analysis page.

2.

Click save as following the input file: field.


A Save file browser window pops up.

3.

Select the directory where you would like to write the OptiStruct model file and enter the name for the model,
plate_hole.fem, in the File name: field.
The .fem filename extension is the suggested extension for OptiStruct input decks.

4.

Click Save.
Note the name and location of the plate_hole.fem file displays in the input file: field.

5.

Set the memory options: toggle to memory default.

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6.

Click the run options: switch and select analysis.

7.

Set the export options: toggle to all.

8.

Click OptiStruct.
This launches the OptiStruct job. If the job is successful, you should see new results files in the directory from
which plate_hole.fem was selected. The plate_hole.out file is a good place to look for error
messages that could help debug the input deck if any errors are present.
The default files written to the directory are:
plate_hole.html

HTML report of the analysis, giving a summary of the problem


formulation and the analysis results.

plate_hole.out

OptiStruct output file containing specific information on the file


setup, the setup of your optimization problem, estimates for the
amount of RAM and disk space required for the run, information
for each optimization iteration, and compute time information.
Review this file for warnings and errors.

plate_hole.h3d

HyperView binary result file.

plate_hole.res

HyperMesh binary results file.

plate_hole.stat

Summary of analysis process, providing CPU information for


each step during analysis process.

Viewing the Results and Post-processing


Displacement and Stress results for linear static analyses are output from OptiStruct by default. This section describes
how to view those results in HyperView.
HyperView is a complete post-processing and visualization environment for finite element analysis (FEA), multi-body
system simulation, video, and engineering data.
To view a contour plot of stresses:
1.

Once you see the message Process completed successfully in the command window, click HyperView.
HyperView is launched and the results are loaded. A message window appears to inform of the successful
model and result files loading into HyperView.

2.

Click Close to close the message window.

3.

Click the Contour toolbar button

4.

Select the first pull-down menu below Result type: and select Element Stresses [2D & 3D] (t).

5.

Select the second pull-down menu below Result type: and select vonMises.

6.

Select None in the field below Averaging method:.

7.

Click Apply.

A contoured image representing von Mises stresses should be visible. Each element in the model is assigned a
legend color, indicating the von Mises stress value for that element, resulting from the applied loads and
boundary conditions.
8.

Click Top in the view controls from the bottom right corner to view the model as shown in the following figure.

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von Mises stress assigned plot

What is the maximum von Mises stress value?


At what location does the model have its maximum stress?
Does this make sense based on the boundary conditions applied to the model?
To view a contour plot of displacements:
1.

Select the first pull-down menu below Result type: and select Displacement (v).

2.

Select the second pull-down menu below Result type: and select Mag.

3.

Click Apply.
The resulting contours represent the displacement field resulting from the applied loads and boundary
conditions.
What is the maximum Displacement value?
At what location does the model have its maximum displacement?
Does this make sense based on the boundary conditions applied to the model?

To view the deformed shape:


1.

Click Iso in the view controls (bottom, right corner) to display the isometric view of the model.

2.

Click the Deformed toolbar button

3.

Set Result type: to Displacement(v), Scale: to Scale factor, and Type: to Uniform.

4.

Enter 500 in the field next to value.

This means that the maximum displacement will be 500 model units, and that all other displacements will be
proportional.
5.

For Show:, select Wireframe.

6.

Click Apply.
A deformed plot of your model with displacement contour should be visible, overlaid on the original undeformed
mesh. Refer to the following figure to see what the plot should look like in isometric view.

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Isometric view of deformed plot overlaid on the original undeformed mesh with model units set to 500.

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