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FORM 1. Chapter 3.

MATTER

Chapter 4. DIVERSITY OF
RESOURCES ON EARTH

FORM 1. Chapter 5. AIR AROUND US

FORM 1. CHAPTER 6.
SOURCES AND FORMS
OF ENERGY

CHAPTER 7. HEAT AND ITS TRANSFER

VARIOUS FORMS OF ENERGY


CHEMICAL
ENERGY

HEAT
ENERGY

ELECTRIVAL
ENERGY

POTENTIAL
ENERGY

KINETIC
ENERGY

ENERGY
MECHANICAL
ENERGY

NUCLEAR
ENERGY

SOUND
ENERGY

LIGHT
ENERGY

OXYGEN IN AIR

RUSTING

PHOTOSYNTHESIS
ANIMALS AND
HUMANS

GREEN
PLANTS

CARCASSES

FOSSIL FUELS

DECOMPOSITION
RESPIRATION

COMBUSTION

CARBON DIOXIDE IN AIR

METALS

SOURCES OF ENERGY ON EARTH

RENEWABLE

NON RENEWABLE

BIOMASS
SOLAR
HYDRO
WIND
GEO THERMAL
WAVES

FOSSIL FUELS
NUCLEAR

COAL
PETROLEUM

NATURAL GAS

EXAMPLES OF ENERGY CONVERTER


E N E RG Y
CONVERTER
RADIO
TELEVISION

ENERGY CONVERSION
Electrical energy

GAS STOVE

Electrical energy
e n e rg y
Chemical energy

ELECTRIC FAN

Electrical energy

BICYCLE
Kinetic energy
DYNAMO
e n e rg y
ELECTRIC IRON Electrical energy
HAIR-DRYER
ELECTRIC RICE
COOK E R
LIGHT BULB

s o un d e n e rg y
light energy
heat energy

light energy

kinetic energy
electrical energy

l ig h t

heat energy

Electrical energy
kinetic energy
e n e rg y
s o un d e n e rg y
Electrical energy
heat energy
Electrical energy
e n e rg y

s o un d

heat energy

heat

l ig h t

THE PRINCIPLE OF ENERGY CONSERVATION

~ Energy cannot be
created or
destroyed

~ Energy can only be


converted from one
form to another

ENERGY IS CONSERVED
Amount of energy
Amount of energy
before conversion
after conversion

PROCESSES AND ENERGY CONSERVATION


LIGHT ENERGY
(from the sun)
CHEMICAL ENERGY
(in food)

PHOTOSYNTHESIS

RESPIRATION

CHEMICAL ENERGY
(in food)
HEAT ENERGY +
WATER + CARBON
DIOXIDE

COMPARISON BETWEEN
CONDUCTION, CONVECTION AND RADIATION
CONDUCTION
~ Transferred by
particles that vibrate
and collide with other
particles
~ Occurs in solids,
liquids and gases but
most effective in
solids
~ Does not occur in
a vacuum
~ rapid process

CONVECTION

RADIATION

~ Transferred by
particles that move
and form a
convectional current

~ Radiated by a hot
body to surrounding

~ Occurs in fluids
Like liquids and gases
most effective

~ Occurs without any


medium

~ Does not occur in


a vacuum
~ slow process

~ Can occur in
a vacuum
~ rapid process (light
Speed)

CARS RADIATOR
~ to remove heat
produced in engine
by convection
through water in
the radiator

THERMOS FLASK
~ vacuum space prevent
heat loss by conduction
and convection
~ silver layered prevent
heat loss by radiation

TO WARM BODY
~ fire to warm our
bodies prevent heat
transfer by radiation
from our body to
surrounding

USAGE OF THE PRINCIPLE OF HEAT


TRANSFER IN SOLVING PROBLEMS
HOT ROOM
1. the ventilation system of a
building ~ hot air rises out
through upper section (air holes)
2. air conditioner ~ apply
principle of convection, fixed at
upper section

COLD ROOM
Air heater and heating
system ~ apply principle
of convection, fixed at lower
Section. Hot air which produced
moves up while the cold air
moves down

METHODS OF HEAT TRANSFER


CONDUCTION:
~ Heat transfer through
solid from a high temperature
to a low temperature
Examples of good
conductors are
metal.
Copper
Aluminium
Iron
decrease

CONVECTION:
~ Heat transfer in a fluid from
A hot to a less hot area

RADIATION:
~ Heat transfer from a
heat source to its
surroundings without the
need of medium
(air or vacuum)
~
~

~ Hot fluid (less


dense) move up
~ Cold fluid (more
dense) move down

Can be absorbed or reflected


travel at speed of light

CONDUCTORS

AND

INSULATORS

Materials that conduct


heat easily

Materials that do not


Conduct heat easily

Examples:
Metals ~ copper, iron
mercury, aluminium

Examples:
Wood, plastic, rubber,
water and air

Applications:
~ cooking utensils
~ radiator coil in vehicle
~ mercury thermometer
~ wire gauze (steel)
~ heating coil electric kettle
~ soldering iron made of
copper
~ Davy safety light

Applications
~ handles of cooking utensils
~ polystyrene food containers
~ fibreglass refrigerators
~ sawdust prevent ice melt
~ fur clothing keep body warm
~ blanket keep body warm
~ i g loo
~ sleeping bag

NATURAL APPLICATION OF
THE PRINCIPLE OF CONVECTION
LAND BREEZE
~ at night, land cools faster
than sea
~ hot air from the sea rises
and it is replaced by cold air
from the land

SEA BREEZE
~ during day time, land heats
up faster than sea
~ hot air from the land rises
and it is replaced by cold air
from the sea

NATURAL APPLICATION OF
THE PRINCIPLE OF RADIATION
Earth and sun separated by vacuum. Heat from sun is transferred
To earth by radiation without the need of medium

ABSORPTION

AND

RADIATION

All materials can absorb and radiate


DEPENDS ON:
1. surrounding temperature
~ object that has higher temperature than its surrounding,
radiates heat
~ object that has lower temperature than its surrounding,
absorbs heat
2. nature of its surface
~ dark and dull best for absorbing heat
~ bright and shiny best for reflecting heat
NATURE OF SURFACE HEAT ABSORPTION

HEAT RADIATION

D UL L

GOOD

GOOD

SHINY

BAD

BAD

BRIGHT

BAD

BAD

GOOD

GOOD

DARK