00 mendukung00 menolak

16 tayangan10 halamanBasic Concepts in Statistics

May 10, 2016

Ā© Ā© All Rights Reserved

DOC, PDF, TXT atau baca online dari Scribd

Basic Concepts in Statistics

Ā© All Rights Reserved

16 tayangan

00 mendukung00 menolak

Basic Concepts in Statistics

Ā© All Rights Reserved

Anda di halaman 1dari 10

Introduction

Everyday we often listen to our friends on such matters

such as How many units have you enrolled this semester or

What is you average grade this semester and so forth and so

on. Or we listen to a barrage of statistic from our University

Registrar telling us that The total enrollment this semester is

almost 6,500 with 3,500 males and 3,000 females. The total

enrollment for the College of Arts and Sciences is 1600, with 879

number of students enrolled in the College of Agriculture and so

forth and so on.

We often listen to the different vital statistics of Miss CAS,

Miss BA, Miss Agriculture, etc. during Miss CLSU as 34-24-34 or

36-25-35 and so on. Or you may ask the question of What is the

probability that you will graduate two years from now? or What

is the probability that Sir will be absent next meeting? However,

statistics is more than these.

Statistics enters into almost every phase of life in some way

or another. A daily news broadcast may start with a weather

forecast and end with an analysis of the stock market. In a

newspaper at hand we see in the first five pages stories on an

increase in the wholesale price of sugar, an increase in the

number of crimes committed, new findings on mothers who

smoke, the urgent need for laws, a school plan for evaluation of

teachers, popularity of cell phones, a tuition fee increase and sex

bias in the government working force. Each article reports some

information, proposal or conclusion based on the organization

and analysis of numerical data.

Statistics in systematic and penetrating ways provides

bases for investigations in many fields of knowledge, such as

medicine and law. Information on a topic is acquired in the form

of numbers; an analysis of these data is made in order to obtain a

better understanding of the phenomenon of interest; and some

conclusions may be drawn. Often generalizations are sought;

their validity is assessed by further investigations.

A definition of statistics is making sense out of figures.

Statistics

is

the

methodology

which

scientists

and

mathematicians have developed for interpreting and drawing

conclusions from data. This chapter begins with the real

definitions of statistics and the basic terminologies and concepts

underlying the subject of statistics.

Objectives:

At the end of this module, you should be able to:

1. Differentiate descriptive and inferential statistics.

2. Differentiate a continuous variable from a discrete

variable and quantitative variable from qualitative

variable.

3. Classify data according to level of measurement.

4. Employ summation notation and apply operations

involving the summation.

Definition of Statistics

Statistics is a branch of science which deals with the

collection, organization, summary, presentation and

analyses of quantitative data as well as drawing valid

conclusions and making reasonable decisions on the

bases of such analyses.

The analysis of data collected in the course of study is

among the most important activities performed by the

researcher. Unfortunately, it is not given very much attention

until the moment it is scheduled to begin. This module stresses

that planning for data analysis begins when a study is just getting

considered have been satisfactorily resolved. Data analysis is the

focus because:

1. The value of an entire study may depend upon the

analyses one chooses to make or not to make. All the

time spent obtaining permission to conduct a study and

selecting samples and instruments may be wasted, in

whole or in part, if careful attention is not given to how

data will eventually be analyzed.

2. Planning data analysis procedures before data are

collected insures that the right information will be

collected and in a form suitable for later use. Learning

too late that additional data would have made your study

far more valuable is justification enough to plan ahead. It

is not unusual for researchers to find that for every hour

spent in planning the exact format in which data should

be collected, as many as ten hours are saved in the

analysis phase.

3. Knowledge of available procedures for data analysis

should lead you to make more useful sets of findings and

implications. This should cause others to take your work

more seriously than they would if this section were given

inadequate attention.

4. Data analysis is not that difficult anyway. There now

exists a multitude of computer programs, many of which

are designed in a user friendly format. All it need to

take to do an analysis is the ability to push the button on

the computer corresponding to the number of your

selection. Data analysis can be simple as that and still be

powerful enough to accomplish the purposes discussed

above. With a bit more prodding, some computers can do

much more to help us to generate study findings which

will make our previous efforts even more worthwhile.

DESCRIPTIVE AND INFERENTIAL STATISTICS

a recent one. In its early years, the study of statistics largely

consisted of methodology for summarizing or describing

numerical data. This area of study has become known as

descriptive statistics because it is concerned largely with

summary calculations and graphical displays. These methods are

in contrast to the modern statistical approach in which

generalizations are made about the whole by investigating a

portion. Thus, the average income of all families in the Philippines

can be estimated from figures obtained from a few hundred

families. Such a prediction or estimate is an example of inference.

The study of how inferences are made from numerical data is

called inferential statistics.

VARIABLES

Variables are the factors that we focus on in a given study.

They are the characteristics of interest of the study which are

inherent of the object or person. Example of such variables are

sex of the grade I pupils, number of children in the family, age of

father, family income, color of the eye of the person, nationality,

attitude of farmers, behavior of kindergarten pupils, etc

Kinds of Variables:

1. Continuous variable takes any value within a specified

range of values. It usually gives rise to measurement.

Example: height, weight, volume, age

2. Discrete variable takes integral values. It usually gives

rise to counting numbers. Example: number of children,

number of road accidents

Types of Variables:

1. Quantitative variables those variables which are

expressed numerically. Example: height, weight, number of

children in the family

expressed categorically. Example: color of the eye, sex,

military rank

Levels of Measurements

1. Nominal: Nominal data consist of numbers which indicate

categories for purely classification or identification purposes.

With nominal data, the numbers themselves have no

mathematical value assigned to them. The number on the

back of a basketball player, for example, is at a nominal level.

It makes no sense to add the number of the center (12) to the

number of the guard (33). In effect the numbers are really

names. Mathematically, all one may do with nominal data is to

count how many are in each category. Another example is sex

where we assigned 1 for male and 2 for female.

2. Ordinal: Ordinal data possess a rank order characteristics,

but they do not provide information about the distance

between each rank. Thus if I know that Marvin is ranked best in

Mathematics, Melvin is next and MJ is third best, they may be

assigned values of 1, 2, and 3, respectively. One does

not know, however, how much better in mathematics Marvin is

as compared to Melvin, or Melvin compared to MJ. With ordinal

data the intervals between the ranks are not equal. Likewise,

the only mathematical symbol that can be used in an ordinal

data is greater than (>) or less than (<).

3. Interval:

Interval data possess equal intervals providing

information about how much better one value is compared

with another. Usually, we assume that our mental ability test,

achievement test and attitudinal test scores are examples of

interval data. Further, interval data have no absolute zero, that

is, zero is just an arbitrary value. If the temperature reading is

0oC, it does not mean the absence of temperature but rather

the temperature reaches the freezing point. Or if the IQ score

is zero, it does not mean the absence of knowledge but rather

the individual belongs to the low (or very low) performer

category. Furthermore, interval level can differentiate between

any two classes in terms of degrees of differences. Aside from

the mathematical symbol > and <, addition and subtraction

have meanings.

measures and they have a true zero or absolute zero which

indicates the total absence of the property being measured.

For example, measures of height, weight and age are typical

ratio scales since all of them have a zero value. All

mathematical procedures are appropriate with ratio scales.

SAQ1

1. Categorize each of the following as either nominal,

ordinal, interval or ratio measurement:

a. first, second and third place in a singing contest

b. metric measurement of distance

c. house numbers

d. cell phone numbers

e. number

of live births in December, 2000

Notations

and Symbols

f. attitude

towards

impeachment:

1=high

2=moderate 3=low

2. Categorize each of the following variables as either

discrete or continuous.

a. number of students who score 80 and above in

the NSAT exam

b. distance of the school to your house

c. number of chairs in the auditorium

d. number of faculty members in you school

e. floor area of our classroom (in sq. ft.)

f. scores of students in an examination

In the study of statistics, we cannot avoid the use of the different

notations and symbols. If our variable of interest is age, then we

let the symbol X stand for the variable age. Similarly, if the ages

of the 4 students are 15, 18, 19, and 15 then we can write the

following as: X1 = 15, X2 = 18, X3 = 19 and X4 = 15. Generally

X1,X2, X3, and X4 can be written down as Xi (read as X sub i)

where i is known as the index which locates the value of the

variable in the set. Note that X1 and X4 have the same value,

however, the value of X1 refers to student number 1 while X 4

refers to student number 4. Formally, we write the symbol for the

variable and the value of the variable (known as the variate) as

follows:

X = (X1,X2, , Xn )

Frequently, it is necessary to work with sums of numerical values.

Using the Greek letter (capital sigma) to indicate summation

of, we can write the sum of the 4 ages as

4

X i

i 1

numbers 1 to 4 are called the lower and upper limits of

summation. Hence

4

X i=

i 1

X1 + X2 + X3 + X4

= 15 + 18 + 19 + 15 = 67

n

i 1

up to n and then add up the terms. The subscript may be

changed to any letter, although i is seen to be written in most

textbooks.

When we are summing over all the values, instead of using

we use to mean that the sum is taken from the first observation

to the nth observation.

PROPERTIES OF SUMMATION SIGN

k = nk

2. The sum of the constant k times the variable Xi is equal to

the constant k times the sum of the variable Xi, that is,

k X i = k Xi

3. The summation of the sum or difference of 2 or more

variables is equal to the sum or difference of terms taken

separately, that is

(Xi Yi) = Xi Yi

4. The sum of the squares of variables is obtained by first

taking the square of all the observations and then get the

sum, that is,

Xi2 = X12 + X22 + X32 + + Xn2

5. The square of the sum of the variable is obtained by first

taking the sum of all the observations and then take the

square, that is

( Xi )2 = (X1 + X2 + X3 + + Xn )2

6. The sum of the product of 2 variables X and Y is obtained by

first taking the product of the 2 variables then take the sum,

that is

(Xi Yi) = (X1Y1) + (X2Y2) + (X3Y3) + + (XnYn)

7. The sum of the product of 2 variables X and Y is obtained by

first taking the sum of X and the sum of Y separately and

then take the product, that is

( Xi )( Yi )= (X1 + X2 + X3 + + Xn)(Y1 + Y2 + Y3 + +

Yn)

Activity

expressions:

8

1.

4Wi

4.

2.

i 4

6

j 1

Yj

i4

i 1

i 1

Xi / Yi 3. X i Yi 4

i2

i 3

5. X i 3 Yi 2

with appropriate limits.

1. a1 b1 a 2 b2 a 3 b3 a 4 b4

3

2. R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8

3

4

3. X 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4

2

2

2

2

2

4. W1 W2 W3 W4 W5

5.

X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 X7 X8

Y1 Y 2 Y 3 Y 4 Y 5 Y 6 Y 7 Y 8

10

a.

b.

1

f. X i

n

j.

X Y

i i

1

g. Yi

n

c.

h.

2

i

2

i

d.

i.

e.

X Y

i

X Y

i

books (Y) of n = 10 pupils per week.

Pupi

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

l

X

Y

5

2

3

4

4

3

2

5

1

6

0

7

6

1

5

2

If A

and B

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

A 0

A X i NA2

2

A X i B

X Y B

i

1 X i 2 X i N

2

A X i B

X Y NAB

i i

2

5

3

4

## Lebih dari sekadar dokumen.

Temukan segala yang ditawarkan Scribd, termasuk buku dan buku audio dari penerbit-penerbit terkemuka.

Batalkan kapan saja.