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# Theory of Machines and

Mechanisms
3rd edd

Chap-1

## Dr. Rizwan Alim Mufti

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Synthesis
Study of Mechanical Systems
1.Analysis
The techniques that allow the designer to critically
order to judge its suitability for the task. Thus it, in
itself, is not a creative science but one of evaluation
and rating of things already conceived.

1.Design

(Synthesis)

## The process of contriving a scheme or a method of

accomplishing a given purpose. It is the process of
prescribing
the
sizes,
shapes
material
compositions, and arrangements of parts so that
the resulting machine will perform the prescribed
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## The Science of Mechanics

The branch of scientific analysis that deals with motions, time
and forces.

Structure:
A combination of resistant (rigid) bodies
connected by joints with no purpose to do
work or transform motion and have no
relative motion between its various
members. (Statics)

Machine:
A combination of resistant bodies so arranged
that by their means the mechanical forces of
nature can be compelled to do work
accompanied by certain determinate motions.
(Kinetics)
A machine is an arrangement of parts for doing
work, a device for applying power or change its
direction.

Mechanism:
An assemblage of resistant bodies, connected
by movable joints, to form a closed kinematic
chain with one link fixed and having the
purpose of transforming motion. (Kinematics)
(Definitions by Reuleaux)

Terminologies, Definitions
A machine part or a component of a mechanism.
The rigid connection between two or more elements of
different kinematic pairs.
It is assumed to be completely rigid. (e.g. spring is not a link)
Sometimes a machine member may possess one way rigidity.
(e.g. a belt or chain) (i.e. link when in tension)
Driver (input) and follower (output) link.
It hold constant spatial relationships between the elements of
its pairs.

Kinematic Pairs:
The connections / joints between driver and follower are
called kinematic pairs or just pairs.
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Terminologies, Definitions
Binary Links: containing only two pair element
connections.
Ternary Links: having 3 pair element connections.
Kinematic chain:
When several links are movably connected together by joints,
they are said to form a kinematic chain.
If every link in the chain is connected to at least two other
links, the chain forms one or more closed loops and is called
a closed kinematic chain.
Else an open kinematic chain.
Simple-Closed Chain: the chain consisting entirely of binary
Compound-Closed Chain: the chain include other than
binary links and thus form more than a single closed loop.
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Terminologies, Definitions
In a closed kinematic chain it is necessary to have
one link fixed which is than chosen as the frame of
Lower Pairs:
Have surface contact between the pair elements.
such as the pin joint.

Higher Pairs:
Have line or point contact between the elemental surfaces.
such as the connection between a cam and its follower.
Wrapping Pairs: e.g. belt & pulley, chain & sprocket, rope
and drum.

Those mechanisms that have only lower pairs are called a
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Terminologies, Definitions
Lower Pairs:

Planar Mechanism:
It is a mechanism in which all the particles describe
planar curves in space and all these curves lie in
parallel planes.
The motion transformation of any such mechanism is
called coplanar.

Spherical Mechanism:
is one in which each link has some point that remains
stationary as the linkage moves and in which the
stationary points of all links lie at a common location;
i.e. the locus of each point is a curve contained in a
spherical surface, and the spherical surfaces defined by
several arbitrarily chosen points are all concentric.
The motions of all particles can therefore be completely
described by their radial projections on the surface of a
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sphere with a properly chosen center.

Spatial Mechanism:
These include no restriction on the relative motion of the
particles.
The motion transformation is not necessarily coplanar,
nor must it be concentric.

Mobility:
It is the number of input parameters that must be
controlled independently in order to bring the device into
a particular position.
The number of degrees of freedom.
m= 3(n-1)
Kutzbach criterion
m= 3(n-1) - 2j1 - j2
j1 = no. of single-degree-of-freedom pairs
j2 = no. of two-degree-of-freedom pairs
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Classification of Mechanisms
(Torfason)
Snap Action Mechanisms :
(spring clips and circuit breakers)

Linear Actuators:
a)Stationary

## screws with travelling nuts

b)Stationary nuts with travelling screws
c)Single and double acting hydraulic & pneumatic cylinders

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Classification of Mechanisms

Clamping Mechanisms :
C-clamp,
b)wood workers screw clamp,
c)Lever actuated clamps
d)Vises
e)pressses
a)

Location devices:
15 location mechanisms are identified
Usually self centering and locate either axially or angularly.
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Classification of Mechanisms
(Torfason)
Ratchets and escapements:

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Classification of Mechanisms
(Torfason)
Indexing Mechanisms :

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Classification of Mechanisms
(Torfason)
Swinging or Rocking Mechanisms (oscillators):

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Classification of Mechanisms
(Torfason)
Reciprocating Mechanisms :

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Classification of Mechanisms
(Torfason)
Reciprocating Mechanisms :

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Classification of Mechanisms
(Torfason)
Couplings and Connecters:

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Classification of Mechanisms
(Torfason)
Reversing Mechanisms (e.g. 2-way clutch):
Sliding Connectors:
Stop, Pause & Hesitation Mechanisms
automotive engine valve):

(e.g.

## 6-bar stop-and-dwell mechanism

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Classification of Mechanisms
(Torfason)
Curve Generators (Hrones-Nelson atlas):

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Classification of Mechanisms
(Torfason)
Straight- Line Generators:

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