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Lindab Construline

L i n d a b Tr u s s L i g h t - g a u g e Tr u s s G i r d e r S y s t e m

Lindab Construline

LindabTruss Light-gauge Truss Girder System


System description
2007

LindabConstruline

System description

LindabTruss Light-gauge Truss Girder System


2

1. Introduction
A newly developed product of Lindab is the LindabTruss light-gauge truss girder system, made of cold-formed C profiles that
are assembled by bolts. These truss girders provide with an excellent and economic solution for roof structures where the
span is between 10-24 m, while spacing between the girders can vary from 3 to 6 m in an optimal case. Determination of the
exact girder geometry (e.g., height, slope, truss joints, etc.) requires the simultaneous consideration of various aspects. During
design, beside the esthetical and functional requirements as well as administrative regulations (e.g., maximal built-in area of
a land; maximal building height, etc.) it is necessary to consider aspects of production and erection, too. The primary aim of
this document is to summarize these technical aspects and specialities.
The primary area of application of LindabTruss truss girders is in the roof structures of small-to-medium size industrial halls,
according to the previously mentioned main dimensions. Various vertical supports are possible: masonry walls with reinforced
concrete cornice, masonry, RC or steel columns may all be applied to resist the reaction forces of the trussed roof structure.
Another preferred application of the new system is the renovation of roof structures of existing building, halls, (which may be
necessary to solve water insulation problems or to create new utilizable space under the roof,) when the uppermost deck cannot
be further loaded by the new roof, therefore, the LindabRoof system, which normally could be a solution for such problems,
cannot be applied. (For more information about LindabRoof see the relevant Lindab brochures.) In these cases the small weight
(generally: 4-8 kg/m2) and relatively large span (up to 24 m) of LindubTruss girders can advantageously be utilized.

Figure 1. 3D view of a LindabTruss girders model

In the followings the general aspects of the truss girders, the applied materials, the geometric limitations, as well as construction details are briefly presented. Moreover, technical background information on static design, corrosion protection, and fire
protection is provided.

2. Structural system
2.1 Materials, grades
The following materials are used in LindabTruss truss girders:
Truss bars:
C-profiles made by Lindab (C100-C350); material grade: S350GD+Z275 (MSZ EN 10326)
Fasteners:
Hexagon head metric bolts (M12, M14, M18); material grade: 5.6 or 8.8
Accessories (clips, gusset plates, etc.)
welded from steel plates, material grade: S355 (MSZ EN 10025)

Informations are subject to change without notification.

LindabConstruline

System description

LindabTruss Light-gauge Truss Girder System


2.2 Characteristics of Lindab cold-formed profiles
During the development of the LindabTruss system a definite intention was to apply the traditional thin-walled Lindab profiles
made of hot-dip zinc coated high-strength steel strips, that are produced at Lindab from the beginnings and mostly used as
elements of the secondary load bearing system (as purlins or wall beams) of buildings. Our aim was to develop the possible
most economic truss system by considering the production, erection, and calculation specialities of the applied profiles. These
specialities are as follows:
As a consequence of the cold-rolling production process, the cross-section of a member is necessarily constant along
the length, and during the production member ends are cut always perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis.
Minimal member length that can be automatically produced in the workshop is 1000 mm. Shorter members are possible,
but require in situ cutting (in the erection or prefabrication site).
Welding must be excluded, due to the thin walls (1.0-3.0 mm) and the applied corrosion protection (zinc-coating).
Load bearing capacity of the thin-walled members is strongly dependent on the detailing (e.g. asymmetry of cross-section, lateral restraints, supports, connections, etc.).
2.3 Geometry and construction of the trusses
By using the previously presented materials, profiles and considering the above-mentioned specialities of production-erection-calculation, the general construction rules of LindubTruss trusses can be summarized as follows.
Upper and lower chords of the trusses are made from a pair of C-profiles, placed in back-to-back position so that they practically form a built-up cross-section. The spacing between the two sections (i.e., web-to-web distance) is determined by the
brace members which are placed in between the two sub-sections of the chords (see Fig 2). This web-to-web distance is
equal to the depth of the brace member, and is constant throughout a truss girder. This kind of construction, thus, yields to a
truss girder symmetric to its own (vertical) middle plane. The built-up chords are connected to each other at the truss joints.

Figure 2. Basic construction rule of LindabTruss:


brace members are placed in between the built-up chords

Connections of the built-up chords and the brace members are realized by bolts in single shear (Figs 3-4). The applied fasteners are traditional hexagon head metric bolts. Due to the physical dimensions of bars at joints, ideal concentric connections
cannot be formed (so that axes of the connecting bars would intersect at the same point), hence, eccentricities take place.
These eccentricities are usually large enough to be non-negligible, thus, beside the primary normal force, secondary bending
moment from eccentricity must also be taken into account in the calculations.
It is reasonable that the (nominally) vertical brace members would be perpendicular to the upper chord and would run over it to
form a short cantilever which can be utilized to support purlins; this solution makes unnecessary the application of a separate
purlin supporting element (see Fig 2). As a consequence, if such solution is used, spacing of joints of the main truss girder
and spacing of secondary purlin system must be in accordance with each other. In typical practical cases this spacing can be
approx. 1.2-1.8 m, the most economic solution (considering relative weight of the primary truss girders, the secondary purlins
and cladding) is usually around 1.5-1.6 m.

Informations are subject to change without notification.

LindabConstruline

System description

LindabTruss Light-gauge Truss Girder System


4
The angles of the inclined brace members (to the chords) should preferably be around 45 deg, but certainly between 30 and
60 deg, which is required so that joints could properly be realized, as well as to ensure a favourable bar force distribution in the
truss girder. Due to the minimal production length it is proposed to design the trusses with a minimal height of 1.0 m, which is
also desired from the aspect of joint and support detailing.
At certain truss joints it will surely be necessary to apply individually designed and produced traditional welded accessories.
These are: elements at the supports, gusset plates of in-site connections, accessories of horizontal wind bracing joints, clips,
eave connections (see Figs 3-4).

Figure 3. Construction details of supports and eaves


Figure 4. In-site connections of the upper and lower chords

2.4 Sample girders


By considering the previously described criteria (geometry, production, construction, etc.), truss girders with arbitrary dimensions,
hence, load bearing capacities may be designed.
At the same time, Lindab provides with some pre-designed girders, for typical cases of frequently applied geometries and
Hungarian loading conditions. For these cases complete productions drawings are available, which may significantly simplify
and accelerate the process of design and production. These pre-engineered trusses may also be advantageously used as a
starting point of the design when the actual input data (geometry and/or loading) are different from (but similar to) those of
the sample girders.
The geometrical and loading properties of the single-span sample girders can be summarized as follows:
Geometry:
Span:
10, 12, 15, 18, 20 and 24 m
Height at girder ends:
1.0 m
Slope of upper chords:
10% (=roof slope)
Slope of lower chords:
horizontal
Spacing of the girders:
3 and 6 m
Loads:
Self-weight of roof:
0.30 kN/m2 (including cladding)
Snow:
0.80 kN/m2 (un-factored value, according to MSZ 15021)
Wind pressure:
0.70 kN/m2 (for building height of max. 10 m, shape factors according to MSZ 15021)
Temperature change:
30C
Combinations:
partial and combination factors according to Eurocode 0
Informations are subject to change without notification.

LindabConstruline

System description

LindabTruss Light-gauge Truss Girder System


Static calculation:
ULS:
SLS:

5
checks according to Eurocode 3.
deflection check for L/300 limit.

It is important to mention that at the time of the development, in Hungary, the Eurocode 1 load standard (MSZ EN 1991 and
the related National Annex) was not fully available, that is why the characteristic values of loads are considered according to
the relevant old Hungarian Standard (MSZ 15021). The required safety level of such load consideration has been proved in
the frame of earlier Lindab developments (see e.g., LindabSBS small building system, Hungarian Technical Permit: ME nr.
A-125/1/1999). However, as soon as the MSZ EN 1991 load standard will be accepted and released for exclusive and obligatory
use in Hungary, the above loads will need revision.

Figure 5. Single-span sample girder

Static calculation and drawings of the sample girders, necessary in achieving the building permit, will be issued to the responsible designers on request.
2.5 Production, prefabrication, erection
The production and erection of LindabTruss truss girders is consisted of three steps:
The first step is completed at Lindab workshop, where the C-profiles are cold-rolled as well as the welded-punched
accessories are fabricated.
The second step, which may be called workshop prefabrication, is the assembling of C-profiles and accessories to
form the girder (whole girder or smaller parts of it, as required by the transportation/erection technology) by using an
appropriate working table. This step includes the preparation of bolt holes and the realization of bolted connections,
as well as the cutting of short (smaller than 1.0 m) truss members if any.
The third step is the in-site erection, i.e., placement of the prefabricated girders (or girder parts) to their final positions,
by connecting them to the individually designed and properly prepared receiving elements.
In order to facilitate the assembling process, namely the realization of bolted connections, it is possible to prepare the bolt
holes in the C-profiles during the profile production. To do so, however, certain restrictions for the diameters and positions of
the holes must be considered. (Details about these restrictions are given to all Lindab partners.) If bolt holes are pre-punched
at Lindab workshop, the nominal bolt diameter is identical with that of the bolt. For this reason, in accordance with the usual
practice, only one of the adjoining members is pre-punched in the workshop (e.g. chord webs), while the holes of the other
member (e.g. brace members) should be prepared during the assembling. This procedure helps eliminating the unfavourable
effect of imperfections (of production and assemblage), and helps forming properly fitted bolted connections.
In case of the LindabTruss girders it is the second step which is different from the traditional production technology. Workshop
prefabrication may be completed in a real workshop (independently of the location of the building site), but also at the building
site if appropriate equipments, facilities are available. The first solution is more typical, but the second approach may be more
economical, especially if the site is far from the workshop, since transportation of stock of the single truss members requires
much smaller transportation capacity, hence, is less expensive. In case of non-pre-punched holes (i.e., those prepared during
assembling) it is important to ensure that hole diameters shall be bigger than bolt diameters by not more than 1 mm.

Informations are subject to change without notification.

LindabConstruline

System description

LindabTruss Light-gauge Truss Girder System


6

2.6 Realization of the whole roof structure


In the preceding Sections considerations for a single truss girder have been summarized. In case of a practical 3D structure, it is
necessary to pay attention to other structural aspects as follows.
Construction details of the front and rear end wall must be in accordance with the type and material of the supporting structure.
A general requirement is that the truss girders cannot be loaded transversally (i.e., perpendicularly to their own plane).
If the truss girders are placed on masonry walls (through RC cornice), an economic solution may be achieved by bricking
up to the level of (sloped) roof, so that the masonry front/rear end walls could support the roof purlins. In these cases no
separate special end girders are necessary, but the masonry wall must be designed to resist both the horizontal loads
(e.g., wind load) and the reaction forces from the purlins.
If the truss girders are placed on masonry or RC columns, similar solution is possible; though in case of large front/rear
end walls some reinforcing may be necessary (i.e., columns made of the same building material as the wall itself). Another possible solution is that end walls are bricked up to the level of side walls only, and they are applied together with
individually designed end girders, which, beside supporting vertical loads, carry the horizontal (wind) loads, too. In this
case internal lateral supports for the end girders are necessary; the distance of these supports may be maximum 5-6-7
m (similarly to the spacing of the main truss girders).
If the truss girders are supported by steel columns, it is proposed to apply end frames made of plated steel columns
and beams, together with end posts (with a maximum spacing of 5-6-7 m, as discussed above). The end frame may be
individually designed and constructed from hot-rolled of welded I sections, as well as from cold-formed Lindab C profiles
(e.g., doubled symmetrical C profiles).
The proper construction requires appropriately designed horizontal (wind) bracing, too. In case of smaller spans (10-15 m) a
possible solution is to apply simple Lindab C-profiles as horizontal brace members, fastening them through their webs to the
lower flanges of purlins by self-drilling or self-tapping screws. These brace-to-purlin connections must be positioned the possible
closest to the joints of main truss girders. Of course, during the design one must pay attention to the eccentricity of such connections as well as to the limited capacity of self-drilling or self-tapping screws. In case of longer spans the typical solutions used in
traditional steel frame structures may be applied, such as the diagonally placed pre-stressed circular steel bars, or the K-shaped
bracing between the purlins made of hollow sections (see Fig 6). In both cases it is necessary to check the resistance to local
(concentric) forces of the main truss girders where the horizontal bracing members are connected. At these joints, appropriate
clips may also be necessary to apply.

Figure 6. Possible horizontal wind bracing


a) pre-stressed circular steel bars; b) K-shaped bracing

In case of complicated roof shapes (e.g., roofs with hipped end or roofs of buildings with L- or T-shaped floor plan) individual
design is needed. In these cases, however, various auxiliary elements are necessary to apply (beams at ridges and valleys,
welded accessories for the 3D joints, etc.). Obviously, the more complicated the roof shape (hence, the more it differs from
regular cases,) the less likely a simple and economical solution can be found.

Informations are subject to change without notification.

LindabConstruline

System description

LindabTruss Light-gauge Truss Girder System


7

3. Design aspects
3.1 Static design, research and development background
Static design of LindabTruss girders due to the used cold-formed elements and non-traditional construction details requires
a design process slightly different from traditional ones. Specialities of construction and static behaviour can be summarized
as follows.
The used cold-formed, thin-walled, open cross-section profiles may show various failure modes. Beside material
yielding, various potential instabilities must be taken into account: local plate buckling, distortional buckling, flexural or
flexural-torsional buckling, lateral-torsional buckling (which may be induced by the eccentricity of compression forces),
or even the interaction of these modes.
Truss bars are joined by metric bolts in simple shear, both at truss joints and at in-site connections. Since the connecting members are thin-walled, and since connections are usually eccentric, the resulted stress states and local failure
modes are so complicated that there is no way for their simple verification.
Due to these above-mentioned specialities, a multi-level verification process has been developed, as follows.
Steel truss bars are checked by the appropriate formulae of Eurocode 3, covering cross-section and (certain type of)
buckling verifications. Moreover, fasteners, metric bolts can also be verified (against shear and bearing resistance)
according to the available standard formulae.
Buckling of the thin-walled truss members has also been analyzed numerically by using special software. The so-called
finite strip method has been used to calculate the critical loads (force of bending moment) which then are applied in the
formulae of the design standard. Joints are analyzed by the finite element method, using shell elements and non-linear
analysis. The results are used to analyze failure modes and to verify the safety level required by the design standard (Fig 7).
Figure 7. Numerical model of a joint

Finally, the third level of research and development background is the test program performed on full-scale LindabTruss
girders at the Structural Laboratory of the Budapest University of Technology and Economics (Fig 8). The test results
proved the applicability of the developed design procedure and the fulfilment of the safety level as required by the
Eurocodes.

Informations are subject to change without notification.

LindabConstruline

System description

LindabTruss Light-gauge Truss Girder System


8

Figure 8. LindabTruss test specimen

Generally, in the course of the static design of a LindabTruss girder the following checks must be performed: cross-section and
member (buckling) resistance checks of all the potentially critical truss bars, resistance of the connections, plus the displacements must be checked whether they are within the required limits (horizontal and vertical displacements). Special attention
should be paid to the support, considering the type and material of the supporting structure (masonry, reinforced concrete or
steel); construction details must be in accordance with the assumed static behaviour (e.g. horizontal reactions are allowed or
constrained).
The calculation procedure and the standard checks are summarized in a separate LindabTruss Design Guide. By using this
Guide and by considering the geometrical, production and construction aspects as presented above, the fast and reliable
static calculation of arbitrary girders may be completed, including various non-typical geometries, unusual loading (e.g., due
to heavy mechanical devices), and various static models (e.g., multi-span truss girders or trussed frames). Some examples
are shown in Fig 9.
The LindabTruss Design Guide is made available for those designers willing to use the LindabTruss system in non-typical
applications.

a)

b)
c)
Figure 9. Non-typical applications of LindabTruss system:
a) two-span truss girder; b) parallel-chord truss girder in case of steep roofs;
c) steel frame with trussed beam

3.2 Corrosion resistance


Concerning corrosion resistance of LindabTruss steel truss girders the following aspects may be important to consider.
Generally, LindabTruss girders must satisfy the same requirements as any other steel structures (independently of production
technology and/or system in which they are applied). It is the responsibility of the designer to define the relevant administrative
and environmental requirements, to collect data for the potential corrosive actions from external effects and from the activity
performed within the building in accordance with its function; ultimately, it is the designer who makes the corrosion classification of the structure. The minimal surface protection and maintenance requirements for the various building components must
be prescribed by considering also the planned service life of the building, on the basis of which the appropriateness, hence
applicability of the used materials may be judged.
Informations are subject to change without notification.

LindabConstruline

System description

LindabTruss Light-gauge Truss Girder System


The Lindab Z/C/U profiles are always hot-dip zinc coated, thus, a high-level corrosion protection and durability is ensured.
The zinc-coating is 275 g/m2 (see Section 2.1), that corresponds to approx. 20mm zinc-layer thickness on both sides of the
steel core. Due to the production technology, the same thickness may be considered on the cut or punched surfaces if cutting
or punching is completed by the automatic production line, since the zinc-coating smears onto the cut edges. During the
assembling, however, in case of in-site cutting, and especially in case of drilling, the damaged surface protection must be
repaired by applying appropriate painting or, if zinc-coating is a requirement, zinc-spraying.
Corrosion protection of the welded accessories may be realized by traditional painting (cleansing and multiple-layer painting)
or by zinc-coating.
Surface protection of the metric bolts must be ensured, too. Even in normal circumstances it is proposed to apply galvanized
bolts. If, incidentally, fasteners made of a material other than steel are used, the risk of contact corrosion must not be forgotten.
3.3 Fire protection
From fire protection point of view the situation is similar to that of corrosion protection. Namely, the relevant general regulations
for steel roofs apply also to LindabTruss girders.
The current Hungarian regulations are included in a Ministry Directive nr. 2/2002.(I.23.), which adopts to a large extent the
requirements of the earlier Hungarian standard (MSZ 595). Accordingly, the base material of the LindabTruss truss girders
is non combustible, and the fire resistance is TH=0.2 hour (12 minutes) due to the thin (less than 5-mm-thick) elements.
As a consequence, the LindabTruss truss girders always satisfy the prescribed requirements for roof structures in case of
single-storey halls with fire-resistance category IV or V defined in the mentioned Directive. If the truss girder is applied as a
two-hinged girder supported by two cantilever columns, (which may be regarded as one of the typical solutions, see Fig 10,)
it may be applied without additional protection even in case of category III, by satisfying the condition that the failure of the
roof structure does not endanger the stability of the vertical load bearing structures.

Figure 10. Cantilever columns and LindabTruss truss girder

In any other cases when the Directive prescribes a higher fire-resistance limit value (TH>0.2h), additional fire protection is necessary to apply. Fire-protecting painting, which is usual for traditional steel structures, cannot be applied due to the problems
of bonding on the zinc-coated surfaces, and due to the relatively large surfaces which are typical in case of thin-walled profiles.
On the contrary, an economic solution may be achieved by applying suspended ceiling, hung on the lower chords of the truss
girders, made of some fire-resistant boarding material (e.g., gypsum board).
In all other countries, it is the task of the local designer to determine the fire resistance requirements on the base of the official
standard regulations, taking the individual project specification (function of the building, combustibility of the stored material
etc.) into account.
3.4 Purlins, cladding
As secondary load bearing (i.e., purlins) and cladding elements, the same Lindab systems and products are applicable together
with LindabTruss roof structures than those which are used with other types of main girders (e.g., traditional steel frames). The
typical ones are summarized as follows.
The most typical system in case of industrial halls is the system of Z-purlins and trapezoidal sheetings (with single-layer
sheeting if not insulated, or double-layer sheeting if insulated). Another solution is consisted of Z-purlins and pre-fabricated
thermal insulated sandwich (composite) panels. Finally, the isolated warm roofing system that uses high-depth trapezoidal
sheeting may also be mentioned (Fig 11).
Informations are subject to change without notification.

LindabConstruline

System description

LindabTruss Light-gauge Truss Girder System


10
2.

4.

3.

5.

6.

7.

8.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

1.

a)
3.

Lindab Truss primary girder


Internal trapezoid sheeting
Vapour tight foil
Insulation
Z-profiled purlin
Insulation strip (LPO)
Lindab underlay foil
External trapezoid sheeting

2.

1.
1. Lindab Truss primary girder
2. Z-profiled purlin
3. Lindab Roof Sandwich panel

b)
2.

3.

4.

5.

1.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

c)

Lindab Truss primary girder


High profile trapezoid sheet
Vapour tight foil
Walkable insulation
Water isolation layers

Figure 11. Possible roof layers with LindabTruss girders:


a) Z-purlin and trapezoidal sheeting; b) Z-purlin and sandwich panel; c) high-depth trapezoidal sheeting with composition warm roofing

An important part of the design of cladding, which also influences the appearance of the whole building, is how the end girders sides and their heights and the end walls are solved, which latter must be in accordance with the material and surface
of the vertical load bearing structure. When deciding the cladding type, attention must be paid to the possibility of different
displacements and deformations of the different structural elements (e.g., masonry wall and side cladding of end girders).
Similarly to roofs, a secondary load-bearing system may be applied on the sides of the individually designed end girders (i.e.,
wall beams), to which arbitrary light-weight cladding may be attached (e.g., trapezoidal sheeting, sandwich panel, OSB boards,
etc.). In such cases the weight of cladding is carried by the truss girders. This solution may be regarded as typical in case of
steel or RC framed structures where the wall structure is realized by wall beams and light-weight cladding.
If the truss girder is placed on masonry walls with reinforced concrete cornice or RC frames filled with masonry walls, an appropriate solution may be achieved by bricking up the walls partially (in case of side walls, outside the truss girders) or totally
(in case of front and rear end walls) up to the lower surface of the roof. In these cases truss girders are placed on internal
columns only, and they are not loaded by the wall cladding.

Informations are subject to change without notification.

LindabConstruline

System description

LindabTruss Light-gauge Truss Girder System


11

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)
Figure 12. Completed LindabTruss roof structures:
a) aerial view of a complete roof structure ; b) truss girders side by side; c) a non-typical two-span truss girder;
d) pre-fabricated girders waiting to be mounted; e) a general purlin-to-truss connection

Informations are subject to change without notification.

Lindab Construline

L i n d a b Tr u s s L i g h t - g a u g e Tr u s s G i r d e r S y s t e m

Lindab Profile is a business area within the Lindab


Group that develops, manufactures and markets
efficient, economical and aesthetic steel and sheetmetal solutions for the building industry.
We offer everything from complete building systems
to individual building components for all types of
housing, as well as commercial and industrial buildings.
Lindab Profile is represented in over 25 countries
throughout Europe. Our head office is in Frslv,

Reg no. 2007/01

in the south of Sweden.

Lindab Profile
lloms u. 1/A.
H-2051 Biatorbgy,
Phone: +36-23-531-300
Fax: +36-23-310-703
www.lindab.hu