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CONTENTS

1. Introducing the Sekonic Studio De|uxe.............3


..
1-1. Foreword
. . . . . . . . . .3
I - 2 . S p e c i fi c a t i o n s . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . .3
1-3. Name of Parts
.................4
I - 4 . l n t r o d u c i n g t h e A c c e s s o r i e s _ - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . .
2. Special Features of the Sekonic Studio Deluxe... g
2-L. lncident Light Measure
..... B
2-2. Lumisphere ...........
. . . . . . . . . . . .g
2-3. Measuring lllumination
..... B
2-4. Direct-ReadingMethod
..... g
2 - 5 . I n t e r m e d i a t eV a l u e s
............9
3. How to Operate the Meter ...........
......11
3 - 1 . F or e w o r d
. . . . . . . . .1. 1
3-2. Preparations
.......11
3-3. Taking the Picture
............11
3-4. Reading the Meter
..............13
3 - 5 . E x p o s u r e M a g n i fi c a t i o n a n d R e d u c t i o n I n d e x e s . . . . . 1 6
3 - 6 . E .V . S . N u m b e r s
..................I7
3-7. Motion Pictures
..................L7

1. Introducingthe SekonicStudio
Deluxe L-28c2
D u a l P u r p o s e E x p o s u r eM e t e r

1-1. Foreword
For years Sekonichas marketed the Sekonic Studio S,
which has been widely accepted throughout the world
b y c o m m e r c i a la n d a m a t e u r p h o t o g r a p h e r sa, r t i s t s ,a n d
movie cameramen. The Sekonic Studio Deluxe is a
n e w i m p r o v e d m o d e l o f t h e S e k o n i cS t u d i o , , S " . l t i s
easy to use and designed to give the most accurate
e x p o s u r er e a d i n g s b a s e d o n i n c i d e n t l i g h t . A v a r i e t y o f
a c c e s s o r i e sm a k e t h e S e k o n i c S t u d i o D e l u x e a p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d v e r s a t i l ei n s t r u m e n tt h a t w i l l m e e t a l l y o u r
p h o t o r g ap h i c r e qu i r e m e n t s .

4 . C o r r e c t E x p o s u r e su n d e r S p e c i a l C o n d i t i o n s. . . . . . 1 9
......19
4-I. Portraits
.........2O
4 - 2 . " S h o r t - d i s t a n c eL" a n d s c a p e s . . .
......2I
4 - 3 . D i s t a n tL a n d s c a p e s
.........22
4-4. Snow Scenes...
........23
4 - 5 . S i d e a n d B a c k - l i g h t e dS c e n e s . . .
.........24
4 - 6 . S h i l h o u t t e dS c e n e s
..................25
4 - 7 . D i r e c t R e a d i n gM e t h o d . . . . . . . . .
5. Special LightingConditions
5 -1 . F o r e w or d
5-2. Lighting ContrastControl ( lndoors).
5-3. Outdoor ContrastControl
5 - 4 . R e f l e c t e dL i g h t R e a d i n g
5-5. Modern Lighting Control
5-6. Close-ups
5 - 7 . S u n l i g h t - F l a sP
hhotography

.........27
.........27
......28
.........29
.........31
.........36
.........38
.........4L

6 . T a k i n g C a r e o f Y o u r S e k o n i c S t u d i o D e l u x e. . . . . . 4 6
......46
6-1. Zero Setting......
...............46
6-2. SlideSlot
...............46
6-3. Other Precautions......
.,,.....47
6-4. Service

L-2. Specifications

q
I
q

M E A S UR E M EN T
Method
R an g e
Accuracy
SCALE
ASA
DIN
Time (Shutterspeed)
Aperture
Cine
EV scale
C o r r e c t i o nf a c t o r
Dimension
Approx.weight

I n c i d e n t & r e f l e c t e dl i g h t
E V4 - L 7 a t A S A1 0 0
+ O . 3E V M a x . ( l e s s t h a n 1 / 3
a p e r t u r e s c al e )
8-12,000
LO-42
6A-I/2,O00 sec.
1- 90
8-128 frames per second
L i g h tv a l u e s L - 2 0
C:25 K- 1.15
4 . 2 x 2 . 3 x 1 . 2i n c h
B . Bo z .
3

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II

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Accessories

1-3 . N am e of P ar t s

HIGHSlide

Lumisphere

Swivel Head

Lumisphere

l n d i c a t i n eN e e d l e
Mobil Dial
"H" Pointer

ident Light Scale

EV lndex Window
Dial Scale
"L" Pointer

DIN lndex Windcrw


Needle Lock Button

ASA IndexWindow

ASA Control Knob


Shutter

Cine Scale

Lumidisk

Aperture Scale

Set of 9 Direct
R e a d i n gS l i d e s
ero Adjustment

Lumigrid

These are available with the


following ASA indexesz 25, 40,
50, 64, 90, 100, 160, 200 and
400.
Note : Direct
Reading Slides
and other accessories for the
Sekonic Studio Deluxe can be
purchased from our local dea.
Iers"

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L-4. lntroducing the Accessories

L um i s p h e r e
used only to determine exposure by incident lieht (i.e.,
the light that falls on a subject).
To insta ll : m atch the wh ite dots on the photosphere
a nd socket, insert the Photosphere, a nd turn it clockwise until it stops. Reverse procedure to remove.

Lumidisk
U s e d t o o b t a i n b r i g h t n e s s i n f o o t - c an d l e s ( o r i n , , l u x "
if so converted) a nd to measure a nd control contrast.
Install as with Lumisphere.

L u n ni g r i d
Used to measure the reflected light a nd relative brightness of a subject. ca n a lso be used to determ ine exposure when an incident light measurement cannot be
taken. Install as with Lumisphere.

o'HlGH" S[[de

U s e d w i t h L u m i s p h e r eo r L u m i d i s k o u t d o o r so r i n b r i g h t
p l a c e sw h e n t h e i n d i c a t i n gn e e d l em o v e s a b o v e 1 M ( o r
1 6o n )t h e I n c i d e n tL i g h t S c al e . I n s e r tt h e H I G H S l i d ei n
t h e s l o t b e h i n d t h e L u m i s p h e r eo r L u m i d i s k t o c o n v e r t
t h e S e k o n i cS t u d i oD e l u x et o h i g h i l l u m i n a t i o nm e a s u r e n r e n t . T h e S l i d e s e t t l e si n p l a c e w i t h a c l i c k .

Di*"ectReadfrngS[ldes
U : ; e dw h e n i t i s m o r e i m p o r t a n t t o o b t a i n o n e q u i c k ,
d i r e c t r e a d i n gr a t h e rt h a n a v a r i e t yo f l e n s o p e n i n ga n d
s h u t t e r s p e e dc o m b i n a t i o n s . N i n e t y p e s a r e a v a i l a b l e
w i t h v a r i o u sA S A a n d D I N i n d e x e s . T o u s e : ( 1 ) S e l e c t
t h e a p p r o p r i a t es l i d e f o r t h e p a r t i c u l a r f i l m y o u a r e
using; (2) Set your camera to the shutter speed indic a t e d o n y o u r s l i d e ; ( 3 ) I n s e r tt h e s l i d e i n t o y o u r S e k o n i c
D e l u x e m e t e r j u s t a s y o u w o u l d t h e H I G H S l i d e; ( 4 )
Point the meter in the proper direction; (5) Read the
n u m b e r o n t h e I n c i d e n tL i g h t S c al e . T h i s i s y o u r p r o p e r
f / s t o p r e a d i n g; ( 6 ) S e t y o u r c a m e r a t o t h e f / s t o p , a n d
you're ready for a perfect picture.
Note: Direct Reading Sfides are for use with the
L u m i s p h e r ea n d L u m i d i s k . T h e y c a n n o t b e u s e d w i t h
the Lumigrid.

2, Special Featuresof the Sekonic


Studio Deluxe
2-1. Incident Light Measure
In the past, conventional exposure meters measured
illumination by reflected light. The Sekonic Studio
D e l u x e , d e v e l o p e da n d p e r f e c t e d b y t h e w o r l d ' s l e a d i n g
photographers, determines illumination by a more
accurate method :-incident light.
T h e d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h e r e f l e c t e dl i g h t m e t h o d i s t h e t i m e
i t t a k e s a p h o t o g r a p h e rt o o b t a i n a s u c c e s s f u le x p o s u r e .
Every subject combines areas of high and low reflect i o n , a n d t o o b t a i n a p r o p e r e x p o s u r eb y r e f l e c t e dl i g h t ,
o n e h a s t o t a k e m a n y d i f f e r e n tr e a d i n g sa n d t o a v e r a g e
them successfully.
This difficulty is overcome with the Sekonic Studio
D e l u x e . l t i s d e s i g n e dt o m e a s u r e s u b j e c t s b y a s t a n d a r d r e f l e c t i o no f L 8 / ' a n d t o d e t e r m i n e i l l u m i n a t i o n b y
incident light. This standard reflectionassures perfect
tones in black and white photography and establishes
a p o i n t o f r e f e r e n c ef r o m w h i c h d e v i a t i o n sc a n b e m a d e
for special effects.

2-2. Lumisphere
T h e L u m i s p h e r eo f t h e S e k o n i cS t u d i o D e l u x ed e t e r m i n e s
e x p o s u r ei n a r e v o l u t i o n a r yw a y .
B e c a u s ea s u j e c t i s u s u a l l y t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n ailt, p r e s e n t s
a contrast of lights and shadows which traditional
m e t e r s a r e u n a b l e t o m e a s u r ew i t h o u t e r r o r o r d i f f i c u l t y .
T h e L u m i s p h e r e ,h o w e v e r ,r e c e i v e sa l l i n c i d e n t l i g h t j u s t
a s t h e s u b j e c t r e c e i v e si t . l t a u t o m a t i c a l l y a s s i g n s t o
e a c h l i g h t s o u r c e i t s p h o t o g r a p h i cv a l u e d e p e n d i n go n
i t s s t r e n g t h a n d d i r e c t i o n , a n d a v e r a g e st h e m i n t o o n e
correctcamera setting.

2 - 3 . M e a s u r i n gl l t u m i n a t i o n
( 1 ) T h e L u m i d i s ki s u s e d t o m e a s u r e i l l u m i n a t i o n . l t
c a n b e p o i n t e d d i r e c t l y a t a l i g h t s o u r c et o m e a s u r e
its intensity.

( 2 ) T h e t o p n u m b e r s o n t h e l n c i d e n t S c a l e i n d i c a t ef o o t
candles,(i.e., the intensity of light on a certain
s p o t . ) . F o r e x a m p l e ; i f t h e i n d i c a t i n g n e e d l ep o i n t s
Io 64, the light intensityor illumination on the spot
i s 6 4 f o o t - c a n d l e s . I n o q d e rt o c o n v e r t f o o t c a n d l e s
i n t o L u x u n i t s o f i l l u m i n a t i o n ,m u l t i p l y t h e n u m b e r
of foot candles by 10.76. For example, if the lnc i d e n t S c a l e r e a d s 6 4 ( w h i c h i s 6 4 f o o t c a n d l e s )t h e
c o r r e s p o n d i n gL u x m e a s u r e m e n t w i l l b e 6 8 8 . 6 4 .
64x10.76:688.64
When the HIGH Slide is used, the Incident Light
Scale number must be multiplied by 32 to obtain
t h e F o o t - C a n d l eN u m b e r . F o r e x a m p l e , i f t h e I n c i dent Scale reads 64, then
64 x32:2,O48 (foot'ca ndles)
The Studio Deluxe ptays an important role when
lighting in a studio must be recorded for future
duplicationand when contrast must be controlled.

2-4. Direct.ReadingMethod
W i t h t h e D i r e c t - R e a d i n gS l i d e s t h e r e i s n o n e e d t o f u s s
with the Mobil dial. The proper f/stop can be found
directly from the indicating needle. This is a great
advantagewhen speed is more important than obtain.
ing a complete selection of f/stop and shutter speed
combinations.

2,5. Intermediate Values


(1) The top numbers on the Indicating Scale are foot
candle numbers from 4 to 1 M (1000).
The red numbers directly beneath them are for
f / s t o p s . T h e v a l u e s o f t h e u n n u m b e r e dd i v i s i o n so n
both scales are found in the diagram.
(2) The numbers on the Time Scale indicate shutter
s p e e d s . T h e n u m b e r s o n t h e A p e r t u r eS c a l e i n d i c a t e
f/stops.
Notice the mark beneath each number on the Time
Scale and above each nuntber on the Aperture

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Scale. Every shutter speed and f/stop indicatedon


the dial is at the exact center of this mark.
T h e i n t e r m e d i a t ev a l u e s ,( i . e . ,t h e v a l u e o f t h e u n '
n u m b e r e dd i v i s i o n s ) o n t h e s e s c a l e s a r e s h o w n
below.
Foot- c and/e
---a-

3" How to Operate The lVleter


3-1. Foreword
R e a d c a r e f u l l y s e c t i o n s3 a n d 4 t o l e a r n h o w t o o p e r a t e
y o u r S e k o n i cS t u d i o D e r u x e . c o m p l e t e f a m i r i a r i i y w i l r
a l l o w y o u t o t a k e a d v a n t a g eo f i t s v e r s a t i l i t y a n d p r o fessionalaccuracy.

3-2" Preparation

I n t e r m e d i a t eV a l u e s f o r F o o t - C a n d l e sa n d r e d I n c i d e n t
Scale f /stops :

(1) Insert Lumisphere into socket, as explained in


Section 1-4.
( 2 ) T u r n A S A ( o r D t N ) e x p o s u r e i n d e x d i aI u n t i l t h e
index of the film you are using appears in the
window. Every roll of film has its own instruction
l e a f l e t i n d i c a t i n gi t s A S A o r D I N e x p o s u r ei n d e x .

I n t e r m e d i a t eV a l u e s f o r S h u t t e r S p e e d s a n d A p e r t u r e
Scale f/stops:

/E?
O
Ql
tii
a

I
I
-

(s
\e

1/.
/400

-Lao

!2

3-3. Taking the Picture


( 1 ) P o i n t t h e L u m i s p h e r ef r o m t h e s u b j e c t t o w a r d s
your camera,on a line with the light axis of your
camera's lens. (See figure of next page.)
10

11

Note 1: when you are taking pictures indoors


u n d e r a r t i f i c i a l l i g h t i n g , i t i s n e c e s s a r yt o p l a c e y o u r
meter close to the subject, ?s indicated in 3-3-(1),
b e c a u s et h e q u a n t i t y o f l i g h t a t t h e s u b j e c t a n d
c a m e r a w i l l d i f f e r s i g n i f i c an i l y .
Note 2 z Since the Lumisphere is an extremery
s e n s i t i v et o l i g h t , y o u m u s t b e c a r e fu l n o t t o s h a d e
it with your hand when measuring light. you
should hold the meter at arm's length, especialry
when wearing light or briglrtlycolored clothing.

(2) ff t h e s a m e l i g h t f a l l s o n y o ur c a m e r a a s o n t h e
s u b j e c t ,t h e S e k o n i c S t u d i o D e l u x e c a n b e h e l d a t
t h e c a m e r a p o s i t i o n ,d i r e c t e d a w a y f r o m t h e s u b j e c t .
(See figure below.)
R e m e m b e rt h a t w h e n l i g h t o n t h e c a m e r a p o s i t i o n
differs from that on the subject, (e.g., the camera
or subject is shaded by trees or buildings) your
S t u d i o D e l u x es h o u l d b e h e l d o n l y a t t h e s u b j e c t .

3-4" Reading the Meter


( 1 ) w h i l e t h e L u m i s p h e r ei s h e l d f a c i n g t h e c a m e r a ,
p u s h t h e N e e d l eL o c k B u t t o nw h i c h i s a t t h e c e n t e r
o f t h e d i a l . T h e I n d i c a t i n gN e e d l ew i l l s w i n g a n d
r e s t a t t h e c e r t a i n p o i n t o n t h e t n c i d e n tL i g h t ( F o o t
C a n d l e )S c a l e .
R e m o v ey o u r f i n g e r f r o m t h e b u t t o n t o l o c k t h e
needle. Now you are free to read the foot candle
n u m b e r w h l c h t h e n e e d l eh a s i n d i c a t e d .

L2

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s p e e d w h i c h a r e d i r e c t l yo p p o s i t ee a c h o t h e r o n t h e
meter. For example, assume you are using the
H I G H S l i d ea n d a f i l m w i t h A S A i n d e x 1 0 0 . T h e

(2) lf under bright lights the indicating needle moves


past the end of the Incident Light Scale, use the
H I G H S l i d e . T h i s s w i t c h e st h e r a n g e o f t h e S e k o n i c
Studio Deluxe from low to high illumination.
When the HIGH Slide is used, turn the dial until
the red "H"
mark corresponds exactly to the
number (4 to 1 M) indicated by the needle.
When the HIGH Slide is not used, turn the dial
until the white "L" mark corresponds exactly to the
number (4 to I M) indicated by the needle.
N o t e : I n o u t d o o r p h o t o g r ap h y i t i s a d v i s ab l e t o
insert the HIGH Slide beforetaking measurements.

needle points to 64 on
the
Incident
Light
Scale.
Set the red
'rH"
mark to 64 on
the Dial Scale.
Look now at the Aperture and Time Scales
below.
Correct exposure
readings
are
71L25 at fB, 1/30 at
f16, and so on.

Incident Light Scale & Dial Scale

Foot Candles

D i r e c t R e a d i n gf / s t o p s
Dial Scale
,,H,

mark

"L" mark

(31 O n t h e l o w e r h a l f o f t h e d i a l , a n d a d j a c e n t t o e a c h
other, you will find all the combinations of shutter
speeds a nd f /stops possible for each exposure.
You may set your camera to any flstop and shutter

L4

15

3 - 5 . E x p o s u r eM a g n i f i c a t i o na n d R e d u c t i o n
I ndexes
N o t i c et h e s y m b o l s x t l 2 , x 2 , a n d x 4 o n b o t h s i d e s
o f t h e t ' H " a n d " L " m a r k s o n t h e D i aI S c al e .

These are used for magnifying and reducing exposure.


x L l 2 i s f o r r e d u c i n g e x p o s u r et i m e b y o n e - h a t f . x 2 i s
f o r d o u b l i n gt h e e x p o s u r e . x 4 i s f o r i n c r e a s i n gi t f o u r
t i m e s . W i t h t h e H l GH S l i d e i n t h e m e t e r , s e t t h e r e d
xL12, x2, or x4 to the Dial Scale, rather than "H".
W i t h o u t t h e H I G H S l i d e ,s e t t h e w h i t e x L 1 2 , x 2 , o r x 4
t o t h e D i aI S c al e , r a t h e r t h a n " L " .
T h e s e i n d e x e s a r e h e l p f u l , f o r e x a m p l e ,w h e n f i l t e r s a r e
required. When using a filter with an exposure index
of 2, set the red or white x2 to the Dial Scale. With
a n e x p o s u r ei n d e x o f 4 , s e t x 4 t o t h e D i a l S c a l e .
N o t e : T h e i n t e r m e d i a t ev a l u e s o f t h e s e i n d e x e s a r e
given in the figure below. Though they are not marked
on the scale itself, you can use them effectivelywhen
needed.

r1,*,

r\5X3

Q',7,

3 - 6 . E .V . S . N u m b e r s
E . V . S . m e a n s E x p o s u r eV a i u e ( l i g h t v a l u e . ) l t i s a
n u m b e r s y s t e m u s e d o c c a s i o n a l l yt o r e p l a c e t h e t r a d i tion a I sh utter speed a nd
f/stop combinations.
For cameras equipped with
a n E. V. S. scale, use the
E.V.S. numbers found in
the wi ndow
a bove
a nd
slightly to the left of the
Dial Scale. When the dial
is set as usual, the proper
E.V. S. number will appear.

3-7. Motion Pictures


Measure the light and set the dial as instructed.
Cine speeds ra nging from 8 to L28 stops (frames-per.
second) are given in the red Cine Scale.
Find the cine speed used by your camera and read the
c o r r e s p o n di n g f / s t o p o n t h e A p e r t u r e S c a l e .
This is the proper f/stop for your camera.

Note : lf the cine speed on your meter f alls m idway


between two f/ stops, set the Aperture Sca le on your
ca mera iri the same way.
The red numbers on the cine Scale are equivalent to
the following shutter speeds on your camera :

8 (stops)
16
24
16

I l15 (second)
Ll30
rl50
I7

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L 160
r lL25
Ll25O

32
64
L28

Most popular cine cameras use 16 frames'per'second


with a shutter speed of 1130. To find the proper f/stop,
read the number on the Aperture Scale which corres'
ponds to 16 on the red Cine Scale.
(You ca n of course use other exposures for speciaI ef '
f ects.)
Note 1 : Some movie ca mera s h ave shorter exposure
times.
For example a camera with 16 frames-per'second may
have a shutter speed of Ll40In the instruction booklet or cata logue th at accom pa nies
your camera is a list of the camera's shutter speeds
a nd corresponding f /stops. Study them caref ully.
When you know only the aperture angle of a cine
cam era, compute the shutter speed with the following
formula :
Sh utter a Perture a ngle : Lq"
When :
- N
Frames-per'second
-T
Shutter speed

Then:

4. Correct Exposuresunder Special


Gonditions
4-1" Fortraits
F o l l o w t h e i n s t r u c t i o n sg i v e n i n s e c t i o n 3 , w i t h p a r t i c u l a r
attention to 3-3 (Note 1).
Because of its Lumisphere which uses an incident
light system, the sekonic studio Deluxe is ideal for
t a k i n g p o r t r ai t s . D e t ai l s a r e a l w a y s c l e ar , e v e n w h e n
lights are behind the subject.

T' -- 1 \ . / a ' t
360
N

For exam ple :


When the aperture angle is LLZB" and there are L6
fra mes-per-second,then :
-r_ L \., t28 1
^
'4s
360
16
Since your meter does not indicate a shutter speed of
L|45, you must judge the point which is midway between
L l3O and Ll60. Directly beneath this midpoint is the
proper f/stop setting for your camera.
N o t e 2 z T h e s t a n d a r d c a m e r a u s e d b y p r o f e s s i o na l s
h a s a sh utter speed of 1/ 50 with 24 fra mes-per'second.
This setting is indicated by a red line beneath the 24
o n t h e C i n e S c al e .

t8

19

4 - 2 . r " S h o r t - d i s t a n c e ' oL a n d s e a p e s
W h e np h o t o g r a p h i nsgc e n e sw h i c h a r e r e l a t i v e l yn e a r ,
(trees, buildings, etc.), hold Lumisphere as directed in
3-3.
When the subject and camera are struck with different
quantities of light, move to where the subject's lighting
cond ition is reproduced a nd point the Lum isphere towards and on a line with the lens axis of your cam era.
When only the subject is in shadow, either move the
Lumisphere within the shadow or shade the Lumisphere
with your hand.

;ft

20

4-3. DistantLandscapes
Photographs
of distant
over-exposed due to the
clear photographs
take
with

landscapes

are often hazy and


of the sun.
For good,
one reading in the normal way
position, away
held at the camera
influences

the Lumisphere
from the scene a nd a second reading with the Lumisphere
'rH"
t'L"
pointed directly at the sun.
Set the
or
mark
halfway
between these two readings.

Note 1: The quickest and easiest way to figure the halfway


mark is to find the mid-value of two foot candle which the
needle has indicated. Be caref ul to note the correct mid.values
of foot candles. For example, between 25o and 64 foot-candles
the mid-value is r25. Between r25 and 64 foot-candtes the
mid'value is indicated by an unnumbered white line on the Diat
Scale. Another method for finding the halfway mark is to set
the dial to the two Dial scale numbers and to note the two
shutter speeds. The shutter speeds can then be averaged and
an f/stop obtained.
Note 2: People in a landscape must betreated as part of the
scenery. They should not be'read'individually
as with
portra its.

27

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4-4, Snow Scenes


(1) Snow pictures taken according to reflectedlight
m e a s u r e m e n to f t e n f a i l b e c au s e t h e s n o w m a g n i fi e s
and distortsthe reading. This problemdoes not
a r i s e , h o w e v e r ,w i t h S e k o n i c ' si n c i d e n tl i g h t m e t e r .
The reflectionfactor for fresh snow is 7O%. lt is
6 0 % f o r ' c i t y ' o r o l d s n o w . W i t h y o u r S e k o n i cy o u
c o m p e n s a t ef o r t h i s r e f l e c t i o n m a t h e m a t i c a l l ya n d
t h e r e b ya v o i d m i s t a k e s . Y o u f i n d t h e s h u t t e r s p e e d
b y r e g u l a ri n c i d e n tl i g h t m e a s u r e m e n ta n d i n c r e a s e
it by I/ 4 2 or L/2.
F o r e x a m p l e:
When the measured shutter speed is LlL25 at f 16,
Then:
L l L z s x t l 4 z : L l L 7 7 ( L | Z O O )o r
- tl25O
llLzsxLl2

Note 3 : When registering


inci.
dent light, the sensitive Lumis.
phere cannot help but pick up
some of the extra lieht reflected
from the surface of the snow. lt
is therefore advisable to shield
the Lumisphere f rom this ref lected
lieht.

\ . R e f l e . r ' t e i Jl i i i i r t

Srtowfaee

(2) When taking pictures under a clouded sky, snow


reflectedlight measurement will give satisfactory
r e s u l t s .P l a c e L u m i g r i di n t h e s o c k e to f t h e S e k o n i c
S t u d i o D e l u x e a n d d i r e c t i t s l i g h t l yd o w n w a r d f r o m
t h e c a m e r a p o s i t i o nt o t h e s u b j e c t . T h e H I G H S l i d e
cannot be used,but be sure to set the t'H" mafk
to the Dial Scale.

"ffi

4-5"

Side and Baek-lighted Seenes

lt is therefore
Over-exposed pictures lack c!arity.
Note 1:
advisable, when a choice is possible, to use the faster shutter
speed.
is based on a standNote 2: The correction index of I/ '/Z-l/2
ard ref lection f actor f or snow. The index will vary sliehtly
depending on the nature of the snow (clean, dirty, etc.), and
you should consider such variations when determining a correct
sh utter speed.

22

23

ln pictures of side or back-tighted scenes, the front of


the subject may appear too dark while other parts of
the photogra ph are over-exposed. This, of course, m ay
be your desired effect; but, if not, take two readings,
one in the regular way with the Lumisphere directed
away from the subject, a nd a nother with the Lumisphere
directed towards the light source. Use a setting m idway
between these two rea d ings, a s expla ined in Sec. 4-3.
(Note 1).

4-7* Direct Reading Method

4-6, SilhouettedScenes
To silhouette objects (persons, trees, etc.) against a
bright sky or sunset, rmove the Slide and turn the
L u m i s p h e r ed i r e c t l y t o w a r d s t h e s u n , ( a s i f y o u w e r e
using a reflectedlight meter).
Set the 'rH" mark to the needle reading, though the
S l i d e i s o u t . D e l i b e r a t eu n d e r - e x p o s u r ei s n e c e s s a r yt o
record the source of light. Objects in the foreground
will be silhouetted.

T h e r e a r e n i n e d i f f e r e n t D i r e c t R e a d i n gS l i d e s a v a i l a b l e
f o r t h e S e k o n i cS t u d i o D e l u x e . T h e y m a y b e u s e d w i t h
t h e L u m i s p h e r eo r L u m i d i s k , b u t n o t w i t h t h e L u m i g r i d .
A s p r e v i o u s l ye x p l a i n e d ,t h e H I G H S l i d ec a n b e u s e d n o t
only for high illumination measurementbut also for
d i r e c t r e a d i n g s . T h e n i n e S l i d e s , h o w e v e r ,a r e o n l y f o r
direct readings.
HIGH Slide
S hu t t e r S p e e d
A S A L 0 ( Dr N 1 1 )
r r/5o (1/60)
D i r e c t R e a d i n gS l i d e s
ASA 25 D I N 1 5
Ll30 (1125
// L7
n40
Ll60 (1/50
//
// 18
lt (rr
50
//
(rr
64
u 19
n
// 20
// (n
n80
// 10O / / 2 L
lt
(n
// 160 // 23
LI L25 (1/ lOO
n 2OO // 24
L l 2 5 O (lL2 O o
n 400
n27
n(rr
Note: Shutter speeds within parentheses are for cameras with
only a general shutter speed scale. See the "Direct Reading
Scale" section of 2-4 for directions on proper installation and
use.

24

25

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A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e t e n D i r e c t R e a d i n gS l i d e s ( i n c l u d i n g
t h e HI G H S l i d e ) , e a c h m a y b e u s e d w i t h d i f f e r e n tf i l m
i n d e x e st o o b t a i n a v a r i e t y o f s h u t t e r s p e e d s . F o r e x ample, film with ASA L00 use{ with HIGH Slide (ASA
10) requires a shutter speed of L/500.
The shutter speed-with which you must set your camera
f o r d i r e c t r e a d i n g s - c a n b e c a l c u l a t e df r o m t h e f o l l o w i n g
formula:
W h e n:
:A
ASA index of a slide
:T
Shutter speedof same slide
:A'
ASA index of film used
:T'
Shutter speed of same film
Then :
T' : A/A'x T
l n t h e e x a m p l e a b o v e , u s i n g A S A 1 O Of i l m w i t h a n A S A
1 0 H I G H S l i d e ,y o u c a l c u l a t e:
10/10oxLl5o-L/5oo
W ha t n o w w o u l d b e t h e s h u t t e r s p e e d f o r a f i l m w i t h
A S A 2 O Ow h e n a s l i d e o f T L l 6 O w i t h A S A 5 0 i s u s e d .
Answer :
T'_5Ol2OOxtl6O_ Ll24O
I n o t h e r w o r d s ,w i t h a n
A S A 2 O Of i l m y o u m a y
s e t t h e s hu t t e r s p e e d
to I l24O a nd use a
Di r e c t R e ad i n g S l i d e o f
A S A 5 O - 1l 6 0 .

5. Special Lighting Gonditions


5-1. Foreword
F o r g e n e r a l p h o t o g r a p h y ,c o r r e c t e x p o s u r er e a d i n g sc a n
b e o b t ai n e d b y f o l l o w i n g t h e i r i s t r u c t i o n s a n d e x am p l e s
i n S e c t i o n s3 a n d 4 . T h e S e k o n i c S t u d i o D e l u x e , h o w '
e v e r , i s a p r e c i s i o ni n s t r u m e n t w h i c h c a n b e u s e d t o
o b t ai n s p e c i aI e f f e c t s u n d e r c o n t r o l l e d c o n d i t i o n s . S e c t i o n 5 s h o u l d b e s t u d i e d c a r e fu l l y s o t h a t y o u r m e t e r
c a n b e u s e d t o i t s f u l l a d v an t a g e .
(1)

I n c i d e n tL i g h t M e a s u r e m e n t .
I n c i d e n t l i g h t m e as u r e m e n t i s t h e m o s t a c c u r a t e ,
up-to-date method to determine exposure. The
Sekonic Studio Deluxe, which has adopted this
m e t h o d , i s w i d e l y u s e d b y p r o f e s s i o n a lp h o t o g r a phers and motion picture specialists. Unlike re'
ftected meters, it is acclaimed by amateurs and
p r o f e s s i o n a l sa l i k e a s t h e o n e m e t e r g i v i n g c o r r e c t
e x p o s u r e r e a d i n g s f o r b o t h b l a c k - a n d ' w h i t ea n d
c o l o r p h o t o g r ap h y . F l e s h t o n e s i n p o r t r ai t s a r e
p a r t i c u l a r l yn a t u r a lw i t h t h e S e k o n i cm e t e r ,b e c a u s e
i t r e c e i v e sa l l i n c i d e n t l i g h t j u s t a s t h e s u b j e c t r e '
c e i v e s i t , a n d a v e r a g e st h e l i g h t i n t o o n e c o r r e c t
e x p o s u r e . T h i s i s a g r e a t a d v an t a g e , E S f l e s h
t o n e s i n c o l o r p h o t o g r a p h ya r e t h e f i r s t w h i c h t h e
u n t r a i n e d e y e r e a d i l y r e c o g n i z e sa s e i t h e r g o o d o r
b a d . S t a n d a r d r e f l e c t i o no f L 8 % a s s u r e s p e r f e c t
t o n e s , a n d e s t ab l i s h e s a p o i n t o f r e f e r e n c e f r o m
w h i c h d e v i a t i o n sc a n b e m a d e f o r s p e c i a le f f e c t s .

(2) The Lu m idisk


The Lumidisk is indispensable in close'ups, to
measure the contrast ratio between m ain and f illin lights. The Lumidisk also makes it possible for
the photographer to record his lighting ratio a nd
duplicate it at any future time.

26

27

5'2' Lighting Gontrast Gontrol (lndoors)


L i g h t i n gc o n t r a s t c o n t r o li s n e c e s sa r y i n o r d e rt o m e a s u r e
t h e m ai n a n d f i l l - i n l i g h t s d i r e c t e d a t a s u b j e c t . w h e n
t h e i n t e n s i t yo f t h e s e l i g h t si s k n o w n , t h e p h o t o g r a p h e r
can change and control the ratio between them for
w h a t e v e re f f e c t s h e w i s h e s t o a c h i e v e .
He can also
d u p l i c a t et h i s l i g h t i n gc o n t r a s t a t s o m e f u t u r e t i m e .
T o m e a s u r ec o n t r a s t :
( 1 ) R e p l a c eL u m i s p h e r ew i t h L u m i d i s k
( 2 ) S w i t c h o n o nt y t h e m a i n ( k e y ) t i g h t
( 3 ) F r o m t h e s u b j e c tp o s i t i o np o i n l ' t h e L u m i d i s kd i r e c i l y
a t t h e m a i n l i g n t , a n d r e a d o u t t h e f o o t - c an d l e s
r e g i s t e r e do n t h e m e t e r .
( 4 ) T u r n o n t h e f i l l - i n r i g h t s ,a n c J p o i n t t h e L u m i d i s k
directlyat them from the subject position. when
m e a s u r i n g t h e f i l l - i n l i g h t s ,b e s u r e t o s h a d e t h e
L u m i d i s kf r o m t h e m a i n l i g h t .
( 5 ) D i v i d e t h e i n t e n s i t yo f t h ; m a i n t i g h t b y t h a t o f
t h e f i l l - i n l i g h t s t o f i n c lt h e c o n t r a s t r a t i o ( l i g h t
balance).
E x am p l e :
The main light reads500
Fill.inlights read ZSO
L i g h t i n g c o n t r a s t r a t i o - 4 9 - Z o 1",'
, Z to 1
250
1
(6) lf the lightingcontrast ratio is
n o t a s d e s i r e d ,t h e
fill-in lights m ust be readjusted.
( 7 ) w h e n t h e p r o p e rr a t i o i s f o u n d , t h e L u m i d i s l <
c an
b e r e p l a c e db y t h e L u m i s p h e r e .N o w t h e e x p o s u r e
c a n b e d e t e r m i n e di n t h e u s u a l w a y .
N o t e : I n a f u l l y ' e q u i p p e ds t u d i o i t i s s u g g e s t e d
t h a t f o r t h e b e s t r e s u l t s y o u k e e pt h e l i g h t i ; a c o n t r a s t r a t i o b e t w e e nZ t o 1 a n d 4 t o 1 .

28

5-3. Outdoor Gontrast Gontrol


Lightirrg ca n be measured a nd controlled outdoors with
the same precision as in a studio.
The procedure is
almost exactly the same.
W h i t e o r s i l v e r - fa c e d r e f l e c t o r s a r e u s e d t o b r i g h t e n t h o s e
place the
sides of a subject which are in shadow.
Lumidisk in the meter and take a reading when it is
directed towards the sun.
Now take another reading
w i t h t h e L u m i d i s k t u r n e d t o w a r d s t h e r e f t e c t o r s ,m a k i n g
certain to shield the Lumidisk with your ha nd from the
direct rays of the sun.
You now know the intensity of
both lights and can control their ratio by rearranging
the reflectors. For best results in color photography,
the fill-in light should be from Llz to Ll4 that of the
m ain light.
Dramatic black and wlrite effects can be achieved by
using a higher ratio, such as having the reflected lights
a s fi t t l e a s L I L G t h e s u n l i g h t i n t e n s i t y .
Note: when the needlemoves outsidethe scale (because of
b r i g h t l i e h t ) u s e t h e H I G H S l i d e . T o o b t a i n f o o t - c a n d l e s( l i e h t
i n t e n s i t y )w i t h t h e H I G H S t i d e , t h e n u m b e r i n d i c a t e d b y i n e
needfemust be multiplied by 32, (as explained in 2-3). The
l i e h t i n g c o n t r a s t r a t i o c a n b e o b t a i n e d r e a d i l yb y c o m p u t i n gt h e
r e l a t i v e i n t e n s i t y o f t h e m a i n l i e h t a n d t h e f i l l - i n t i g h t s ,( a s e x .
p l a i n e di n 5 - 2 ) .
w h e , n t h e p r o p e r r a t i o h a s b e e n o b t a i n e d , r e p l a c et h e L u m i d i s k
w i t h t h e L u m i s p h e r ea n d d e t e r m i n et h e e x p o s u r ea s u s u a t . B e
s u r e t h a t a l l t h e l i g h t f r o m t h e s u n a n d r e fl e c t o r s f a l l s u p o n
the Lumisphere.

29

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5-4" Reflected Light Readings


The Sekonic Studio Deluxe
read ex'
allows one to
posures not only by its
s p e c i aI i n c i d e n t l i g h t s y s '
tem but a lso by the re'
flected light system offered
by sta nd a rd meters. The
Lumigrid is used to take
these reflected light read'
In g s .

Expusure
determination

1 . W h e n u s i n g t h e L u m i g r i d i t i s n e c e s s a r yt o r e m e m b e r :
Keeping the main
l i g h t c o n s t a n t ,v a r y ing the fill.in light
c h a n g e st h e c o n t r a s t
ratio of the lighting

L:1
8:1

16 : 1

2.

30

(1) The Lumigrid should be pointed towards the


su bject from 4 to 6 inches away.
(2) No slides ca n be used.
(3) The numbers indicated on the Incident Light
(They
Sca le do not represent foot-ca ndles.
represent foot-ca nd les on ly with the Lu m isphere
o r L u m i di s k . ) T h e I n c i d e n t L i g h t S c a l e i n t h i s
case is only an index used for finding the proper
shutter speed or f/stop.
(4) All indications m ust be set to a nd read at the
'rH" mark.
You will notice that reflected light measurement
with the Lumigrid is possible only when the intensity of the incident light exceeds L25 footca ndles.
M id-point of brightness ra nge
Reflected light measurement is taken to determine
the brightness of the subject. The brightness depends on the intensity of the incident light and on
the reflection of the subject. Incident light measure-

31

ment is a method of determining exposure by


m e a s u r i n gi n c i d e n tl i g h t , a s s u m i n g t h a t i l r e s u b j e c t
r e f f e c t s1 8 % o f i t s i n c i d e n t l i g h t .
T h e e f f e c t i v ef o o t - c a n d l e sm e a s u r e d b y t h e L u m i s p h e r et o d e t e r m i n et h e c o r r e c t e x p o s u r e ,d e t e r n r i n e s
t h e m i d - p o i n to f b r i g h t n e s s .
Example: Assume that by regular measurement
w i t h t h e L u m i s p h e r ew i t h o u t t h e S l i d e , t h e n e e d l e
i n d i c a t e s 5 O O f o o t - c an d l e s . W i t h a f i l m i n d e x o f
ASA 10, the correct exposure is midway between
FlL and F16,with a shutterspeed of one second.
W h e n t h e " L " m a r k i s s e t t o 5 0 0 , t l r e " H" m a r k
p o i n t st o 1 6 . T h i s 1 6
is the mid'point of
range.
brightness
T h i s m e an s t h a t i f a
standard 18% re'
flector is measured
w i t h t h e L um i g r i d
u n d e r t h e s am e c o n ditions, the needle
will point to 16.
ln determining exposure with
tirc
L u m i s p h e r eo r L u m i grid, the r'H" mark
a l w a y s i n d i c a t e st h e c e n t e ro f t h e b r i g h t n e s sr a n g e ,
r e g a r d l e s os f w h e t h e r t h e , ' H ' , o r , . L , , m a r k w a s
u s e d i n d e t e r m i n i n gt h e c o r r e c t e x p o s u r e .
ff t h e " H " m a r k i s o f f s c a l e w h e n t h e . . L , , m a r k
i s s e t t o t h e n e e d l e ,t h e l i g h t l e v e l i s s o l o w t h a t
n o u s a b l er e a d i n gc a n b e o b t a i n e dw i t h t h e L u m i g r i d . I n o t h e r w o r d s , r e fl e c t e d l i g h t m e a s u r e m e n t
w i t h t h e L u m i g r i d i s p o s s i b l eo n l y w h e n t h e i n t e n s i t y o f i n c i d e n t l i g h t e x c e e d s I 2 5 f o o t - c an d l e s .
3. There are three reasonsfor choosing the use of
r e fl e c t e d l i g h t m e as u r e m e n t:
a , T o d e t e r mi n e t h e b r i g h t n e s sr a n g e o f a s ub j e c t .

32

4.

b . T o p h o t o g r a p hi l l u m i n a t e ds u b j e c t ss u c h a s n e o n
s i g ns .
c. To photograph subjectswhen you are unable to
m e a s u r e t h e i n c i d e n t l i g h t ( F i g u r e si n s h o w w i n dows, etc.).
T o d e t e r m i n e t h e b r i g h t n e s sr a n g e , i n s t a l l t h e L u m i g r i d a n d d i r e c t i t a b o u t 6 i n c h e sf r o m v a r i o u s a r e a s
of the subject. Be careful that neither you nor the
m e t e r c a s t a s h a d o w o n t h e a r e a b e i n g r e a d, ( a 6 "
diameter circle).
N o t e t h e v a r i o u s i n d i c a t i o n so n
the foot-candlescale, which is a convenient scale
f o r d e t e r mi n i n g r a n g e .
Novrdivide the highestfoot candle reading by the
l o w e s t t o o b t a i n t h e b r i g h t n e s sr a n g e o f t h e s u b j e c t .
F o r e x am p l e i f t h e b r i g h t e s t a r e a r e a d s 6 4 , a n d t h e
lowest 4, then :
64
Range _

.?

4-ro

tol

5. To determine the range limits for good color photog r a p h s ,f o l l o wt h e s e r u l e s :


( a ) N o n e o f t h e o b j e c t si n a s c e n e s h o u l d b e m o r e
than four times brighteror four times darker
than the mid-point of the brightness range.
l n o t h e r w o r d st h e f o o t c a n d l e r a n g e s h o u l dn o t

33

www.orphancameras.com
e x c e e dL 6 t o 1 . l f , f o r e x a m p l e ,t h e m i d - p o i n ti s
16 and the lowest area reads 4, the highest
s l ' : o u l dn o t e x c e e d 6 4 . ( 4 x 1 6 : 6 4 )
(b) l f a n y a r e a o f t h e s u b j e c t i s t o o b r i g h t t o f i t
w i t h i n t h i s 1 6 t o I r a n g e , i t s c o l o rw i l l a p p e a r
w a s h e d - o u t . T h e r e f o r et h i s a r e a s h o u l d b e
s h a C e dt o r e d u c e t h e i n t e n s i t y o f l i g h t u p o n i t .
(c) l f a n y a r e a o f t h e s u b j e c t i s t o o d a r k t o f i t
within this range,
more light must be
concentrated on it
to assure proper
coloring.
(d) On the
Sekonic
Studio Deluxe two
f/ stops on either
s i d eo f t h e m i d - p o i n t
l i m i t t h e n o r ma I
b r i g h t n e s sr a n g e f o r
color.

M i d - p o i n to f
B r i g h t n e s sR a n g e
ExposureIndication
w i t h L u mi s p h e r e

6.

34

S p e c i a lU s e s f o r L u m i g r i d
W h e n t a k i n g p h o t o g r a p h so f i l l u m i n a t e ds u b j e c t so r
o f s u b j e c t sf o r w h i c h a n i n c i d e n t l i g h t r e a d i n g c a n n o t b e m a d e , t h e L u m i g r i d s h o u l d b e u s e di n p l a c e
o f t h e L u m i s p h e r e .( S e e 5 - 4 - 1 f o r g e n e r a l i n s t r u c t i o n s , a n d s t u d y t h e p i c t u r e sa b o v e . )

35

5-5. ModernLighting Control


The Sekonic studio Detuxe ailows f ull.lighting control
and is therefore the most efficient and accurale meter
f o r i n d o o r m o v i e s . H e r e 6 r e t h e s t e p s r e c o m m e n d e dt o
a r r a n g e a s t u d i o f o r a m o t i o n p i c t u r e s c e n e . T h e s am e
g e n e r a l p r o c e d u r em a y b e f o l l o w e df o r s t i l l p h o t o g r a p h y .
R e q u i r e dl i g h t i n g :
Film Index
ASA 16 (DtN 13)
Lens Diaphragm
t12.8
Shutter Speed
LISOsecond
Frames
Z$-per-second
S t e p 1 - F i n d i n gg e n e r a ll i g h t i n t e n s i t y
(a) Set SekonicStudio Detuxeto ASA L6
(b) Bring the red 24 on meter's cine Scate in line
w i t h t 1 2 . 8 o n t h e A p e r t u r e S c at e
( c ) L o c a t e t h e " L " m a r k . T h e c o r r e s p o n d i n gf o o t candle reading should be slighily over 5oo.
(650 foot-can dles a re requ ired for these specified conditions).

Step 2-Setting the key (or main) light


(a) Switchon main light and direct it as desired
towards the subject.
( b ) H o l d t h e m e t e r a t t h e s u b j e c t p o s i t i o na n d p o i n t
t h e L um i s h e r e a t t h e l e n s o f t h e c a m e r a . D o
n o t u s e a s l i d e . p r e s s t h e n e e d r el o c k b u t t o n
until Step 3.
( c ) I n c r e a s eo r d e c r e a s et h e i n t e n s i t y o f t h e m a i n
light until the indicating needlepoints to 5oo.
( T h e f i l l - i n l i g h t s ,w h e n a d d e d ,w i l r i n c r e a s et h e
f o o t - c a n d l en u m b e r t o t h e r e q u i r e d 6 5 0 . )
36

S t e p 3 " A d j u s t i n gl i g h t i n g c o n t r a s t
( a ) R e p l a c eL u m i s p h e r ew i t h L u m i d i s k .
( b ) M e a s u r ei n t e n s i t yo f k e y l i g h t . l t s h o u l d m e a s u r e
5 O O f o o t - c an d l e s .
(c) Switch on fill-in lights.
(d) Adjust the fill-in lights for proper lightingcont r a s t a s e x p l a i n e di n 5 - 2 . B a c k l i g h t s w i l l h a v e
a n e g l i g i b l ee ff e c t o n t h i s r a t i o .
Note:
For a 2 to 1 ratio, f ill-in lights should registor
an intensity of 250.

S t e p 4 - A dj u s t i n g b r i g h t n e s sr an g e
( a ) R e p l a c eL u m i d i s k w i t h L u m i s p h e r e
( b ) T a k e a f o o t - c a n d l er e a d i n gw i t h t h e L u m i s p h e r e
a t s u b j e c t p o s i t i o n p o i n t e dt o w a r d s t h e c a m e r a .
The reading should be 650 now with all the
lights on.
lf not, vary the key light intensity
u n t i l i t d o e s . T h i s s h o u l d r e q u i r ea m i n i m u m
of adjustment.
( c ) T u r n t t L " m a r k t o 6 5 0 f o o t - c a n d l e sa n d r e a d
o u t t h e f o o t - c a n d l e n u m b e r c o r r e s p o n d i n gt o
the "H" mark. (See 5-4-2 for explanation). lt
w i l l r e a d 2 0 , w h i c h i s t h e m i d - p o i n tb r i g h t n e s s
of the subject. Since a brightnessrange of L6
t o L g i v e st h e b e s t r e s u l t s , n o o b j e c t s h o u l d b e
b r i g h t e r t h a n 8 0 f o o t - c a n d l e s( 4 x t h e m i d - p o i n t
20) or darker than 5 (Il4 of 2O).
( d ) R e p l a c eL u m i s p h e r ew i t h L u m i g r i d . M e a s u r e
light and dark areas of the subjectto be sure
none of them is brighter th an 80 or darker
than 5.
S t e p 5 - F i n d i n gc o r r e c t e x p o s u r e
( a ) T h e r e a d i n g o b t a , i n e dw i t h t h e L u m i s p h e r ei n
Step 4 (b)'should now be completely accurate.
I t s h o ul d t e l l y o u t o s e t y o u r c a m e r a a t t 1 2 . 8
at Il50 second.

37

www.orphancameras.com

5-6. Close-ups

'

( 1 ) W h e n e v e rt h e s u b j e c t i s c l o s e r t o t h e c a m e r a t h a n
t e n t i m e s t h e f o c a l l e n g t h o f t h e c a m e r a l e n s ,t h e
exposure indicatedon the Sekonic Studio Deluxe
m u s t b e i n c r e a s e d . F o r e x a m p l e ,a c a m e r a u s i n g
a 5 0 m m l e n s m u s t i n c r e a s e i t s e x p o s u r et i m e f o r
any object closer than 50O mm.
T h i s i s b e c a u s ea s u b j e c ti s i n c r e a s i n g l ym a g n i f i e d
a s i t a p p r o a c h e st h e l e n s o f t h e c a m e r a .
When
light from the subject is focused into an imageon
the film through the lens, the following retation
exists between illumination on the film's face,
b r i g h t n e s so f t h e s u b j e c t , a n d m a g n i f i c a t i o no f t h e
subject.
Where:
E : i l l u m i n a t i o no f f i l m f a c e
L : b r i g h t n e s so f s u b j e c t
M : f n ? g n i f i c a t i o no f s u b j e c t
F : F number
r : circularconstant
a : COnStant
a.rL
1
(M+ 1)3
4'F2
From this formula it will be seen that when there
i s a c h a n g e i n m a g n i f i c a t i o n ,t h e b r i g h t n e s s( i l l u m i n a t i o n )o f t h e f i l m f a c e c h a n g e s i n i n v e r s e
proportion to (M * t;2.
I n o t h e rw o r d s ,w h e n M i s s m a l l ,o r w h e n t h e d i s t a n c e
from the camera to subject is great, the effect on
t h e e x p o s u r ei s m i n i m a l .
However, as the distance from subject to object
d e c r e a s e s ,M i n c r e a s e s . ( M + 1 ) , i s c a l l e d t h e c o r r e c t i o n i n d e x f o r c l o s e - u p s .S e e ( 3 ) f o r d e t e r m i n i n g
the value of M.
( 2 ) M e a s u r i n gt h e I n c i d e n t L i g h t
(a) Hold the Sekonic meter as close to the subject
a s p o s s i b l e a n d p o i n t t h e L u m i s p h e r et o w a r d s
the camera lens.

(b) lf the main or fill-in lights are very near the


s u b j e c t ,t h e s u b j e c t s h o u l d b e r e m o v e d a n d
the Lumisphere held in the exact spot the
The light striking the
subjectwill occupy.
s u b j e c tw i l l t h e n b e t h e s a m e a s t h a t s t r i k i n g
the Lumisphere.
(3) E x p o s u r ec o r r e c t i o n sf o r c l o s e - u p s
( a ) F i r s t d e t e r m i n ee x p o s u r e ' , a se x p l a i n e di n 5 - 6 - 2 .
( b ) M e a s u r et h e s i z e o f t h e o b j e c t , a n d o f i t s i m a g e
in the lens.
(c) D i v i d et h e l a r g e r d i m e n s i o ni n t o t h e s m a l l e r .
You will thus obtain the magnification (if the
i m a g e i s l a r g e r t h a n t h e s u b j e c t )o r r e d u c t i o n
( i f i m a g e i s s m a l l e rt h a n t h e s u b j e c t ) .
(d) Find the proper correction factor from the chart
on the followingpage.
(e) M u l t i p l y t h i s c o r r e c t i o nf a c t o r b y t h e e x p o s u r e
time indicatedon Your meter.

:-#>.L-". *{r#

.!rt:ri,.

,r'i . ,,i -.',

TABLE1: ExposureCorrectionfor Closeups


(CorrectionFactor is (M*l)z where M is the magnifi.
ca ti o n .)

5-7. Sunlight-FlashPhotography
The simplestand quickest methodof accurately balanci n g s u n l i g h tw i t h f l a s h i s o f f e r e db y S e k o n i cS t u d i oD e l u x e .
F o r t h e f i r s t t i m e t h e s a m e b a s i c m e t h o do f l i g h t b a l a n c e
u s e d b y p r o f e s s i o n a ls t u d i o p h o t o g r a p h e r si s a p p l i e dt o
f l a s h p h o t o g r a p h y . T h i s m e t h o d , t h e m o s t e f f i c i e n ty e t
d e v i s e d ,a c c u r a t e l y c o n t r o l s c o n t r a s t s b e t w e e n b r i l l i a n t
light and dark shadows.
1 . D e t e r m i n et h e i n t e n s i t yo f t h e s u n l i g h t b y d i r e c t i n g
L u m i s p h e r ef r o m t h e s u b j e c t p o s i t i o n t o w a r d s t h e
s u n . F o r e x a m p l e ,s h o u l d r e a d i n g d i r e c t e dt o w a r d s
t h e s u n w i t h t h e H I G HS l i d ei n d i c a t e2 O 0f o o t - c a n d l e s .
the effective foot-candle number is 640O (2OOx32).
2 . S e l e c ta m a i n t o f i l l - i n l i g h t r a t i o . A p o p u l a ro n e
i s 4 t o 1 , ( i . e . ,t h e f i l l - i n l i g h t t o h a v e L l 4 l i g h t i n t e n s i t yo f t h e m a i n l i g h t ) .
W i t h 6 4 0 0 e f f e c t i v ef o o t - c a n d l e su, s e d i n t h e e x a m p l e
above, the fill-ins should register 16O0 (640O+4)
f o o t - c an d l e s .
3 . L o o k d o w n t h e l e f t c o l u m n o f t h e f l a s h b u t bc h a r t o n
page 42-45. Locate 160O. Read across to learn
t h e d i s t a n c et h e f l a s h m u s t b e h e l d f r o m t h e s u b j e c t
f o r s p e c i ife d f l a s h b u l b sa n d s h u t t e r s p e e d s . F o r a
P r e s s 2 5 u s e d a t a s h u t t e r s p e e d o f L / 1 O O ,t h e
flash lamp must be held22 712foot from the subject
f o r t h e p r o p e r 4 t o L s u n - t o - f l a s hr a t i o .
4 . C a m e r a s e t t i n g sm a y b e o b t a i n e db y u s i n gt h e l i g h t
valuefound in (1).

Reduction

f v af g n i f i c a t i o n
I
Ratio of Object CorrectionI Rutio of Object
Corre"tion
lE^^+^r^
^-r--t--tl no ll mma ^a^ g e
t o ll -m
Factor
age
i Factor

20:
19:
18:
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14:
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3:
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1.25 :
1:

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:1.50
: 1.75

1.13
1.14
1.15
1.16
1.17
l.t9
t.2l
1.24
1.27
1.31
1.36
1.44
1.50
1.56
1.65
1.78
1.86
r.96
2.09
2.25
2.47
2.78
3.24
4.00

: 2.25
: 2.5
: 2.75
:3
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:4
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:5
:6
:7
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:9
:10
: 11
:12
:13
:14
:15
:16
:17
:18
:19
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4
5
6
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9
10.5
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t4
t6
20
25
30
36
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121
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196
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T A B L E 2 : D i s t a n c eo f f l a s h l a m p s f r o m s u b j e c t f o r c o r rect fill-in ratios (Unit: Foot)

Iri I

Note:
The intensity of light of one lamp at any distance given
in the tablecan be duplicated by using(a) 2 lamps at 1.4 times
the distance, (b) 3 lamps at I3/4 times the distance, or (c) 4
lamps at twice the distance.

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6. Taking Care of Your $ekonic


Studio Detuxe
6-1 Tero Setting
H o l dt h e m e t e ru p r i g h ta n d c o v e rt h e L u m i s p h e r e
with
the palm of your ha nd so as to shut out all the light.
lf the neThe indicating needle should point to zero.
edle is slightly off, reset the needle to zero by slowly
turning with a coin or perforated slide the screw on
the meter's nameplate, on the back of the meter.

6-2. Siide SIot


Under very bright lighting conditions when the sekonic
meter is used without a slide, a littte light may enter
through tlre slide slot. This seldom effects exposure,
but for the sake of higher fidelity it is best to shade
this slot with your hand.

6-3. Other Precautions


Y o u r S e k o n i c s t u d i o D e l u x ei s a h i g h l y a c c u r a t e a n d
d e fi c a t e e l e c t r i c a li n s t r u m e n t . W i t h o r d i n a r y c a r e a n d
h a n d l i n g , h o r r . r e v e ri t, w i l l g i v e l o n g r e l i a b t e s e r v i c e .
N a t u r a l l y ,i t s h o u l d n ' t b e o p e n e d o r t a k e n a p a r t , a n d
s i n c e i t i s n ' t s h o c k p r o o ft,h e m e t e r s h o u l d n ' tb e d r o p p e d
or roughlyhandled. lt is importantto keep the Lumis p h e r e c l e an . S l i g h t s c r a t c h e so n t h e L u m i s p h e r ea r e
n o t h a r m f u l e x c e p tt h a t t h e y c o l l e c t d i r t a n d t h e r e f o r e
46

r na y s l i e h t l y r e d u c e l i g h t t r a n s m i s s i o n a n d e f f e c t t h e
m e t e r ' s a c c u r a c y . T h e L u m i s p h e r es h o u l d b e w a s h e d
lvith soap and lukewarnr water. lt may yellowslightly
w i t h ? g , b u t t h i s h a s n o e ff e c t o n t h e m e t e r ' s e x p o s u r e
r e a d i n g . T h e H I G H S l i d e m a y b e b e n t c o n v e x l ys o t h a t
i t w i l l f i t t h e m e t e r t i g h t l y . P r o t e c ty o u r S e k o n i cS t u d i o
D e l u x ef r o m e x t r e m e h e a t o r h u m i d i t y . A v o i d k e e p i n g
i t i n y o L r rc a r ' s g l o v e c o m p a r t m e n t w h e n t h e w e a t h e r
is hot.
6-4" Servlce
S h o u l d y o u r S e k o n i c m e t e r r e q u i r er e p ai r , r e t u r n i t t o
o n e o f t h e o f f i c i a l S e k o n i cS e r v i c eS t a t i o n s . F o r s h i p p i n g , i t s h o u l d b e p a c k e d i n a c o r r u g a t e db o x w i t h i t s
o w n c as e a n d w i t h e x c e l s i o r .