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Elements which are the basic components making up matter, found in nature in its
elemental form, compounds, and mixtures thereof either in the earth's crust, water and
atmosphere. To be able to extract and process them in need of understanding the properties of

The crust is the outermost layer of Earth is divided into two categories, namely the
oceanic crust and continental crust.Oceanic crust has a thickness of about 5-10 km, while the
continental crust has a thickness of about 20-70 km.
The chemical elements that form the earth's crust are: Oxygen (O) (46.6%), silicon (Si)
(27.7%), aluminum (Al) (8.1%), iron (Fe) (5, 0%), Calcium (Ca) (3.6%), Sodium (Na)
(2.8%), Potassium (K) (2.6%), Magnesium (Mg) (2.1%).
The crust and some mantle lithosphere form layers with a total thickness of
approximately 80 km.
The experts can reconstruct the layers that exist below the surface of the earth is based
on analysis of the seismograms recorded by seismic recording station in the whole world.
Table 1. The abundance of several elements in Indonesia.


Abundance in Indonesia



Lampung, South Sumatra, East The iron industry in Cilegon produces

Kalimantan, West Kalimantan, concrete iron, steel, iron plate and an
Cilacap, Ujung Kulon, Central iron plate.


Pulau Bintan (Riau), Tayan Mining of bauxite ore in Bintan Island

(Ore bauxite)

(South Kalimantan)

since 1935. The bauxite is processed

into ingots and slabs al, for the domestic
market and for export.Problems bauxite
reserves in Bintan dwindling resolved
with the discovery and mining of
bauxite in the Tayan bauxite began in
2004. This will be processed into Alquality non-export (Al content <40 span
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Papua, West Kalimantan

Mining site in Papua contains not only

copper, but also contain gold and
silver. Mineral reserves are estimated to
last for the next 50 years the value of ~
$ 80 billion.


Pomalaa (Southeast Sulawesi), Nickel is mined there is exported

Soroako (Central Sulawesi), directly in the form of nickel ore, and


Sulawesi), some are fused to obtain ferronickel

Halmahera and Papua.

(FeNi) containing ~ 20% nickel with a

higher sales price.

Carbon (Coal)

Bukit Asam (South Sumatra), Based on the C content, coal is

Kota Baru, Banjarmasin, Kutai classified with high quality (antarsit),
(East Kalimantan)

medium (bituminous), and low (sub-



lignite). Seabagai

picture, antarsit used in industries such

as steel and cement, power plants,
smelting tin and nickel, as well as
bituminous for the aluminum industry
and power plants.

Central Sulawesi

Alkali element is a soft metal, shiny white, and has a melting point that rendah.Senyawa
alkali widely found in nature are sodium chloride and potassium.

an alkali element with the strongest reduction. Li obtained from the electrolysis of
molten lithium garam.Kegunaan are as follows:

as in the synthesis of alkali metal liyhium

lithium salt is used as a treatment for mental disorders

Li alliance with Pb is used for wrapping the cable

Li alliance with Al used to increase the corrosion resistance of Al.

Na much seawater can be in the form of NaCl, so many compounds are made from
valuable NaCl murah.Na also used as filler light the lamp on the road or vehicles, as
emissions mampun yellow color through the fog. Na is also used for the manufacture
TEL, namely to raise the octane number fuel.
Other sodium compounds are used as:

NaOH, which is produced from the electrolysis of NaCl solution. Used

as raw material for soaps, detergents, paper, rayon fibers, and separating the sulfur from

NaHCO (baking soda), will be decomposed by heat which generates CO gas so


that the cake becomes fluffy. NaHCO was also used sebag ai buffer to maintain

the pH, because it can react with acids and bases in accordance with the following reaction:
HCO 3- + H + H 2 CO 3
3HCO + OH - H 2 O + CO 3 2o NACO 3 is used for the manufacture of glass, eliminating water hardness, sodium
silicate as a raw material in papermaking and detergents
o Na-glutamate as a food flavoring
o Na-benzoate as a preservative of food cans.

Compounds potassium that is widely used is KOH as raw material for soap, KClO 3 as
raw materials firecrackers and matches, KCL for the manufacture of fertilizers, KBr
as material for making drugs, and KNO 3 are soluble in water as materials for
fertilizers, explosives and preservatives daging.Pada for human and animal bodies,
Na + and K + ions play a role in delivering kondusi nerves, and maintaining osmotic
balance in the blood. In plants, K + ions play an important role in growth.

This element will emit electrons when exposed to the light, so it is widely used as
photoelectric cells. Rubium which reacts with water to cause an explosion.

golden, slightly in nature, and are in some silicate minerals ..
sesium will emit electrons when exposed to the light, so that the banya is used in
photoelectric cells. sesiumakan resulting in an explosion when reacted with water.

This element is rarely found in nature., Because it is radioactive and has a very short
isotopes, which are 21 minutes.francium made in the natural radioactive decay or in
nuclear reactors.

Alkaline earth element is a metal bracket that has two valence electrons, which tend to
release electrons, so that the charged +2. Because the valence electrons easily dislodged,
alkaline earth elements are easily oxidized, although not as easy as alkali group. so,
alkaline earth group elements is a strong reducing agent.

The element is used as a frame of missiles and spacecraft. other than that beryllium is
transparent to X-rays, so that the bias is used as an x-ray tube window.












nature. Magnesiumbermanfaat as a constituent of chlorophyll in plants. magnesium

produced because it is stable in air terbuka.Magnesium widely used for the prevention
of corrosion of metal pipes in the ground and diding ships. in the pharmaceutical
field, Mg (OH) 2, can be used as an ulcer drug, and MgSO 4, better known as the
English salt, used to laktasif intestine.

an alkaline compound that is widely available in nature in addition to
magnesium.Senyawa calcium is a compound that can easily and abundant in nature, it
can be used as building materials, such as one of the ingredients of cement
manufacture. In addition to the alkaline earth elements, calcium CaCO3 pure form
compounds that can be used as toothpaste and chalk.

produces deep red color spectrum. Alkaline earth element Sr, the compound SrSO 4, if
in the fuel produces a red flame.These compounds can be used as a source of ignition
of fireworks.

Barium produce a yellowish green color spectrum. Barium can also be used as a

flame color fireworks

Radium is an element that only a few occur in nature, element is radioactive, the

strength of radioactivity will decrease 1% every 25 years. Chemical properties radiummirip

with barium, which if deposited will be a sulfate. Radium in the form ofsalt should be are
stored in glass tubes closed and given a protective lead.
Noble gases contained in the atmosphere in relatively small quantities. As we know our
atmosphere dominated by nitrogen gas (N 2) and oxygen (O 2), each of which cover 78% and
21% by volume of the most noble udara.Gas dijimpaidi atmosphere is argon. Covering
0.934% by volume of air, argon gas was ranked third highest in the air after the nitrogen and
oxygen. Quite an abundance of argon content in the air, compared with the noble gases other,
because argon is a result of the decay of radioactive elements potassium-40 that much
contained by the earth's crust.
However, the noble gases are the most abundant in the universe is not argon, but
helium. The element helium together with the element hydrogen is a major component of the
sun and stars. As in atmostis earth, very little helium levels (Cuma around, 0.0005% by
volume of air), because helium is very light at all so have "escape velocity" (escape velocity)
which is large enough to remove the pull of earth's gravity.
In some areas of the southern United States, especially in the state of Kansas,
Colorado, and Texas, helium gas is obtained in high enough concentrations of the sources of
natural gas, as a result of the decay of radioactive elements uranium and thorium.
The noble gases are the least common is radon. The element radon is radioactive, so
easy to change (decays) into other elements.
All noble gas, but radon, can be obtained by melt air, then water air components are
separated from each other with fig sau beringkat distillation. This is possible because the
noble gases have boiling points different.

Is the most abundant element in the universe. This element has several benefits

a. Substitute hydrogen gas to fill balloons helium gases other than air because light
can not burn.
b. As the filler tube diving with oxygen, replacing the nitrogen contained in the
air. Nitrogen can cause 'bends', namely the release of nitrogen gas bubbles that had
been dissolved in the blood with increasing hydrostatic pressure experienced by the
diver with incredible pain.
c. Used to create an inert environment to prevent oxidation of the metal plating
d. Liquid helium can be used as a refrigerant (coolant), especially on a nuclear reactor.
a.Pengisi billboard lights, emit red

b.Neon liquid can also be used as refrigerants















obtained by heating the air and calcium carbide CaC 2,nitrogen and oxygen in the air will be
bound by the CaC 2, so that the remaining air we obtain argon, argon Benefits:
a.Pengisi incandescent light bulb filaments that are not easily broken
b.Dipakai to make the atmosphere inert environment
c.Pengisi billboard lights, emitting pink and blue at low pressure at high pressure
a.Standar international size, 1 meter = 1,650,763.73 times the wavelength of krypton gas

b.Pengisi billboard lights, emit white

a.Sebagai dope
b.Oksida xenon is a strong oxidizing agent because it is easily transformed into


As for radon just apat raioaktif obtained from the decay of radium elements, based on
the nuclear reaction below:




Ra Rn + 4 2HE

This element is used for cancer therapy because it emits radioactive rays

Benefits of halogen. Halogen is a reactive compound. Halogen in the periodic system of

elements occupy 17 group (VIIa).Halogen consisting of fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine,
and astatine. Each of these elements has a great advantage. The use of halogen in everyday
life can be seen below.

There are many uses of fluorine such as to make the coolant and detergent. Fluor is also
used mainly for producing uranium heksafluroida and is also used to make
lainnya.Sebelumnya fluorine compounds, fluorine is used for the production of CFCs
used in aerosol sprays, cleansers and polymers. However, these compounds can cause
depletion of the ozone layer. The usefulness of fluorine the other is for rocket fuel. Ion
fluoride used in toothpaste because it can prevent cavities. In some countries, fluoride
added to municipal water supplies to reduce tooth decay. Fluorinated compounds can be
used to make plastics and also for etching glass. Fluorinated compounds used for etching
are not only decorative but also to mark the thin glass ball to be carved.

K lor in
The most important use of chlorine bleach is as paper and cloth. Chlorine is one of the
chemicals most frequently produced in the United States. The most common use of
chlorine is in drinking water and swimming pools because it can kill harmful
bacteria. The use of chlorine include production of everyday products such as
insecticides, solvents, food dyes, plastics, dyes, textiles, petroleum products, paper
products etc.

B rom

Brom also used to disinfect water because it can kill the bacteria. Inorganic forms of
bromine is used in photographic film.Additionally, bromine is also used in fumigants, fire
extinguisher, dyes and pharmaceuticals.

iodine in
Iodine is an element that is very important and has many uses. Iodine compounds are
basically used in medicine, photography and dyes. Iodine can also be to identify
starch. Another very important usage of iodine is because it is quiteradioopaque, so it can
be used as a contrast X-ray and for intravenous injection

Astatin utilization has not been found.

The Three Elements abundance.

Aluminium is a metal element that is most abundant in the earth's crust, covering 7.8%
of the mass of the earth's crust, which ranks third after oxygen and silicon. Aluminum is
found in rocks as aluminum silicate (compounds composed of elements of Al, O, and Si),
bauxite (Al 2 O 2 .2H 2 O), clay (Al 2 Si 2 O 7 .2H 2 O) and cryolite (Na 3 ALF 6). Aluminium
was first isolated in 1825 by scientists of Denmark. Aluminum name comes from the Latin
kat alumen, meaning alum. Ore uatama aluminuim are often used to make the metal is
bauxite. In Indonesia, bauxite numerous in Bintan Island and West Kalimantan.
In nature, silicon is the element of rank second only to oxygen in the earth's crust,
covering about 28% of the weight of the earth, the silicon can be in the form of silica
(SiO 2) or quartz sand, aluminosilicate, ortoklase (K 2 O.Al 2 O 3. 6SiO 2) and asbestos
(MgCasilikat). Sand is often found everywhere is not pure silica, while the more pure silica
can be (the flint) and opal (opal). Silicon can be obtained by reducing SiO 2 at high
temperature using a reducing carbon.
SiO 2 (s) + 2C 2 (s) Si (s) + 2CO (g)

Phosphorus is found in rock phosphate as Fluorapatite compound (Ca 5 (PO 4) 3 F),

hydroxyapatite (Ca 5 (PO 4) 3 (OH)), and klorapatit (Ca 5 (PO 4) 3 Cl).







sulfur, which


brimstone. Sulfur (sulfur) is an element of the third period which occur in nature in a free
state or in the form of compounds. In a free state, generally sulfur found in the form of
sulphide minerals, such as iron sulfide (FeS 2), gypsum (CaSO 4 .2H 2 O) and zinc (ZnS). In
addition, sulfur is also contained in natural gas, such as H 2 S and SO 2.
As an element, sulfur contained in the volcanic mountains and as sediment at depths>
100 m underground. These deposits probably formed from the reaction of CaSO4 reduction to
elemental S by bacteria.

Abundance Period Four Elements

Scandium is found in nature together with lanthanide elements and has the same
properties as these elements. Scandium is a rare metal. The content of this element in the
estimate of between 5 to 30 ppm, and is only found in some mineral mines. The use of
scandium is commercially very limited, one of them is as a component in high-intensity
lights. Pure scandium metal is made by electrolysis of a liquid mixture SCCL 3 with other
Titanium has the electron structure [Ar] 3d 2 4s 2. energy to eject four electrons are so
great that no Ti ion and titanium compounds (IV) that is covalently attached. There are
similarities between the Ti (IV) and Sn (IV), ie TiO 2 is isomorphic withSnO2 and both yellow
when hot. TiCl 4 as well as SnCl 4 is in the form of a liquid which can be distilled, easily
hydrolyzed by water, and acts as asan lewis.
Titanium is relatively abundant in the earth's crust (0.6%). Among the metals found in
nature, has an abundance of titanium metal number seven. So much more than the metals
zinc, copper, and nickel. The main titanium ore rutile TiO 2 and ilmenti FeTiO 3. titanium
metal production lately more and more, this is caused by the need in the military and
aerospace industries. Titanium is preferred over aluminum or steel in the aircraft industry, as
aluminum will lose strength at high temperatures, while the steel is too heavy.

Metal vanadium found in nature more than the metals copper, zinc, lead, and mercury
(approximately 0.02% in the earth's crust). These metals despite widespread but little deposit
concentrated. In nature these metals obtained on vanadit, Pb 3 (VO 4) 2as well as the compound
V 2 S 5. Vanadium is also obtained in carnotit ores containing elements potassium, uranium,
vanadium and oxygen. This compound is very important as a source of uranium. In addition
vanadium is also contained in the petroleum from Venezuela, and recovered as V 2 O 5 from
the dust of fumes after burning.
Pure Vanadium scarce, because as titanium, is quite reactive towards oxygen, nitrogen,
and carbn at the high temperatures used in metallurgical processes. Due to major uses
commercially is for steel alliance that provides properties can be stretched and vibration
resistant, the production is mainly as iron alliance "ferrovanadium". With a complex chemical
reaction obtained vanadium (V) oxide. This compound is then converted into alliance
vanadium iron by reducing V 2 O 5 using aluminum metal in steel flakes.
3 V 2 O 5 (s) + 10 Al (s) 6V (s) + 5Al 2 O 3 (s)









MnO 2, Mn 2 O 2 manganit .h 2 O and also hausmanit Mn 3 O 4.On the seabed, on kedalamn

thousands of meters, have also been found manganese nodules. This difference resembles the
rock that is composed by a layer of manganese and iron oxides with small amounts of other
metals such as Co, Cu and Ni. Nodules are usually round in shape with a diameter of a few
millimeters samapai about 15 cm. The largest reserves in the area of Southeast Hawaii.
Pure manganese can be obtained by reducing the Mn 3 O 4 using aluminum
reductant. The resulting manganese metal and vacuum distilled.
3mn 3 O 4 (s) + 8AL (s) 4AL 2 O 3 (s) + 9Mn (s)
Iron is a metal element that is both abundant in the wild after Al. Iron is also a fourth element
that is most abundant in the earth's crust with an amount of about 4.7%. The main ore ferrous
metal element contained in the form of the mineral hematite (Fe 2 O3). Magnetite
(Fe 3 O 4), limonite (FeO (OH)), pyrite (FeS 2) and siderite (FeCO 3) .In Indonesia, iron ores are
numerous in West Kalimantan, South Sumatra, Central Sulawesi, and Island Java
Chromium is found in nature is found about 122 ppm in the earth's crust, the chromium
is one of the most important metals in the metal industry. The main ore in nature are in the

form of the mineral chromite (FeCr 2 O 4) and lead chromate (PbCrO 4).Chromium can be
obtained by reducing chromium (III) oxide, Cr 2 O 3 using aluminum reductant. The process is
called thermite process because the reaction is highly exothermic.
Copper is not very abundant in nature, and is found both in a free state or a
compound. Copper ore contained in the form of mineral chalcopyrite (CuFeS 2), chalcocite
(Cu 2 S), kuprit (Cu 2 O), malakonit (CuO), and malakit (Cu (OH) 2 CO 3). Elements that are
free are usually found among Northern Michigan in the United States. In Indonesia, these
minerals are found in Irian Jaya.
Copper is also found in small amounts in some types tanama, in bird feathers
(especially the colored light) and in the blood of marine animals such as shrimp and scallops.
Cobalt is a metal that is rare and estimated as many as 20 ppm contained in the earth's
crust. Cobalt is found in the backup that collects, thereby reaching millions of tons of annual
production. The main ore is kobalti (CoAsS), and smaltit (Coas 2). These ores usually obtained
together with other elements such as iron, nickel, copper, sulfur, and arsenic.
Nickel ranks 24th in the number of abortion dikerak earth. Nickel ores are usually in
the form of sulphide or arsenide compound is mixed with other metals such as Fe, Cu, and
Co. for example pentladit (Ni, Cu, Fe) S and gernierit (Ni, Mg) SiO 3.xH 2 O. A large nickel
deposit discovered in Canada and in Indonesia there in Sulawesi.
Zink found in nature mainly as zinc blende (kerpu zinc), ZnS located in Australia,
Canada and ZnCO 3. Cadmium is obtained together with zinc. In the processing of ore of zinc
and cadmium, zinc kdmium can be separated by means of fractional distillation.
Silver in nature is obtained in the free form and in the form of compounds in various
rocks. Silver alloy joint obtained as gold, copper, or mercury. As the compounds, the main
ore is pwerak sulfide (Ag 2 S), silver chloride (AgCl), and as complex sulphide together
arsenic and antimony (Sb 2 S 3 .3Ag 2 S). some were quite convincing were also obtained
during the extraction of lead and copper.
Gold is usually found in nature in betuk metal as small granules in the sand along Cu
and Ag or together with platinum group metals. Gold also can be in the compound as a
mineral Telluride (Aute 2) and silvanit (AuAgTe 4)

For centuries gold obtained by washing the rock with water to separate the small
particles of gold particles that are larger in size. In the amalgamation process for extracting
gold, refined flour gold ore is washed on the sheet of copper coated mercury, which is half of
the gold will be dissolved. Amalgam later in the dredger and the mercury is removed by
distillation. Gold is recovered as a residue.