Anda di halaman 1dari 24


Dr. Indu Dayal Meshri Primary English School

The preparation of soap

Guided by: - Mr. Nabakishor Sorokhaibam

Submitted by: - Rohan .D. Patel
Roll no.: -

This is to certify that Mr. Rohan Patel

student of XII science Roll no
___________worked on project titled- The
preparation of soap held in Bhagwati
International Public School during the
academic year 2016-2017.
He worked sincerely under the guidance of
faculties and prepared this dissertation.

External Teacher

Subject Teacher


First of all, I am immensely indebted to almighty god for
his blessings and grace without which I could not have
undertaken this task and my efforts would never have
been a success.
I humbly consider a privilege and honor to
express my heartiest and profound gratitude to Mr.
Rajendra.S. Malwal, principal BIPS, Patan. For his
appropriate direction, valuable suggestion, under judging
assistance so generously extended to me.
I wish to express my deepest feelings of gratitude to Mr.
Nabakishor Sorokhaibam, chemistry department, BIPS
Patan. For his erudite involvement and sustained guidance
which has been pivotal in my project work. His minute
observation, precious insights, critical comments have
indeed greatly helped to shape my ideas.
This guidance and support received from my
entire classmates who contributed and who are
contributing to this project, is vital for the success of this
project. I am grateful for their constant support and help.
I also owe sense of gratitude to my parents for
encouragement and support throughout the project.


Sr. no


Page no.




The making of
The universe of
& nonbiodegradable
between soap












In chemistry, soap is a salt of a fatty acid. Soap
are mainly used as surfactants for washing,
bathing, cleaning.
Fats and oils are composed of triglycerides; three
molecules of fatty acids are attached to a single
molecule of glycerol. The alkaline solution, which
is often called lye, brings about a chemical
reaction as saponification.
They have a polar end which is hydrophilic (water
loving) and a long non-polar chain which is
hydrophobic (water hating). As a consequence,
they can form emulsion by suspending oil in
Fatty end of water soluble end

Soaps are useful for cleaning because soap
molecules have both a hydrophilic end, which
dissolve in water, as well as a hydrophobic end,
which is able to dissolve non-polar grease

Micelle is an aggregate of surfactant molecule dispersed
in a liquid colloid.
In an aqueous solution, molecules having polar or
charged group and non-polar regions (amphiphilic
molecules) form aggregate called micelle. In a micelle,
polar or ionic heads form an outer shell in contact with
water, while non-polar tails are sequestered in the

Hence, the core of micelle, being formed of long non-polar

tails, resembles an oil or gasoline drop. The number of
amphiphilic molecules forming the aggregate is called
aggregation number; it is a way to describe the size of the

History of cleaning
Early History
The earliest recorded evidence of the production of soaplike materials dates back to around 2800 BC in
ancient Babylon. A formula for soap consisting of
water, alkali, and cassia oil was written on a Babylonian
clay tablet around 2200 BC.
The Ebbers papyrus (Egypt, 1550 BC) indicates
the ancient Egyptians bathed regularly and combined
animal and vegetable oils with alkaline salts to create a
soap-like substance. Egyptian documents mention a
soap-like substance was used in the preparation
of wool for weaving.
In the reign of Nab nidus (556539 BC), a recipe for soap
consisted of uhulu [ashes], cypress [oil] and sesame [seed
oil] "for washing the stones for the servant girls".

Ancient Rome
The word soap, Latin for soap, first appears in Pliny the
elders historia naturalis, which discusses the
manufacture of soap from tallow and ashes, but the only
use, is it is as pomade for hair.
A popular belief claims soap takes its name from a
supposed Mount Sapo, where animal sacrifices where
supposed to have taken place.

The making of soap.

There are three main ingredients in plain soap, they are
oil/fat, lye/alkali and water. Other ingredients may be
added to give the soap a pleasant odor or color, or to
improve its skin-softening qualities. Some soap is better
made using soft water, and for these it is a necessary to
either use rainwater or to add borax to tap water.

Lyes are extremely caustic. They cause burns if splashed on the skin
and can cause blindness if splashed in the eyes. If drunk, they can be
fatal. Care is needed while handling lyes and green (uncured) soap.

There are two types of soap: - Soft & Hard soap.

Soft soap can be made using either a cold process or a
hot process, but hard soap can only be made using hot
To make any soap it is necessary to dilute the lye, mix it
with the fat or oil, and stir the mixture until
saponification takes place.
The cold process may require several days or even
months, depending upon the strength and purity of the
ingredients, whereas hot process takes place within few
minutes to few hours.
Dispose of soap-making wastes carefully outdoors, do not
put them in the drain.

several things may cause problem with the normal action

of soap molecules.
One of these is the presence of left-over starting
materials. Extra fat will make the soap feel greasy.
Positively-charged ions tend to bond with negative end of
the soap molecules, either precipiting the molecules
completely, or interfering with the ion-dipole interactions
between the soap molecules and the water.

1.4 million deaths can be prevented each year by handwashing with soap
Children under 5 who wash with soap can reduce their risk of pneumonia
by 46%

1/3 of the worlds soap is used by the U.S

10 Billion pounds of soap are produced each year
The average person encounters 100 chemicals before breakfast
The largest soap bubble was created on October 9th, 2005 and measured
105.4 cubic feet. If you could fill it with baseballs it would hold 13.627 of
October 15th is Global Handwashing Day

To prepare a sample of soap and to

examine its properties.

250ml beaker.
Sodium hydroxide (20% solution)
100ml beaker
Wire gauge
Saturated solution of sodium chloride
Laboratory burner
Calcium chloride (5% solution)
Glass stirring rod
Magnesium chloride (5% solution)
Test tube and ferric chloride (5% solution)
Filter flask and Buchner funnel
Kerosene and filter paper
Phenolphthalein indicator solution
Cooking oil and graduated cylinder
Watch glass to extinguish possible ethanol flames


Measure 20g of cooking oil into a 250ml beaker. Add

20ml of ethanol and 25ml of 20% sodium hydroxide
solution. Stir the mixture in the beaker. Place the
beaker on wire gauze on a ring stand and heat
Heat this solution gently, keep the flame away from the top of
the beaker to prevent the alcohol from catching on fire.


Heat until the odor disappears.


Turn off the burner and allow the beaker to cool

Move it safely to bench top.
Add 100ml of saturated sodium chloride to your
soap preparation and stir the mixture thoroughly.
It is used to remove the soap from water, glycerol,
and any excess sodium hydroxide present.
Filter off the soap with a vacuum filtration
apparatus and wash once with ice water.
Weigh your dried soap and record the weight.

Washing properties.
Take a small amount of soap and try to wash your hands
with it. It should lather rather easily if soft water or use
deionized water.
Record your observations.

Put 5-10 drops of kerosene in a test tube containing
10ml water and shake to mix. Emulsion or suspension of
tiny oil droplets in water will be formed. Let this stand for
a few minutes
Prepare another test tube with the same ingredients and
also add a small portion (1/2g or so) of your soap. Shake
to mix. Compare the relative stability of the two

Hard water reaction.

Take 1g of your soap and warm it with 150ml of water in
a 100ml beaker.

When you have obtained a reasonably clear solution,

pour about 15ml into each of three test tubes.
Test one of the three tubes with 10 drops of 5% CaCl2
solution, one with 10 drops of 5% MgCl2 solution and one
with 10 drops of 5% FeCl3 solution.
Let these solutions stand, then make your observations.
Basicity: - Soap with free alkali can be very damaging to
skin, silk, or wool.

Its test
Dissolve a small piece of your soap in 15ml of ethanol
and then add two drops of phenolphthalein. It the
indicators turn red; the presence of free alkali is
Fats and oils are hydrolyzed(split) with a high
pressure to yield crude fatty acids and glycerol.
The fatty acids are then purified by distillation and
neutralized with an alkali to produce soap and water
(neat soap in a liquid form).
Fatty acid + NaOH > glycerol + sodium soap.
Sodium soaps are hard soap.
The more saturated the oil (tropical vegetable oils
such as coconut oil), the harder the soap.
Fatty acid + KOH > glycerol + potassium soap
Potassium soap are softer and are found in some
liquid hand soap and shaving cream.

The universe of different types of

Kitchen soaps
They are further categorized into two: cleansers and detergents.

Cleansers are often made with mild abrasives and they are
formulated to eliminate heavy oil or solid particles and hard-toremove stains. The cleansers come in many different types
depending on the type of abrasives they contain.

Dish detergents are made to remove tough grease and release the
solid dirt particles in the foam that is produced by the detergent.
There are two types of dish detergents: machine dishwasher
detergents and hand dishwashing detergents.

Laundry soaps
Laundry soaps are formulated to eliminate grease, solid particles
and organic compounds from clothes. They can be found
in liquid, powder and gel forms.

Cleaning soaps
Cleaning soaps have different formulations to clean grease and
soil. The difference between cleansers and cleaning soaps is that
cleaning soaps don't contain harsh abrasives.

Personal soaps
This kind of soap is made in many forms and special
formulations for specific personal hygiene needs. One type of the
personal soap is the antibacterial soap that is made to prevent
bacteria and viruses from spreading. There are also body and

hair soaps that have a mix of ingredients that cleans both the
skin and hair.

Novelty soaps
Novelty soaps are especially manufactured for the kids and
include the soaps in the shapes of various items, such as a
rubber ducky or the soap-on-the-rope. There are made not only
to clean dirt and grime, but for amusement and enjoyment as

Perfumed soaps
Perfumed soaps are produced by adding a few additional
ingredients and perfume.

Guest soaps
Guest soaps are miniature soaps that are made and shaped into
attractive shapes and they are basically designed for the use by
guests either in the main bathroom or separate guest bathroom.
Popular and commonly used shapes are flowers, sea shells and

Beauty soaps
Beauty soaps are produced to feature attractive fragrances, and
ingredients for a variety of skin types. They can feature glycerin,
or special oil blends.

Medicated soaps
Medicated soaps and original soap are very similar. Unlike
original soap, medicated soap has the addition of antiseptics and


Glycerin soaps
Glycerin is a normally produced during the process of soap
production. Soaps which include glycerin in them tend to make
your skin feel moister.

Transparent soap
Transparent soap uses slightly different ingredients and usually
some form of alcohol to alter the process which is also conducted
at higher temperatures. Not all transparent soaps are glycerin

Liquid soaps
Liquid soaps are actually very difficult to produce and many of
the commercial liquid soaps are just in fact detergents.

2.6 million bars of soap are discarded daily by the hotel industry in the
U.S. alone
Lack of access to WASH contributes to two of the three leading killers
of children under the age of five in the world pneumonia, which can be
prevented by good handwashing and better hygiene; and diarrhea, which
comes from drinking unsafe water and lack of sanitation. With good
quality water, sanitation, and hygiene, childrens lives can be saved.
Handwashing by birth attendants before delivery reduces mortality rates
by 19%.
Liquid soap was patented by the American William Sheppard in 1865.


Biodegradable & non-biodegradable

Biodegradable soap: A biodegradable soap is a cleaning agent that can decompose
naturally over time. These soaps can help reduce environmental
impact when hikers, backpackers, and campers need to bathe or
clean their belongings.
Depending on the formulation of soap that is purchased, it can
be used on the body, face, hair, hands and objects such as
dishes and clothes.

Non-toxic soaps can be made with organic oils so as to

remain environmentally friendly. Oils can be used in soap
formulations not only to provide a nice fragrance, but also as part
of a therapeutic bathing experience. For example, lavender
and peppermint oils can help relax a tense hiker. Tree
oil, eucalyptus and pumice ingredients can help soothe aching
feet. Jojoba, castor and almond oils are other common oils used
in soap formulations.
It is important for individuals to realize that using a
biodegradable soap does not necessarily mean that the soap is
safe to use around all water sources. These soaps degrade over
time, but they require contact with soil to do so. If it isn't used at
least 200 feet (60.96 m) from water sources, it can pollute them
and make them unsuitable for other uses.


Non -- biodegradable soap: Non-biodegradable soaps are cleaning agents which cannot
decompose naturally over time. This kind of soaps can be a
threat to earth, it can cause soil, water and other type of
This kind of soap feels good while using but they can cause some
kind of side effects to the applied surface(skin). Normally
professional and instant beauty soap are made with toxic(nonbiodegradable) material.

Its formulation depends upon the kind of area in which they are
going to be used. Soaps with strong smell and constant exposure
to it can even cause nervous breakdown, asthma and migraines.
The three harmful ingredients present in this toxic soaps are
parabeans, sulfates and triclosan.
Let me explain what triclosan/triclocarban can do with us.
The chemicals react with chlorine in tap water to produce
dioxins. Dioxins are neurotoxins that can cause cancer, nerve
disorders, and immune system disorders. The chemicals are
endocrine disrupters, blocking thyroid hormone metabolism and
attaching to hormone receptors to block hormones. According to
the EPA, the chemicals can cause developmental and
reproductive toxicity. They are carcinogens. They contribute to
antibiotic resistance in bacteria that causes infection in humans.
According to the Natural Resources Defense Council (NDRC), in
surveys of the American population between the ages of 6 and
65, 75 percent have residues of triclosan in their systems.


Difference between soap

and detergent.
Soap: There are a variety of soaps. A soap is the metal salt of a fatty
The metal may be an alkali metal such sodium (Na) or potassium
(K). These metals are found in the first column of the periodic
table of the elements. Or, the metal can be an alkaline earth
metal, such as calcium (Ca) or magnesium (Mg). These metals are
found in the second column of the periodic table of the elements.
A fatty acid is an organic compound most often of animal or plant
origin. A fatty acid contains a long-chain aliphatic carbon
skeleton (with or without branches) with a carboxylic acid group
(-COOH) at its end.

An example of a soap is potassium palmitate:


Detergent: Detergents have some similarities. But are often of

synthetic origin. They are not made insoluble by
mineralized (or hard) water. Also, instead of a carboxylic
acid group, a detergent contains a more highly ionic
group. It may have a sulfate or a sulfonate group (OS(O)-OH).
In addition, detergents can include one or more aromatic
rings. Detergents offer added properties. They can be
used as surfactants and foaming agents.


There are even detergents that dissolve in solvents other

than water, such as gasoline. These often include
nitrogen in their formulation. The nitrogen compound
often includes a ring as part of its structure. Such
compounds are not only detergents, but dispersants.
An example of a detergent is sodium lauryl sulfate:

Soap and detergent properties in hard water.
The most important difference between a soap and
detergent is their behavior in water. A big drawback of
washing with soap is that it forms a scum in hard water,
which is not easy to clean and is known to turn laundry
into a hue.
Soaps form a scum in hard water, which is not easy to
rinse away and is known to turn laundry, a grayish hue.
The insoluble film that soap leaves can leave a residue on
the laundry same like as would see in a shower stall
where hard water is present. On the other hand,
detergents react less to minerals in water hence does not
leave this residue. In case you are living in an area,
where the water is soft, a soap will work satisfactorily,
but even then a gradual build-up of calcium and
magnesium ions (also called 'curd') will be left on the

Another important difference between soaps and

detergents is the sensitivity of soaps to acidic conditions.
On putting a soap into an acidic (pH<4.5), it protonates
the carboxylate group.


Objective: To compare the foaming capacity of various soaps.

Requirements: 1.

Five 100ml conical flasks

Five test tubes & stand
100ml measuring cylinder
Weighing machine and stop watch
Five different soap samples
Distilled water & tap water

Procedure: i.

Take five 100ml conical flasks and number

them 1,2,3,4 & 5. Put 16ml of water in each
flask and add 8g of soap.
ii. Warm the contents to get a solution.
iii. Take five test tubes; add 1ml of soap
solution to 3ml of water.
Repeat the process for each soap solution in
different test tube.

iv. Close the mouth of the test tube and shake

vigorously for a minute. Do the same for all
test tube and with equal force.
v. Start the timer immediately and notice the
repeat of disappearance of 2mm of forth.


Observations: The following outcomes were noticed

the experiment.
Observation table
Test tube
Vol. of soap Vol. of
1. Dettol
2. Lux
3. Tetmosol
4. Savlon
5. Cinthol



at the end of
Time taken for
of 2mm of

Result: The cleaning capacity of the soap taken is in the


Savlon > Dettol > Cinthol > Tetmosol > Lux

Savlon is the winner.

From this experiment, we can infer that Savlon

has the highest forming capacity, in other words,
highest cleaning capacity.


In conclusion, soap is a substance, water soluble
sodium salts of fatty acid, that is used to remove
dirt and grimes from a surface. Its molecules have
a long hydrocarbon chain that has a negative
charged head. Its non-polar hydrocarbon chain
dosent interact with water molecules that form
micelles. The soap micelles repeal each other and
stay dispersed in water. New micelles form that
having soiling molecules in the center. The dirt
gets attached to them and can be rinsed away.
From this project we concluded that, since soap is
started to consumed it has changed our lives
We should say thanks to soapsbecause
without soaps this world would literally would
not be exist.


This project would be nearly incomplete if I have
not used the information given in the following
My special thanks for the uploader of information
on these websites. If considered, I have used
everything that google shows me