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Information Digest Volume 3

Revised Edition September 2003

Project ZAAN
A joint Project of

Kashmiri Pandits Association,


Mumbai
&
(Registered Charitable Educational Trust. Regn No. E-1715-Thane)

Ground Floor, Pushp Vihar


Shastri Nagar, Vasai Road (W) 401 202
Dist. Thane, Maharashtra (India)
Tel: 0250 - 2342777
E.Mail: projectzaan@yahoo.co.in

Book
:
Authors :
First Edition:
Revision :
Publishers :
Website

Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language


M. K. Raina & Neelam Trakru
March 2001
September 2003
Lalla-Ded Educational and Welfare Trust
under Project ZAAN
www.zaan.net

Copyright 2003.
All rights of reproduction reserved with the
Lalla-Ded Educational and Welfare Trust
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Kashmir News Network (KNN)
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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

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IIn
nd
deexx
Foreword to the First Edition
Preface to the First Edition
A Note from Authors for the revised Edition
Symbols and Abbreviations for Indo-Roman Type

5
6
7
11

Section 1 ~ Introduction to Nagari-Kashmiri Alphabet

13

Vowels and Symbols in Nagari-Kashmiri


Combination of Anusvara with Vowels and Symbols
Consonants in Nagari-Kashmiri
Consonants forming Conjuncts with Vowels ; & o
Using Ardhachandra W
Using k and Ardhachandra W kW (vkW)
Using Symbols
and a
Using Symbols and a
Using (,]), and k] (vk])
Difference in Pronunciation of words when using Vowels ; & ] (,])
Difference in Pronunciation of words when using Vowels o & k] (vk])

Section 2 ~ Words and Sentences

Identifying Vowels and Symbols - I


Identifying Vowels and Symbols - II
Identifying Vowels and Symbols - III
Identifying Vowels and Symbols - IV
Identifying Vowels and Symbols Assorted
Simple Sentences
Practice in Reading - I
Practice in Reading - II
Practice in Reading - III
Practice in Reading - IV

Section 3 ~ Translation Vocabulary

Some words of daily use


Numbers 1 to 50

15
20
23
27
30
31
32
33
34
35
36

37
39
40
41
42
43
45
46
47
49
50

51
53
57

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

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Parts of Body
Animals ~ Birds ~ Reptiles & Insects
Professions
Relations
Fruits ~ Vegetables
Time ~ Yugas
Days of the Week ~ Months ~ Seasons
Miscellaneous Vocabulary

Model Passage - 1 ~ A Conversation


Model Passage - 2 ~ My Motherland

59
61
64
66
68
71
73
76
81
84

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

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FFoorreew
woorrd
d ttoo tth
hee FFiirrsstt EEd
diittiioon
n
Language has considerable influence on the esthetic and intellectual achievement of a
civilized society, broadly referred as culture. Language not only acts as a binding force for a
community, but more importantly, it confers upon it, a distinct mark of identification. For centuries,
Kashmiri Pandits have had to leave intermittently, their motherland through religious and political
persecution, which severed their links with both spoken and written medium of their mothertongue. The recent en masse exodus, having scattered our community throughout the country,
has dealt yet another blow to our already fragile mother-tongue affiliations.
Another disturbing trend is that the State linguistic authority has, over the years, created
an impression through sustained overt and covert means, that Persian has been the original script
of Kashmiri language. Whereas the fact remains that from the Vedic times, Sanskrit has been the
medium of language in Kashmir which has Devanagari as its script. Later Sharda was developed
and liberally used by Kashmiri writers and scholars and thus the script flourished in the Valley.
Alberuni claims that Sharda, which he refers as Sidha-Matrika, permeated not only in Kashmir
but it also was the medium of writing in the whole of India . With the passage of time, Sharda
adorned the confines of the priestly class.
In the post independence era, the J&K State government accorded official recognition to
Persian script for Kashmiri and it received patronage mostly from the Muslim writers. Kashmiri
Pandit writers felt that Devanagari was more suited to phonetics and dialectory inflection of the
language and they adopted it as their medium for writing Kashmiri.
The linguistic experts, however, felt that some of the Kashmiri sounds could not be
represented by Nagari letters or alphabet, hence specific primary and secondary accents,
pronunciation symbols and dialectorial marks were developed / devised for better grasp of the
language, which received approval of standardization by a Committee of experts and scholars, set
up in 1995. This uniform script is more or less in use since then.
The present Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language in Devanagari script, is a humble
effort by the Kashmiri Pandits Association and Lalla-Ded Educational and Welfare Trust
combine, in adopting a uniform pattern in translating Kashmiri articulatory sounds into a written
script. Simultaneously the Reader offers more elucidation on phonetics and includes
orthographic lessons in Nagari alphabet with equivalent Roman alphabet, which, it is hoped, shall
even help those who are not well versed with Kashmiri. The equivalent of Kashmiri words with
their vowels and diacritical marks in Roman letters, make it easy to decipher and read. The
Reader is designed to be an aid to basic comprehension for both spoken and written Kashmiri.
The stupendous work of Shri M. K. Raina and Smt Neelam Trakru in bringing out this
Reader will, I am sure, go a long way in arousing the interest in our young and not so young
community members in their mother-tongue and foster a deeper communication bond through the
medium of language.

J. L. Manwati
President
Kashmiri Pandits Association
Mumbai
Navreh, 13th Chaitra, 2058
(26th March, 2001)

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P
Prreeffaaccee ttoo tth
hee FFiirrsstt EEd
diittiioon
n
For quite some time now, Kashmiri Pandits Association, Mumbai and Lalla-Ded
Educational and Welfare Trust have been working on Project ZAAN - a project to acquaint our
community members, particularly youngsters with various facets of their motherland Maej
Kasheer. Two Volumes of Information Digest, have so far been issued under the Project. The
accent therein has, besides dissemination of knowledge (ZAAN), been on arousing interest in our
mother tongue - Kashmiri, which is fast lapsing into disuse from amongst our families.
The present Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language is the third Volume in the series
under Project ZAAN. The intent of compilation of this Reader is to place before the readers, an
easy-to-comprehend Primary Book in Devanagari script, for reading Kashmiri. Kashmiri dialect
has micro articular variations, which have been amply illustrated and distinguished by means of
special set of vowel & consonantal symbols and graphic lessons in syntax of the language.
In the present day diaspora of our community, when we have lost our moorings, when we
are facing cultural erosion, language seems to be a lone factor for preservation of our identity.
The Reader, therefore appears to be a timely endeavour to revive interest of our youngsters in
their mother tongue.
The effort of the authors, Shri M. K. Raina and Smt Neelam Trakru is laudable. Shri Raina
is a serious student of Kashmiri syntax for more than two decades. The duo has, after consulting
many a authentic source books, compiled this compendium, which we accept, may not be
infallible in itself. Readers may find some words alien to Kashmiri used at few places. These
words have been incorporated specifically for purpose of illustration in the absence of Kashmiri
words / idioms. We would welcome suggestions from the language-knowing seniors in the
community, to overcome shortcomings in our future editions and other publications.
Authors note on the Devanagari-Kashmiri Script, is specially meant for elders and they
are requested to go through it very carefully. This will make it easy for them to help their
youngsters to know the script and the phonetics.
M. L. Mattoo
Chairman
Lalla-Ded Educational and Welfare Trust

Navreh, 13th Chaitra, 2058


(26th March, 2001)
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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

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A
AN
Noottee ffrroom
mA
Au
utth
hoorrss ffoorr tth
hee R
Reevviisseed
d EEd
diittiioon
n
Devanagari is the script for Sanskrit. The script in its original form, believed to be used by Nagari
Brahmins, was known as Nagari script. Most of the Indian scripts like Bangla, Gujarati, Marathi
etc. have been derived from this script. Kashmiri was written in Sharada, one of the oldest scripts,
which was developed around 10th century. Some scholars are of the view that Sharda was our
script for writing Sanskrit which we subsequently used to write Kashmiri. Indo-Roman type was
used for writing Kashmiri for quite some time, but it could not become popular. The Persio-Arabic
script has been recognised as the official script for Kashmiri. To this script, reviewed and
upgraded by J&K Academy of Art, Culture and Languages in 1971, a number of Arabic and
Persian letters have been added to accommodate words, having originated from these languages.
Letter bh representing Nagari Hk was also included to accommodate certain Sanskrit words,
commonly used by Kashmiris. Devanagari-Kashmiri did not receive any official patronage but it
continued to be used by Kashmiri Pandits as a medium of writing.
Post 1990 period presents a totally different picture with respect to development of
Devanagari script for Kashmiri language. After the exodus, community magazines throughout
India started flourishing with inputs in Devanagari-Kashmiri. But there was one lacuna. Every
writer used his own way of writing. There was no coordination and no conformity in writing. The
Koshur Samachar, assumed central importance in this regard. It used a set of diacritical marks
to indicate vowels peculiar to Kashmiri language, with the Nagari letters. In order to modify and
upgrade the script further, discussions took place at various places and at various levels, where
one thing was clear. There was a dire need to standardise the script by devising uniformity in the
marks and symbols used.
In December 1995, a committee of the editors of Koshur Samachar (New Delhi), Kashyap
Samachar (Jammu) and the Secretary of the Vikalp (Delhi), met and after detailed discussion,
agreed on adopting the following symbols for three pairs of vowels in the fashion denoted against
each:Avagraha

as in

Ardhachandra

as in
as in

Apostrophe

as in
as in
as in

vN
jqW[k
rwWj
ck*g

js*g

dks*g

(Eye)
(Line)
(Cold)
(Twelve)
(Flame)
(Hill)

This exercise led to the standardisation of the script to a great extent. It also enabled writers,
some of whom were not previously interested in writing Kashmiri in Devanagari script due to its
shortcomings, to make valuable contribution to the language. Still, the linguistic experts were not
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satisfied, and wanted more work to be done to upgrade the script by further modifying the
symbols and diacritical marks, to suit requirements of our language.
Northern Regional Language Centre, Central Institute of Indian Languages, (Ministry of
HRD, Deptt. of Secondary and Higher Education, Govt. of India), Patiala, took lead in this
direction and conducted various seminars and workshops for about 2 years, in which renowned
linguists and software experts took part. The Centre, under the leadership of Shri Roop Krishen
Bhat, organised another workshop from 20th July 2002 to 4th August 2002 at Jammu, to finalise
the script and produce necessary Primer and Reader for the language. The experts who were
connected with introducing modified symbols and diacritical marks and finalisation of the script,
included Dr. S.N.Bhat Haleem, Dr. S.S.Toshakhani, Dr. O.N.Kaul, Prof H.K.Kaul, Prof. C.L.Sapru,
Prof. R.L.Shant, Dr. S.N.Raina, Dr. R.K.Bhat and Dr. R.N.Bhat. It may be mentioned that Shri
M.K.Kaw, the then Secretary, Education, Govtt. of India, also showed keen interest in devising
this material in the interest of the Kashmiri language.
Following changes have been made by the above Expert Committee in the prevalent
Nagari-Kashmiri Alphabet:
1. Avagraha
2. Combination of
3. Combination of
4. Combination of
5. Combination of

is replaced by Ardhachandra

qW

wW
s*
ks*

is replaced by

is replaced by

is replaced by

k]

is replaced by

As a consequence, the Standardised Alphabet for the Devanagari-Kashmiri will be:


Vowels:

v] vW] v] v] vk] vkW] b] bZ] m] ] _]


,] ,]] ,s] vks] vk]] vkS] va
; and o are considered vowels when they represent second members of a Conjunct.

The Anusvara ( )a occurs in Kashmiri words only as a compendium scriptur for a nasal before a
consonant of the same class. For example

czk.M

can be written as

czkaM in Kashmiri.

Visarga ( ) does not find any place in Kashmiri.


Consonants:
The set of Consonants is almost the same as that in Hindi, with the following exceptions:

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i) Kashmiri has no aspirated sonants like

?k] >] <] /k and Hk. They are often but

not always retained in Kashmiri to write words directly borrowed from Sanskrit. Thus ghar can

?kjqW

be written both as

cxoku

&

xjqW

, dharm as

/keZ

&

neZ

, Bhagwn as

Hkxoku

&

and so on.

ii)

and

.k

occur in Kashmiri only when they are compounded with another

consonant of the same class, like

v, d.B

etc, though they are generally replaced by

Anusvara. They never stand alone and are often but not always retained in Kashmiri to write

x.kiFk
as d.B

words directly borrowed from Sanskrit/Hindi. Thus ganapath can be written both as

&

xuiFk, chandl+ as p.Mky & paMky, ang as v & vax, kanth


&
daB and so on. Position of is also the same though it has been extensively used in
Kashmiri, being affricative transformation of dental u.
iii)

is not in Nagari-Kashmiri alphabet. In the opinion of Sir Grierson, it is merely a

grammarians figment, used by some Pandits in writing words derived from Sanskrit words, such
as

iks and d`"u. {k

and

K]

the modified version of conjuncts

d~+

and

t~+

are

also not part of this alphabet, but are used in the words directly borrowed from Sanskrit.
There are three affricative consonants in Kashmiri, which are strange to the Nagari
alphabet. They are

and

p+] N+

and

t+.

are consonants when they are not second members of a conjunct.

Accordingly, the set of Consonants will be as follows:

d]
p]
p+]
V]
r]
i]

[k] x
N] t
N+] t+
B] M
Fk] n] u
Q] c] e

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;] j] y] o
] l] g
=
Since

p+

and

N+

have no equivalents in English alphabet, we have used ts and tsh, as

introduced by Sir Grierson, to represent them in Indo-Roman character.


In Roman characters, the linguists have generally been denoting
We will however, as we are used to, denote

by ch and

] ,],

by c and

N by ch.

by chh.

In this book, we have also explained the phonetic difference in


&

&o & k] vk] and -;

which are often confusing, for the purpose of correct pronunciation of words, as

illustrated hereunder:

j~oQ
jk]Q

rph

(silver)

rph

(darning)

n~;y
n]g

Many scholars are of the view that

(bark)

dl

dh (body)

and

cannot begin a word in Kashmiri and

o is

always prefixed to these sounds when they occur in such a position. As a result, nt+ becomes
wnt+h and py becomes wpy in Kashmiri. The Kshr Dictionary of the J&K Academy of Art
Culture and Languages, however contains Kashmiri words like tn-baly-tt, k lthr,
hrynd, tr, ri-n-yri, alongwith the words from other languages, like jrath, uftd, n
etc. commonly used by Kashmiris. We have, in this book, not only used such words, but also
included some more in use now.
Since the dialect of Kashmiri language differs from place to place ( like

OoU;~, vkl

&

vkoql

&

ck], Ooa

&

and so on), we have tried to adhere to the dialect prevalent in the city

of Srinagar (except where necessary for the sake of illustration or otherwise), as adopted by J&K
Academy of Art, Culture and Languages in compiling Kshr Dictionary in Persio-Arabic script.
M. K. Raina
Neelam Trakru

Mumbai, September 09, 2003


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Page 11

S
Syym
mb
boollss aan
nd
dA
Ab
brreevviiaattiioon
nss
Letters, Symbols and Abbreviations used in this book, to denote words
in Indo-Roman characters
Letter or
Symbol

as pronunced
in

sar
nz
kts
dr
yr
b
b
hbng
aushad
gauv
rth
dg
dh
sr
sr
vli
mkh
mr
dr
ml
kl
tr
chy

au

ch

lj
vWat+
dWp+
nkWj
;kj
c
,sc vkWc
gScqax
vkSn
xkSo (xo)
j~;Fk
nsx
n]g
lhj
flj
oWY;~
Eo[k
eksj
nk]j
ewy
dqy
rj
pk;

(lake)
(swan)
(how many)
(window)
(friend)
(I, me)
(fault)
(dumbstruck)
(medicine)
(went)
(month)
(cauldron)
(body)
(brick)
(secret)
(quickly)
(face)
(peacock)
(hard)
(root)
(tree)
(cold)
(tea)

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

chh
d
d+
t
th
t+
t+h
ts
tsh

chhn
dn
d+ akh
tr
thkh
t+ n
t+ t+ h
ts
tshy

Nku
nku
M[k
rhj
Fo[k
Vhu
VksB
P+k
N+k;

Page 12

(carpenter)
(hearth)
(support)
(arrow)
(sputum)
(tin)
(dear)
(you)
(shadow)

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Section - 1

Introduction to Nagari - Kashmiri alphabet

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C
Ch
haap
ptteerr -- 1
1
Vowels & Symbols in Nagri-Kashmiri

used only as the first letter of a word

vW

writen as

written as

as in v[k akh (one)] vFk ath (hand)

vW when first letter of a word


as in vWN chh (eye), vWM d+ (half)
written as W when not first letter of a word
p+Wj ts r (sparrow), nWt+ dz (burned)
v when first letter of a word,

as in vg| hdi
written as

(enemy / chasers)

when not first letter of a word,

as in xj gr (sudden display of energy)]


c b (I, me), [kj Khr (slip)

written as

v when first letter of a word,

as in vB~; t+hi (eight times)


vfBe t+hm (eighth)

when not first letter of a word,


as in dR;~ kti (how many ?)] rj tr (cold)
written as

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vk

Page 16

vk when first letter of a word,


as in vk sh (hope)] vk[k kh (mark),
vkoqj vr (busy)
written as

k when not first letter of a word,


as in tku jn (good)] okj vr (day),
rkQ tph (sunny)
written as

vkW

vkW when first letter of a word,


as in vkW sh (enjoyment)] vkWj r (plum),
vkWl s (mouth)
written as

kW when not first letter of a word,


as in nkWj dr (window)] gkWj (hr) (maina),
ykWj lr (cucumber)
written as

written as

b when first letter of a word,

as in btkt+Fk jzath (permission)]


bVke sht+m (stamp paper)
written as

f when not first letter of a word,

as in fnork dvt (devta)]


fcrqj btr (capacity), fcpksj bchr (helpless)

bZ

bZ when first letter of a word,


as in bZeku mn (faith)] bZ'oj shvar (God)

written as

h when not first letter of a word,


as in lhj sr (brick)] hu shn (snow),
rhj tr (arrow)
written as

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written as

Page 17

m when first letter of a word,

as in mtjFk jrath (wages) ]


mQrkn phtd (ignored),
myQFk lphath (love)

q when not first letter of a word,


as in oqN vchh (see)] djqu karn (to do),
gxqj hagr (wheel)

written as

written as

when first letter of a word,

as in rj tr (day before yesterday),


;Z u ;w;Z ri n yri (not well, not in senses)

w when not first letter of a word,


as in lwj sr (ash)] jwn rd (rain),
dwu kn (corner), T+kwu zn (moon)

written as

_ when first letter of a word,


as in _]";~ rshi (rishi), _Xosn rgvd (Rigved)

written as

written as

` when not first letter of a word,

as in i`r[k pratakh (divorce, expulsion),


r`"uk trshn (greed)

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

written as

Page 18

, when first letter of a word,

as in ,frjkt+ trz (objection)

s when not first letter of a word,


as in es[k mkh (nail)] gysy hall (yellow myrobalan),
esB mt+h (head coolie)

written as

,]

written as

,] when first letter of a word,

as in ,]glku hsn (favour)

] when not first letter of a word,


as in j]g rh (flame)] ;]fy yl (when),
n]g dh (body)
written as

,s

,s when first letter of a word,


as in ,sc vkWc b (defect)
written as

S when not first letter of a word,


as in oSdqaB vknt++h (heaven),
gScqax hbng (dumb struck)

written as

vks

vks when first letter of a word,


as in vksl s (was), vkse m (raw),
vksyqo lv (potato), vkscj~o; bry (respect),
written as

ks when not first letter of a word,


as in xks[k gkh (went)] eksj mr (peacock),
viksj apr (other side)
written as

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

vk]

Page 19

vk] when first letter of a word,


as in vk]u n (blind), vk]j r (good),
vk]N+ ts h (frail)
written as

k] when not first letter of a word,


as in xk]N+ gts h (wanted)] nk]y dl (lower part of pheran),
[;k]y khyl (flock)
written as

vkS

written as

vkS when first letter of a word,

as in vkSt+kj auzr (instrument),


vkSn aushad (medicine)
written as

kS when not first letter of a word,

as in xkS gau (went),


pk[kjqu chaunkhrn (to shrivel up)

va

Written as

when second member of a conjunct

va when first letter of a word,

as in vax ang (part)]


written as a when not first letter of a word,
as in eat+ manz (in), t+ax zang (leg)

as in j~;Fk rth (month)]


dR;~ kti (how many), rhR;~ tti (so many)
when second member of a conjunct

as in Xoj gr (guru)] [oj khr (foot),


Eoy ml (cost)

vvv
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Page 20

C
Ch
haap
ptteerr
2
2
Using Anusvara ( a )

v & a

written as

va when first letter of a word

as in van and (end),


vankT+k andz (approximation)
written as a when not first letter of a word)
as in can band (closed),
oan vand (winter)

vW & a

written as

v when first letter of a word)

v & a

va when first letter of a word,


as in vag&jkj; nh-rray (to groan)
written as a when not first letter of a word,
as in rqgat+ thnz (yours)

v & a

va when first letter of a word,


as in vaP+kg&iaP+kg ntsh-pntsh (make excuses,

as in vt+ nz (swan)
vthj njr (fig)
written as when not first letter of a word)
as in cfn bndsh (restriction),
jxhu rngn (coloured)
written as

written as

to be in a fix)
written as a when not first letter of a word,
as in daL;~ dWV knsi kt+ (younger female child)

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

vk & a

written as

vkW & a

written as

b & a

written as

bZ & a

written as

m & a

written as

& a

written as

Page 21

vka when first letter of a word,

as in vkapkj nchr (pickle)


written as ka when not first letter of a word,
as in [kkanj khndar (marriage)

vk when first letter of a word,

as in vkB nt+h (stone of the fruit)


written as k when not first letter of a word,
as in xkB gnt+h (kite)

ba when first letter of a word,

as in batu njan (engine)


written as when not first letter of a word,
as in ix png (a kind of millet)

b when first letter of a word,

as in bB nt+h (a game of marbles)


written as when not first letter of a word,
as in iR;~ pnti (tiny pieces)

ma when first letter of a


word, as in maxN+ ngats h (a cutting tool)
written as qa when not first letter of a word,
as in dqat+ knz (key)
a when first letter of a word,
as in aPk&uhp nch-nch (high and low in society,
ups and downs)
written as wa when not first letter of a word,
as in ywaB lnt+ h (the edge of a garment)

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

, & a

Page 22

(not first letter of a word)


written as
as in [k krnkh (gem)

,] & a (not first letter of a word)


written as ]a
as in d]ag knh (something)
,s & a

(not first letter of a word)


written as
as in clWjh calWjh bnsr (flute)

vks & a

vk when first letter of a word,


as in vkr okr nt wnt (depth)
written as k when not first letter of a word,
as in kB shnt+ h (dry ginger)

vk] & a

written as

written as

vk]a when first letter of a word,

as in vk]axt ngj (finger)


written as k]a when not first letter of a word,
as in t+k]ax zng (fire)

vkS & a not first letter of a word


written as k as in pk[kjqu chaunkhrn (to shrivel up)
vvv

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Page 23

C
Ch
haap
ptteerr -- 3
3
Consonants in Nagri-Kashmiri

as in dyq kalsh (kalash)


dkse km (tribe, race), diqj kapr (cloth)

[k

as in v[k akh (one)] [kcj khabar (news),


[ky khal (threshing floor)

as in xkVqy gt+l (wise)]


kxk prgsh (moonshine), nkx dg (stain)

as in phj chr (wring)] dksp kch (lane),


ikfp pch (trotters)

as in Nku chhn (carpenter)]


oqN vchh (see), csNqu bchhn (to beg)

as in toku jawn (young), ok]t vj (rain water


falling from the eaves of a house)

p+

as in P+;M ts d+ (patience)]
ep+j mats ar (madness),
p+kx ts ng (earthen lamp)

N+

as in xN+ gatsh (go)]


N+~;r tsh t (extinguish)

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Page 24

t+

as in t+ku zn (knowledge)]
ckt+j bzar (market)

as in VekVj t+amt+ar (tomato),


Vx t+ ng (hillock), vksV t++ (flour)

as in oqB wt+ h (lip)] Bku t+hn (lid),


Bx t+ hag (cheat), sB sht+ h (sixty)

as in M[k d+ akh (support)] ;M yad+ (belley),


Mkac d+ nb (deceptive posture)

as in rk[k tkh (odd number)]


r[klhj takhsr (fault), vrykl atls (satin)

Fk

as in oFk vath (way)] jkFk rth (night, yesterday),


iFkj pathar (floor)

as in nkWj dr (window, beard),


enn madad (help), jkn rd (length of cloth or garment)

as in nku dn (hearth, gift in charity)]


ukcn nbad (sugar candy), nu dan (wealth)

as in it+j pazar (truth)] diqj kapr (cloth),


iksx pg (destruction)

as in jQrkj raphtr (speed)]


fQju phran (turn upside down)
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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Page 25

as in jc rab (mud)] fclyk; bsly (fishing rod),


jckc rabb (rabab - a musical instrument)

as in xe gam (grief)] ek]r mt (mad),


el mas (hair)

(When not second member of a conjunct)


as in ;sj yr (wool), fe;ku myn (sheath),
;dtk yakj (together)

as in ukj nr (fire)] vjnkg ardh (eighteen),


jk rsh (sign of zodiac),
kWt prj (chopped straw),
kB drnt++h (hardened)

as in t+ky zl (net)] yksy ll (passionate love, affection), vjry


artal (gold or silver foil)

(When not second member of a conjunct)


as in okB vt+ h (union, act of joining)]
eoy maval (cockscomb, amaranth)

as in i pash (roof)] oqusj vushnr (warmth)

as in lksu sn (our)]
olokl vasvs (perturbation)

as in vgksd ahk (central pivot of the millstone)]


dkgoWV khvt++ (touchstone)
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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Page 26

as in =] tr (three)] =ke trm (copper)

vvv

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Page 27

C
Ch
haap
ptteerr -- 4
4
Consonants forming Conjunct with the vowels
; and o
While joining a consonant with built-in prop (dnd) like d] c] Q] r etc. with vowels o
and ; to form a conjunct, either its prop (in case of unbalanced letter like c & r) or last
leg of the portion to the right of its prop (in case of a balanced letter like d & Q) is
removed as illustrated below. Consonants without a prop like N] V] B] j] g etc. are
attached with Halant ~

when joined with o and ;


Conjuncts with

D; as in
[; as in
X; as in
P;* as in
N~;* as in
T;* as in
P+; as in
N+~; as in
T+; as in
V~; as in
B~; as in
M~; as in
R; as in
F; as in
n~; as in
U; as in
I; as in

D;kg
kyh
(what)
[;k]u
khyn
(to eat)
X;o
gv
(ghee)
P;Fk pFk chth (chath)
(having drunk)
N~;k Nk chhy (chh)
(is she? are they?)
esT;kso estkso mjyv (mjv)(having got)
P+;M
ts d+
(patience)
N+~;Q
tshph
(in hiding)
T+;o
zv
(tongue)
V~;[k
t+ kh
(a mere drop)
dkWB~;
kt++hi
(riding saddle)
M~;d
d+ k
(forehead)
R;Ecj
tmbr
(spark)
F;dqu
thkn
(to boast)
n~;y|y dl
(husk,peel,bark)
U;k;
nyy
(dispute)
I;ko
pyv
(natal)

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

; as in
C; as in
E; as in
j~; as in
Y; as in
O; as in
'; *as in
L; as in
g~; as in

Page 28

;y
phl
C;k[k
bykh
E;aT+kqj
mnzr
j~;[k
rkh
Y;[k
lkh
O;Fk
vth
';ke 'kke shym (sham)
L;;
sy
g~;FkFk hth

(boil)
(next)
(timber merchant)
(birds dropping)
(invective)
(river Vitasta)
(dark coloured)
(bunch of maggots)
(having taken along)

* Combinations given here are only for illustration. The sounds of p] N] t] and 'k
are palatal sounds. It is not necessary to use ; with these letters to indicate the
palatalization.
Conjuncts with

Do
[o
Xo
Po
N~o
To
P+o
N+~o
T+o
V~o
B~o

as in
as in
as in
as in
as in
as in
as in
as in
as in
as in
as in

Dodqj
[oj
XoM
PoU;~
N~o[k
To;
P+oiksj
N+~o[k
T+oy
V~ocqj
B~oy

kkr

(cock)

khr

(foot)

gd++

(ankle)

chni

(sound made by a slap)

chhkh

(rinse)

jy

(stream)

ts pr

(all four directions)

tshkh

(being half burnt)

zl

(foundation trench)

t+ br

(an eating bowl)

t+ hl

(blow with the head)

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

M~o
Ro
Fo
n~o
Uo
Io
o
Co
Eo
o
j~o
Yo
Oo
'o
Lo
g~o

as in
as in
as in
as in
as in
as in
as in
as in
as in
as in
as in
as in
as in
as in
as in
as in

M~o[k
Rofg
Fol
}n
Uo
IoQ
oyqu
CofN
Eo[k
ono;
j~oQ
YodqV
OoFk
'oaxax
Lo;
g~o[k

Page 29

d+ kh

(bend, uneven)

th

(to you, by you)

ths

(distress, fatigue)

dd

(milk)

nsh

(bride)

pph

(fathers sister)

phln

(to blossom)

bchh

(hunger)

mkh

(face)

ydvay

(if)

rph

(silver)

lkt+

(younger, small)

vth

(stand up)

shng

(sleep)

sy

(common nettle)

hkh

(dried, parched)

vvv

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Page 30

C
Ch
haap
ptteerr -- 5
5
Using Ardhachandra

vWN
vWM
vt+
dWp+
dWfrt
dWfel
dWehu
xWfN+u
xWj
xWjhch
t+Wehu
rWeht+
rWgWj
nWt+
nWj
iWfju
clWjh] calWjh
eWN
yWj
oWj

W vW

chh

(eye)

d++

(half)

nz

(swan)

kts

(how many)

ktj

(swallow)

kms

(whom)

kmn

(mean)

gtshn

(let go)

gr

(watch)

grb

(poverty)

zmn

(land)

tmz

(manners)

thr

(yellow rice)

dz

(burnt)

dr

(hard)

prn

(let read)

bansr

(flute)

mchh

(fly)

lr
vr

(house)
(a concoction of rice, condiments etc.)

vvv

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Page 31

C
Ch
haap
ptteerr -- 6
6
Using

dkWU;~
dkWfQj
dkWj
dkWyhu
dkWfln
[kkWyh
tkWfgy
nkrqo
rkWoht+
nkWu
nkWj
VkWB
ikW;Zt+ku
ckWfj;k
ekWQh
;ikWj;Z
ykWj
okWt
gkdy
gkWfly

and Ardhachandra

kW vkW

kni

(one eyed)

kphr

(infidel)

kr

(neck)

kln

(carpet)

ksd

(messenger)

khl

(empty)

jhl

(ignorant)

dntv

(made of ivory)

tvz

(amulet)

dn

(pomegranate)

dr

(window)

t++t++h

(dear)

prizn

(knowledge)

briy

(wife)

mph

(pardon)

yapri

(this side)

lr

(cucumber)

vj

(ring)

hnkal

(chain)

hsl

(outcome)

vvv

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Page 32

C
Ch
haap
ptteerr -- 7
7

v] & a va

Using

dWny

kdl

(bridge)

dy

kal

(head)

[kj

khr

(slip)

XoM

gd+

(first)

P+kqW

ts

(you)

V[k

t+kh

(run)

nql

ds

(a type of shawl)

iuU;~

panni

(own)

ely

msl

(skin)

(I, me )

Ooy

vl

(come)

o[rp

vakhtch (of the time)

okj&okj vrvr (slowly)


v

dWE;~lat+

kmisnz (whose )

rqgat+

thnz (yours)

rlat+

tasnz (his/her)

vvv

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Page 33

C
Ch
haap
ptteerr -- 8
8
Using

v] &

a va

dR;~

kti

(how many)

[ke

rj

tr

(cold)

ni&ekyk dp ml (deep mala)

lR;~

sti

(alongwith)

iafP+ke, iaP+;qe

khm

(tent)

pnts m, pnts ym (fifth )

ia P + ; ~ - ika P + k o ; pnts i -pnts vay (all the five)


da L ;~ - dW V

knts i kt +

(younger female)

[ka [ k

khnkh

(one who speaks through nose)

xa x B

gngat+h

(veil)

Va D ;~
raR;~ dk]j

t +nki
tnti kr

(coins)
(catgut)

vvv

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Page 34

C
Ch
haap
ptteerr -- 9
9
Using ] and

k]

N]

chh

(is)

d]ag

knh

(something)

r]fy

tl

(then)

j]g

rh

(flame)

;]fy

yl

(when)

ts l

(ran away)

dk]j

kr

(did)

p+k]y

t+k]j

zr

(deaf)

Fkk]L;~ thsi

(lumps)

nk]j

dr

(hard)

ik]t+

pz

(true)

ck]n
lk]e

bd
sm

(bundle)
(level)

lk]u
g~;k]j

sn
hyr

(deep)
(upstairs)

vvv

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Page 35

C
Ch
haap
ptteerr -- 1
10
0
Difference in Pronunciation of words when
using vowels ; and ] ,]

vI;j
dqU;j
N+~;iN+~;Q
T+;y
n~;y
cqtj
E;
E;aT+kqj
j~;y
O;l
L;[k
L;t+j
r]fy
n]g
c]fu
cz]g
;]fy
j]g
y]t
o]ftczksj
o]g
l]D;qy
l]g

apr
knr
tshptshph
zl
dl
bjar
m
mnzr
rl
vs
skh
szar
tl
dh
bn
brh
yl
rh
lj
vjbrr
vh
skyl
srh

(flippancy)
(loneliness)
(keep hiding)
(upper layer)
(bark, skin)
(old age)
(me)
(timber merchant)
(piece)
(girl friend)
(sand)
(straightness)
(then)
(body)
(sister)
(flame)
(when)
(flame)
(earthen pot)
(name of a place - Bijbehara)
(poison)
(sandy)
(wetness)

vvv

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Page 36

C
Ch
haap
ptteerr -- 1
11
1
Difference in Pronunciation of words when
using vowels o and k] vk]

[oj
Xoj
}n
j~oQ
Loj
EoB
Lou
Con
Doy
P+oy
p+k]y
M~o[k
Mk][k
T+oy
Xou

khr
gr
dd
rph
sr
mt+ h
sn
bd
kl
ts l
ts l
d+ kh
d++kh
zl
gn

(foot)
[kk]j
xk]j
(guru)
(milk)
nk]n
(silver)
jk]Q
(sound)
lk]j
(fist)
ek]B
(gold)
lk]u
(intelligence) ck]n
(stream)
dk]y
(temporary hearth)
(ran away)
(bend, uneven)
(support)
(drowsiness) t+k]y
(quality)
xk]u

khr
gr
dd
rph
sr
mt++h
sn
bd
kl

(scald headed)
(made or moulded)
(burnt)
(darning)
(remembered)
(forgotten)
(deep)
(bundle)
(dumb)

zl
gn

(foundation-trench)
(fold, compact)

vvv

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Page 37

Section - 2

Words & Sentences

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Page 38

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Page 39

C
Ch
haap
ptteerr -- 1
1
Identifying Vowels & Symbols - I

W vW] k vk] kW vkW] f b] h bZ


vlqu
vkaxqu
btkt+Fk
dkWfln
[kkWfg
xWuheFk
BWfxy
rkWj
nWyhy
fujkgkj
ukU;~
ck[k
ckW
eqjhn
ykWj
okWt

nni

vWfMt
(compound)
vkijqu
(permission)
bZtkn
(messenger)
dkg
(wish)
f[kj
(godsend)
xkB
(cheating)
rWeht+
(delay)
nWqe
(story)
nk;Zy
(foodless)
uWU;~
(grandmother) QkWt+

bkh

(weeping aloud)

bsh

(similarity)

mrd

(disciple)

lr

(cucumber)

vj

(ring)

asn
ngn
jzath
ksd
khhsh
gnmath
t+ hgl
tr
dll
nrhr

(laughter)

edkW;
jhFk
oWdhy
okWfjl

d+j

(bone)

prn

(to feed)

jd

(invent)

kh

(eleven)

khr

(kheer)

gnt+ h

(kite)

tmz

(manners)

dhym (tenth)
drl

(bearded)

nni

(naked)

phz

(grace)

maky

(maize)

rth

(custom)

vkl

(lawyer)

vrs

(heir)

vvv

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Page 40

C
Ch
haap
ptteerr
2
2
Identifying Vowels & Symbols - II

v] v] a va] a va
cV

bat +

(Kashmiri Pandit)

rj

tr

(cold)

dal

kns

(younger female)

MhQj

d++phr

(small gathering)

dFkdFk

kathkath

(gossip)

CoMukoqu

bd+ nvn (to dip)

wcjqu

shbrn

(beautify)

jp+j

rts ar

(well being)

xkxj

ggr

(a metal pitcher)

dWE;~lat+

kmisnz

(whose ?)

[kaT+kqu

khnzn

(to pluck feathers of a bird)

fyij

lpr

(truant)

oWrhj

vtr

(conduct)

lR;

sti

(along)

vvv

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Page 41

C
Ch
haap
ptteerr -- 3
3
Identifying Vowels & Symbols - III

q m]

qa ma]

w ]

wa a]

oqaxqu

vngn

(to howl)

dqat+

knz

(key)

xq j q l

grs

(buttermilk)

tw;Z

jri

(couple, pair)

dwat

knj

(corner)

vt+joqu

azarvn

(feel jealous)

NMqu

chhad+ n

(let go)

NkaVqu

chhnt+ n

(pick)

owaB

vnt++h

(camel)

cqgqj

bhr

(vendor of spices and herbs)

oqdqj

vkr

(unfortunate)

vvv

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All Rights Reserved.

PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Page 42

C
Ch
haap
ptteerr -- 4
4
Identifying Vowels & Symbols IV

s ,] ] ,]] S ,s] ks vks] k] vk]] kS vkS] &;] &o

Dodqj
k]x
U;k]e
Bsd
n~;k]y
vk]xqu
cqtj
[k
N+;Zj
u]pqo
U;cj
Mqj
L;nqu
Lodky
jS;Fk
yQqu
ok]nqj
O;dkj

p+k]i
t]thj
p+ksj
lw;~

kkr

(cock)

ts p

(bite)

drg

(dear)

jjr

(hookah)

nym

(lemon)

ts r

(four)

t+hk

(contract)

sphi

(sufi)

dyl

(a kind of soft grass)

gn

(fire)

sh

(tear)

bjar

(old age)

brt+h

(stupid)

shnkh

(conch)

bchh

(hunger)

ts harr

(emptiness)

jvnd

(caraway)

nchv

(son)

nyr

(meadow)

nbar

(out)

hyon

(to take)

hd+r

(mushroom)

navr

(newness)

sdun

(succeed)

skyl

(sandy)

skl

(prosperous time)

ryath

(subject)

yatj

lanjar

(lameness)

lnphn

(greasiness)

vdr

(stomach, otter)

vkr

(changes)

Ooyke

vlm

(blame)

vk]
czsB
CofN
tkO;an
U;wj
k]u
uO;j
l]D;qy

vvv

Copyrights 2000-2010 Kashmir News Network (KNN): Language Section ( http://koshur.org )


All Rights Reserved.

PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Page 43

C
Ch
haap
ptteerr -- 5
5
Identifying Vowels & Symbols Assorted

cs d y kW t + h
vMo W N +
Uo[kr
iWT+;ksj
yw u e q r
viT + ; ks j
yksuoU;~
C;T+kqo
feE;qt+
vkW u ko
QW f djkW U ;~
dyi k F k
Yodpkj
uuoksj
LoikFkj
gekWY;~
vyc kW U ;~
[;P+kj
Eo[kr
Yoiqu
eWfjkWfoFk
EodY ;ks e q r
]xuqu

bklz

(foolishness)

ad + vtsh

(half open)

nkht

(point)

pzyr

(truthful)

lnmt

(having reaped)

apzyr

(liar)

lnvni

(wages for reaping)

bzv

(without life)

mmyz

(mid-day meal)

shnv

(relative)

phk i rn i

(female beggar)

kalpnth

(end of a yuga)

lkchr

(childhood)

nanvr

(bare footed)

sopthr

(good child)

hamli

(charges of a porter)

albn i

(plough)

khts r

(khichri)

mkht

(pearl)

lpn

(a fat and lazy fellow)

mshrvth

(having forgotten)

mklymt (finished)
shgnn

(to become scorned)

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Page 44

x T + k j q u
p+k]ikW;Z
N+~;iqu
uW [ kj y
v | -iW [ ;
dWny
uk]e j q u
g~o[kukoqu
MksU;qo
rW g lhynkj
vga d kW ; Z
oan jkWp+u
rq y - drq j

gnzrn

(to count)

ts pri

(all round)

ts hpn

(to hide)

nkhral

(coquettish)

nd i pkh i

(around)

kdl

(bridge)

nmrn

(to bend)

tul-katr

(ice sheet)

ckW f dj[kkW U ;~

bkrkhn i

(bread made of butter, milk & flour)

nqgWR;qe
udoksj
cWgjqu
ckW x j koq u
E;kWU;~
[kW n eFkxkj

d-htym

(two hundredth)

nakvr

(nostril)

bhrn

(to show courage)

bgrvn

(to distribute)

hkhnvn (to dry up)


d+ nyv

(made of walnut wood)

thsldr

(tehsildar)

ahankr i

(proud)

vand rts an (during winter nights)

myn i
(my)
khdmathgr (servant)

vvv

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Page 45

C
Ch
haap
ptteerr -- 6
6
Simple Sentences

e] ou
Cou ol
tku xo
P+k dql Nq[k
dk]r xN+[k
dfr vk[k
dql vksl
Dol vkWl
e dj
u] e f;
Ooy f; ij
U;cj usj
nkWj ep+jko
vt+ fN rj
dR; xN+u;
vt+ Nq rkQ
ouku D;kg Nq[k
dql r dfr
X;oku jkst+
c D;kg ou
T+;o gko
rEcj fN p+k]d

m van
bn vas
jn gav
ts ks chhkh
kt gatshakh
kat kh
ks s
ks s
ma kar
na, ma y
vl y par
nbar nr
dr mts rv
az chh tr
kti gatshnay
az chh tph
vann ky chhkh
ks t kat
gvn rz
b kyh van
zv hv
tambr chhi tsok

(tell me)
(come down)
(it is good)
(who are you ?)
(where will you go ?)
(where from have you come ?)
(who was he ?)
(who was she ?)
(dont do ?)
(no, dont come)
(come, read this)
(go out)
(open the window)
(it is cold today)
(how many do you want)
(it is sunny today)
(what are you saying ?)
(who and where ?)
(keep singing)
(what can I say ?)
(show your tongue)
(tamarind is sour)

vvv

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All Rights Reserved.

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Page 46

C
Ch
haap
ptteerr -- 7
7
Practice in reading - I

vt+ f; ;ksj A

az y yr

(come here today)

f; fdrkc ij A

y ktb par

(read this book)

gq xo jke th A

h gav rm j

(he is Ram ji)

D;kg Nq[k djku \

kyh chhkh karn

(What are you doing?)

dfr Nq[k clku \

kat chhkh basn ?

(where do you live ?)

gq dql Nq \

h ks chh ?

(who is he ?)

lq Nq E;ksu ;kj A

s chh myn yr

(he is my friend)

VkBk th dk]r xo \

t+t+h j kt gav ?

(where did Tatha ji go?)

E; Nk [kcj \

m chh khabar ?

(do I know ?)

kg th Nq idku A

shhj chh pakn

(Shah ji is coming)

dkag dkWe dj A

knh km kar

(do some work)

nksjku D;kft+ Nq[k\

drn kyz chhkh?

(why are you running?)

c xN+ nQrj A

b gatsh daphtar

(I will go to office)

c dj f;e \

b kar ym ?

(when should I come ?)

Ooy cr [;eo A

vl bat khmav

(let us eat food)

vt+ fN vkFkokj A

az chh thvr

(today is Sunday)

elrl fn daxqo A

mastas d kangv

(comb the hair)

f; Nq E;ksu xj A

y chh myn gar

(this is my home)

vvv

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All Rights Reserved.

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Page 47

C
Ch
haap
ptteerr -- 8
8
Practice in reading - II

P+k D;kft+ Nq[k Bkg Bkg dWfjFk vlku \


ts kyz chhkh t+hh t+hh krth asn

niku jVul xfN+ cku vklqu A


dapn rat+nas gatsh bn sn

vFk eat+ Nqu dkag [k ft+ P+k Nq[k L;Bkg rst+ A


ath manz chhn knh shakh zi ts chhkh st+hh tz

f;eu xWjhcu Nquk ft+an jkst+uqd g[k \


yman grban chhn znd rznk hakh ?

iuful ekWfyl ekft gat+ xfN+ [kWneFk djU;~ A


panns mls mj hnz gatsh khdmath karni

cklku Nqe ft+ p+] Nq; u ;ksjqd O;iku A


bsn chhm z ts chhy n yrk vpn

okfj;kg dky xkse p+] kjku A


vryh kl gm ts prrn

Ooy vt+ djo kWU;~ ikWB~; dFkk ckFkk A


vl az karav prni pt+hi kath bth

niku jkT+k xo f; cwft+Fk L;Bkg gkWjku A


dapn rz gav y bzth st+hh hrn

okrku okrku okWR;~ fre vWfdl ukxl I;B r vfr |qrq[k Fk[k A
vtn vtn vti tm ks ngas pt+h t at dytkh thakh

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Page 48

[otu dk]j ek]gfufol vkyo r P+kwjl djukWou ykj A


khjan kr mhnvs lav t ts ras karnvn lr

vvv

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Page 49

C
Ch
haap
ptteerr -- 9
9
Practice in reading - III

f; Nq dky ixkg lkWyl xN+ku


y chh kl pagh slas gats hn

vWfel vkfl tku xqT+kkj r ro; Nl nkf; csf=A


ms s jn gzr t tavay chhas dy btr

dkWqj fN lkWU;~ ekft T+;oA vfl ift+ iuU;u q;Zu lR;~ vWF;~ t+ckWU;~ eat+ dFk djU;A
kshr chh sni mj zv. asi pazi pannn shrn sti thi zabni manz
kath karni

L;Bkg dky xkse lkpku ft+ c ys[kgkW iuU;u jLeu r j~;oktu I;B v[k fdrkcA

st+hh kl gm snchn z b lkhh pannn rasman t rvjan pt+h akh


ktb

|kj vkluW lwWfr; xo u dkag ck]M EogU;qoA fny xfN+ ck]M vklquA

dyr sn sty gav n knh bd+ mhnyv. dl gats hi bd+ sn

;Fk nqfu;kgl eat+ cfu Fk dkag pht+ exj ekWt dfr cfuA
yath dnyhas manz ban prath knh chz magar mj kat ban

lq o[kr Nqe ;kn I;oku ;]fy lkWful flaxfy il v[k v[k xt+ t+sfN fj xkV vkl
yxkuA
sh vakht chhm yd pvn yl sns sngl pashas akh akh gaz zchh
shshar gnt+ s lagn

ft+B~;u ;t+Fk djqu Nq YodV~;u gqan QtZA

zt+hn yzath karn chh lkt+n hnd farz

vvv
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All Rights Reserved.

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Page 50

C
Ch
haap
ptteerr -- 1
10
0
Practice in reading IV

lqc I;B kel rke vkWL;~ fre }o; ckWp+ [kkgl eat+ dkWe djku A
sb pt+h shmas tm si tm dshvay bts khhas manz km karn

lq;k vksl jkT+k vofUroeZu lafn njckjqd v[k jWru r vWfe; vkWl forLrk lkQ dWfjFk
dWhj fofi fuf cpkWo ep+ A
sy s rz avantvarman snd darbrk akh rtn t my s vtast
sph krth kshr vp nsh bachvmts

ikaMou gafn o[r fr Nq dWhfj fgUnqLrkul lR; lEcan vkslqeqr A

pnd+ van hnd vakht t chh kshr hndstnas sti samband smt

c xksl f;e dFk cwft+Fk L;Bkg [o A ou p+] D;kg xfN+;\ f; eax[k fr esfy; A
b gs ym kath bzth st+hh khsh. van ts kyh gats hy? y mangakh t
mly

ft+B~;u gat+ vkWgh fN Fk lkr cdkj f;oku A frgat+ xfN ift+ eu lhok djU;~ A
zt+hn hnz h chh prath st bakr yvn. thnz gatsh paz man sv
karni

dWhfj fN Fk vkWBe r [kkl dWfjFk t+sB vkWBe }g rqyeqfy fno; yxku A

kshr chh prath t+ham t khs krth zt+h t+ham dh tlml dvay lagn

vvv

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Page 51

Section 3

Translation Vocabulary

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Page 52

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All Rights Reserved.

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Page 53

C
Ch
haap
ptteerr -- 1
1
Some words of daily use

English

Kashmiri

Roman

Above
Able
Account
Bad
Below
Blood
Bonfire
Bridge
Broker
Building
Busy
But
Child
Chinar
Ceiling
City
Cloth
Colour
Comb
Cloud
Courage
Compound
Crowd
Day
Door
Doubt

k]j
yk;[k
fglkc
[kjkc
Cou
jFk
vyko
dWny
ky
yWj
vkoqj
exj
cp
cw U ;~
rkyo
gj
diqj
ja x
daxqo
vk ]c q j
eFk
vkaxqu
chj
}g
cj
[k

hyr
lyakh
hsb
kharb
bn
rath
alv
kdl
drl
lr
vr
magar
bach
bn i
tlav
shahar
kapr
rang
kangv
br
hmath
ngn
br
dh
bar
shakh

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PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Dusk
Dust
Earth
Excuse
False
Farmer
Garden
Eclipse
Fast
Fat
Fever
Flower
Foe
Friend
Girl
Good
Hair
Hand
He
Hearth
Hill
His, her
Honey
House
Hope
Hot
I, me
Icicle
Illiterate
Is
Key

ke
xj n
cqrjkr
cgku
vik]t+
Xkz w l
ckx
xz q g q u
rst+
O;k]B
rQ
iks
nqeu
;kj] O;l
dwj
tku
el
vFk
lq
nku
cky
rlqan
ekN
yWj
czkaFk
xeZ
c
fjxkB
vuiM
Nq ] fN
dqat+

Page 54

shm
gard
btrt
bahn
apz
grs
bg
grhn
tz
vyt+h
taph
psh
dshman
yr, vs
kr
jn
mas
ath
s
dn
bl
tasnd
mchh
lr
brnth
garm
b
shshar-gnt+h
anpad+
chh, chh
knz

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All Rights Reserved.

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Ladder
Lake
Lock
Love
Man
Milk
Money
Moon
Mountain
My
Nest
Night
Old
Paper
People
Place
Rain
River
Roof
Sand
Scissor
Snow
Stone
Stream
Sun
Tear
Then
There
They
Thin
Time

gsj
lj
dqyqQ
ek;
enZ
}n
|kj
T+ k w u
icZFk
E;ksu
vksy
jkFk
cqM
dkdt+
yw[k
tk;
jw n
nW f j;ko
i
L;[k
E;djkt+
hu
dWU;~
Doy
flf;Z
vk]
r]fy
rfr
fre
U;qd
o[r

Page 55

hr
sar
klph
my
mard
dd
dyr
zn
parbath
myn
l
rth
bd+
kkaz
lkh
jy
rd
dryv
pash
skh
mkrz
shn
kni
kl
sry
sh
tl
tat
tm
nyk
vakht

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Tree
True
Turf
Up
Water
We
Were
What
When
Where
Who
Why
Will be
Window
Woman
You
Young

dqy
ik]t+
eq u
g~;k]j
iks U ;~
vWL;~
vkWL;~
D;kg
dj
dfr
dql] de
D;kft+
vkfl] vklu
nkWj
t+uku
P+k ] rk]
toku

Page 56

kl
pz
dramn
hyr
pni
si
si
kyh
kar
kat
ks, kam
kyz
s, san
dr
zann
ts , thi
javn
vvv

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Page 57

C
Ch
haap
ptteerr -- 2
2
Numbers 1 to 50

One
Two
Three
Four
Five
Six
Seven
Eight
Nine
Ten
Eleven
Twelve
Thirteen
Fourteen
Fifteen
Sixteen
Seventeen
Eighteen
Nineteen
Twenty
Twentyone
Twentytwo
Twentythree
Twentyfour
Twentyfive
Twentysix
Twentyseven
Twentyeight
Twentynine
Thirty

v[k
T+k
=]
p+ksj
ikN+] ikaN
]
lFk
vkWB
uo
nWg] nkg
dkg
ckg
=qokg
P+onkg
iankg
qjkg
lnkg
vjnkg
dquoqg
oqg
vdoqg
T+krksoqg
=k]oqg
p+k]oqg
iaP+kg
]roqg
lrksoqg
vBksoqg
dqu=g
= g

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Page 58

Thirtyone
Thirtytwo
Thirtythree
Thirtyfour
Thirtyfive
Thirtysix
Thirtyseven
Thirtyeight
Thirtynine
Forty
Fortyone
Fortytwo
Fortythree
Fortyfour
Fortyfive
Fortysix
Fortyseven
Fortyeight
Fortynine
Fifty

vd=g
}f;=g
r]f;=g
P+of;=g
ikaP+k=g
]f;=g
lr=g
vj=g
dqurkWth
p+rth
vdrkWth
}f;rkWth
r]f;rkWth
P+of;rkWth
ikP+krkWth
]f;rkWth
lrrkWth
vjrkWth
dquoaT+kkg
iap+kg

vvv

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Page 59

C
Ch
haap
ptteerr -- 3
3
Parts of the Body

Head
Forehead
Face
Nose
Nostril
Eye
Eye-brow
Eye-lash
Ear
Mouth
Teeth
Tongue
Lip
Chin
Neck
Throat
larynx
Chest
Arm
Armpit
Wrist
Hand
Palm
Finger
Little finger
Thumb
Elbow
Shoulder
Shoulder blade
Belly

dy
M~;d
cqFk
ul
udoksj
vWN
cqEc
vWNjoky
du
vkWl
nan
T+;o
oqB
g~oaxU;~
dkWj
gk]V
xaMqj
lhu
uWj
dN+
gk]p+
vFk
eat+&vFk
vk]axt
fdl
oB
[ouoB
;k]d
ku
;M

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Page 60

Thigh
Waist
Leg
Knee
Foot
Heel
Sole
Skin
Brain
Heart
Lung
Kidney
Liver
Intestines
Stomach
Gall Bladder
Bone
Blood
Hair
Beard
Moustache
Nails

yax
dej
t+ax
dk]B
[oj
[kwj
ryik]n
p+e
ext+
okWfyUt
w
CodoWV
ftxj
vnje
E;kn
rhy I;k]r
vfMt
jFk
el] oky
nkWj
xkN+
ue
vvv

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Page 61

C
Ch
haap
ptteerr -- 4
4
Animals

Bear
Buffalo
Bull
Camel
Cat
Cow
Deer
Dog
Donkey
Elephant
Frog
Fox
Hangul
Goat
Hare
Horse
Jackal
Lion
Monkey
Musk deer
Pig
Rat
Sheep
Tiger
Wild goat
Wolf

gkiqr
ewa] ek
nkan
owaB
czksj] czkWj
xko
gju
gwu
[kj
gk]Lr
feU;~
IoN+ykso
gkaxqy
N+kot]N+koqy
[kjxks
xqj
ky
ikn;Z lg
ik]at+
jwl
lksj
xxqj
dB] xWc
l g
ekj[kksj
jke gwu

vvv

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Page 62

Birds

Bat
Cock
Crow
Duck
Hen
Eagle
Kite
Maina
Nightingale
Owl
Parrot
Peacock
Pigeon
Sparrow
Swan
Vulture

jkr&y
Dodqj
dko
crq[k
Dodj
ikWt+
xkB
gkWj
cqycqy
jkr&Eoxqy
rksr
eksj
dksrqj
p+Wj
vt+
xzn

vvv

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Page 63

Reptiles and Insects

Ant
Crocodile
Earth worm
Flea
Fly
Mosquito
Scorpion
Snake
Spider

j~;;
exjeN+
cqeflU;~
I;q
eWN
ek]g
C;qp
LojqQ
t+yqj

vvv

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Page 64

C
Ch
haap
ptteerr -- 5
5
Professions

Baker
Barber
Blacksmith
Boatman
Brazier
Broker
Butcher
Carder
Carpenter
Charcoal seller
Cloth merchant
Cobbler
Confectioner
Cook
Coolie
Coppersmith
Doctor
Dyer
Farmer
Fisherman
Gardener
Goldsmith
Grain Parcher
Grocer
Hawker
Jester
Lawyer
Magician
Mason
Messenger

dkanqj
ukWf;n
[kkj
ukfo&gkt+
BkBj
ky
iqt
nwu
Nku
;axqj
ct+kt+
cwV&okrqy
gyoks;
okT+kg
ek]T+kwj
felxk]j
gWdhe
jaxqj
xzwl
xkM&gkt+
ckxoku
Louqj
ccZqt+
oksU;~
Qsfjoksy
el[kj
oWdhy
tksnwxkj
nWfly
dkWfln

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Page 65

xwj
uyd&oksy
Plumber
Mkd&oksy
Postman
ky
Potter
X;ou&oksy
Singer
xfcjkWN
Shephered
okrqy
Sweeper
l p +
Tailor
xt+
Tanner
OoLrkn
Teacher
Timber merchant E;aT+kqj
[kt+kph
Treasurer
Trader
ckikW;Z
Vegetable vendor nkanqj
Washerman
nk]c
jk[k
Watchman
ikU;qj
Waterman
oksoqj
Weaver
rcjnkj
Woodcutter
Writer
fy[kkW;Z

Milkman

vvv

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Page 66

C
Ch
haap
ptteerr -- 6
6
Relations

Adopted
Bride
Bridegroom
Brother
Brothers wife
Brother-in-law
(Sisters side)
Brother-in-law
(Wifes side)
Brothers daughter
Brothers son
Cousin
Daughter
Daughter-in law
Father
Fathers sister
-Her husband
Father-in-law
Friend
Grand father
Great grandfather
Great greatgrand father
Grand mother
Great grand-mother
Husband
Husbands brother
Husbands sister
-her husband
In-laws

eaxr
egkj]U;~
egkjkT+k
cks;
cW;&dkdU;
cse
gWgWj
ckot+
ckcFkj
firqj] firj
dwj
Uo
eksy
IoQ
IoQw
qgqj
;kj] O;l
cqM~;cc
cM cqM~;cc
tn cqM~;cc
ukU;~
cM&ukU;~
jwu
q ;
t+ke
t+kWeh
gk]goqj] okW;Zqo

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Page 67

Maternal Aunt
Maternal Uncle
Mother
Mothers sister
- her husband
Mother-in-law
Paternal Aunt
Paternal Uncle
Sister
Sisters daughter
Sisters husband
Sisters son
Son
Son-in-law
Step
Wife
Wifes sister
-Her husband

ekeU;~
eke
ekWt
ekl
eklw
g
i]pU;~
I;Wrj
c]fu
C;aT+k
cse
C;aFkj
u]pqo
t+kerqj
oksj
Doy;
lky
lkWtw
vvv

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Page 68

C
Ch
haap
ptteerr -- 7
7
Fruits

Apricot
Almond
Apple
Beetle nut
Bitter cherry
Cherry
Coconut
Cucumber
Currant
Date
Fig
Grapes
Lemon
Lotus nut
Mango
Musk melon
Mulberry
Orange
Pear
Plantain
Peach
Plum
Pomegranate
Strawberry
Sugarcane
Walnut
Water chestnut
Watermelon

p+sj
cknke
P+kwaB
lqQkW;Z
vkWfyp
fxykl
ukjthy][kwij
ykWj
fdfe
[kT+kj
vathj
nN
U;k]e
iEcqN
vEc
[kjcqt+
kgrqy
laxrj
Vax
dsy
P+kuqu
vkWj
nkWu
bVkcWj
u;dj
Mwu
Xkksj
UnO;an

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Page 69

Vegetables

Bitter gourd
Brinjal
Brussels sprout
Carrot
Chilli
Garlic
Gourd
Guchhi
Knol khol
Lotus stem
Mint
Mushroom
Onion
Potato
Pumpkin
Raddish
Spinach
Tomato
Turnip

djsy
okaxqu
gk[k
xkT+kj
ejP+kokaxqu
jk]gu
vy
du&xN
Eoaft
unqj
in u
Mqj
xaM
vksyqo
xksy&vy
eqt
iky[k
jwokaxqu
Xoxt

vvv

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Page 70

Some popular local Kashmiri vegetables

d`N+
uquj
Ooiygk[k
Oolrgk[k
yhl
cqe
vy dkut
gan
vk]cqWt
du&xqWN
du&iij
Lop+y
vvv

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Page 71

C
Ch
haap
ptteerr -- 8
8
Time

Time
Day before - Yesterday
Yesterday
Today
Tommorrow
Day after tommorrow
Year before last year
Last year
This year
Next year
Day
Week
Fortnight
Month
Year
Decade
Century
Ages of the world

o[r
=
jkFk
vt+
ixkg
dkWY;~D;Fk
kW;qZl
ijql
;qgql
czkBql
}g
gr
iN
j~;Fk
oWjh
nWqy
gWR;qy]]R;qy
ox

vvv

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Page 72

Yugas

Satya yug

lR; ox

satya yg

(Age 17,28,000 years)

Treta yug

=]rk ox

trt yg

(Age 12,96,000 years)

Dvapar yug

}kij ox

dvpar yg (Age 8,64,000 years)

Kali yug*

dfy ox

kal yg

(Age 4,32,000 years)

*(Kaliyug began at midnight between the 17th and 18th of February, 3102 B.C.)
vvv

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Page 73

C
Ch
haap
ptteerr -- 9
9
Days of the Week

Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
Saturday
Sunday

p+njokj
ck]eokj
Conokj
czlokj
k]d q j okj
cVokj
vkFkokj

ts ndrvr
bmvr
bdvr
brasvr
shkrvr
bat+vr
thvr

vvv

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Page 74

Name of Months - Hindu calender

Chaitra
Baisakh
jeth
Ashad
Shravan
Bhadon
Aashwin
Kartik
Margshirsh
Posh
Magh
Phalgun

fp+Fkj
o[k
t+sB
gkj
Jkoqu
ckWI;Fk
vkWfn
dkr[k
Eoatgksj
ik]g
ekx
Qkxqu

ts thr
vahkh
zt+h
hr
shrvn
bdrpth
shd
krtkh
mnjhr
ph
mg
phgn

vvv

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Page 75

Seasons of Kashmir

lk F k
xz h e
oW g jkFk
gjq n
oa n
fq j

snth ~ spring season


grshm ~ hot season
vhrth ~ rainy season
hard ~ autumn season
vand ~ cold season
shshr ~ very cold season

(Mid
(Mid
(Mid
(Mid
(Mid
(Mid

March to mid May)


May to mid July)
July to mid Sept.)
Sept to mid Nov.)
Nov. to mid Jan.)
Jan to mid March)

vvv

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Page 76

C
Ch
haap
ptteerr -- 1
10
0
Miscellaneous Vocabulary
Cereals

Paddy
Flour
Rice
Wheat
Maize
Sesame
Mustard
Barley
Pulses
Red beans
Kidney bean
Lentil
Flat beans
Peas
Gram
Black gram
Oil cake

nkfu
vksV
rk]eqy
du [ k
edkW;
rsy
rhy&Xoxqy
oqd
nky
jkt+ekg
Eoax
eqlqj
cksxy
dj
pu
egk
[kWt

vvv

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Page 77

Trees

Poplar
W illow
Deodar
Chir
Kail
Chinar

Q` l
ohj
fnonks j
cq n q y
dk;q j
cw U ;~

vvv

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Page 78

Common colours

Black
Blue
Golden
Green
Pink
Red
Sky blue
Violet
W hite
Yellow

q g q u
U;w y
LougW ; Z
Lc t +
XoykW C ;~
OoT+ k q y
vlekW U ;
yktoW ; Z
lQs n
Y;k]nq j
vvv

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Page 79

Common Metals

Aluminium
Brass
Bronze
Copper
Gold
Iron
Silver
Tin
Zinc

fel[ojklku
lrZ y
Yo;
=ke
Lou
]r j ] ]lr j
j~ o Q
Vhu
tLFk] t+ l q n

vvv

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Page 80

Tastes

Bitter
Salty
Sour
Sweet

V~;k]B
uedhu
p+k]d
ek]nqj

vvv

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Page 81

M
Mood
deell P
Paassssaag
gee II
A Conversation

jktnj % ueLdkj ekgjkA


dkSy lkWc % ueLdkjA Ooy lkW] c]g lkW iFkjA E; uv lkW t+uksoe[k uqW VkB~;kA d]ag Nk ouqu\
jktsanj % c ekgjk Nql jktnjA vWL;~ ekgjk fN gky; t]fe I;B ;ksj vkeR;~A ;]fr fN rqgqaft+
gelkW;xWjh eat+ P+kwfjfel iksjl I;B jkst+kuA dkWqj vklu ewtqc nk]i e] c le[k RofgA
dkSy lkWc % tku xoA P+k fdFk lkW ikWB~;~ VkB~;k cEcf; vkeqr\
jktsanj % c ekgjk Nql bathU;j rqW ;]fr vansjh eat+ Ne vWfdl daiuh eat+ uksdjh ehtep+A
dkSy lkWc % vn lkW ekY;kA P+; dql Nq; c]f; xfj\
jktsanj % e] ekgjk Nq eksy ekWt lR;A E;ksu eksy Nq ljdkW;Z uksdjh eaT+k fjVk;j li|kseqrA E;kfu
t+ukfu ekgjk Nq ,e-,- dk]jeqr r Lo fN uksdjh N+kaMkuA e] fN T+k q;Z] u]pqo vfu rqW dwj
fQkyhA
dkSy lkWc % fre dFk tekWp+ fN ijku\
jktsanj % vfu ekgjk Nq ijku vB~;fe rqW fQkyh lWR;feA
dkSy lkWc % fr xo tkuA rk] fNog [kkl fljhuxjfd;\
jktsanj % vgu ekgjk jU;okfjD;~A
dkSy lkWc % fdN+ yWt Rofg cEc;A
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Page 82

jktsanj % c ekgjk Nql ;]fr L;Bkg [oA iWR;fe j~;r vkslql c iuU;~ xfjD;~ Fk xkseqr
goul I;B d';i couA fre xWf; rfr cjknWjh lef[kFk L;Bkg [oA ;]frD;~ yw[k ekgjk fN
cM tku rqW ennxkjA vfl ekgjk xo d]agl dkyl eWfFk; ft+ vWL; fN ufo tkf;A vNk
ekgjk] vkWflu btkt+FkA
dkSy lkWc % u lkW VkB~;k] XoM P;eo pk;A
jktsanj % u ekgjk rDdyqQ D;kg NqA E; ekgjk fN oqU;~ pk; psep+A
dkSy lkWc % oqN lkW P+k Nq[k E;ksu xj XoMfufp yfV vkeqrA Pk fdFkdWU;~ usj[k pk; pu;\
E;kWU;~ vk]U;~ xfN+ p+] ehfyFk L;Bkg [oA vWL;~ f;eo vt+ ;k ixkg pkWful firkft;l r
xfjD;u ckd;u ckWp+u le[kfuA lkfu ckiFk fN f; [kqh gat+ dFk ft+ lkfu cjknWjh gqan C;k[k
v[k DoVac vko lkfu fcyfMafx eat+ jkst+fuA xfj oWfuft+ lkfju; lksu ueLdkjA c]f; ckst+ lkW
VkB~;kA cEcf; eat+ fNog rk] uWO;~ vkeR;~A ono; dqfu fr dleqd gktFk vkfl] okf; jk]l
xfN+ ouquA
v

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Rajinder:

Page 83

Namaskar.

Kaul Sahib: Namaskar. Please be seated. I didnt place you. Can I do something for you ?
Rajinder: I am Rajinder. We have recently shifted here from Jammu. We are now your
neighbours on the fourth floor. Being a Kashmiri, I thought of meeting you.
Kaul Sahib: Nice meeting you. What gets you to Mumbai.
Rajinder:

I am an engineer and I have got a job with a company at Andheri.

Kaul Sahib: Well. Who else is in your home ?


Rajinder: I have my parents with me. My father is a retired government servant. My wife is M.A. and
she is on the lookout for a job. I have two children, a son Ashwin and a daughter Shifali.
Kaul Sahib: In which class are they studying ?
Rajinder:

Ashwin reads in 8th class and Shifali in 7th class.

Kaul Sahib: That is good. Are you from proper Srinagar ?


Rajinder:

Yes, from Rainawari.

Kaul Sahib: How do you feel being in Mumbai ?


Rajinder: I am very glad to be here. I attended the Hawan ceremony at Kashyap Bhawan last month
along with my family members. They were all thrilled to get in touch with the biradari. People here are
very nice and helpful. For a while, I forgot that I was at a new place. O.K. Let me take your leave.
Kaul Sahib: No. Let us have tea first.
Rajinder:

No formality. I have had tea just now.

Kaul Sahib: You have come to my home for the first time. How can you go without tea ? My wife will be
very glad to meet you. We will certainly drop in at your place today or tomorrow to meet your father and
other family members. We are indeed happy that we have another member from our community in our
building. Do convey our good wishes to your family. Since you are new to Mumbai, do not hesitate to ask
for any assistance.
vvv

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Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language (Revised)

Page 84

M
Mood
deell P
Paassssaag
gee IIII
My Motherland
My motherland is Kashmir. The State as a whole is called Jammu & Kashmir. Srinagar is
its summer capital and Jammu its winter capital. It has three divisions, Jammu, Kashmir
and Ladakh. It has 14 districts, 6 in Jammu, 6 in Kashmir and 2 in Ladakh. Kashmir has
been described as the Paradise on Earth. The Valley of Kashmir is approximately 134 Kms.
long and 32 to 40 Kms. wide. Pahalgam, Gulmarg, Sonamarg, Kokar Naag, Veri Naag, Dal
Lake, Wular Lake, Anchar Lake, Gangabal, Mughal Gardens, Pari Mahal, Dachhi Gaam
Rakh etc. are considered to be the world famous tourist spots. Jehlum is the main river
flowing through the Valley. Srinagar is a beautiful city. It is situated on the two banks of
River Jhelum. The city has two famous hills Shankaracharya and Hari Parbat. Nishat Bagh,
Shalimar Bagh, Chashma Shahi, Pari Mahal and Harwan Reservoir are all situated in the
city of Srinagar. Amar Nath and Tullamulla are the two most famous places of pilgrimage
sacred to Hindus. Hazratbal and Khankah shrines are sacred to Muslims. Kalhan was a
great Historian of Kashmir and Lalla-Ded and Nunda Reshi were great Saint-poets.
Kashmiri is the mothertongue of Kashmiris.

E;kWU;~ ikWnkW;h tk; fN dWhjA lkWfjl; fj;klrl fN ouku ^tEew o dehj*A fljhuxj
fN vfep j~;rdkfyp jkt+nkWU;~ r tk]e oanpA vFk fN =] fgl] tk]e] dWhj r
ynk[kA vFk fN 14 ft+y] 6 t]fel eat+] 6 dWhfj eat+ r 2 ynk[kl eat+A dWhfj
fN ouku nqfu;qgqd tUuFkA dWhfj gat+ oknh fN 134 fdyksehVj t+hB r 34 I;B 40
fdyksehVj rke [ktA igyxke] xqyexZ] LouexZ] Dodj ukx] osjh ukx] My] Ooyj]
vkapkj] xaxcy] Eoxy ckxkr] iWjh egy] nkWNxke j[k csf= fN nqfu;kgl eat+ lkWy
dju ckiFk egwj tkf; ekuu f;okuA t]gye nWfj;ko Nq oknh gqan v[k ck]M nWfj;koA
fljhuxj Nq v[k Loanj gjA f; Nq t]gye nWfj;koD;u }u cB~;u I;B cWflFkA gjl
eat+ fN T+k cky] djkpkj r gkfj ijcFkA fukr ckx] kyekWj ckx] p]e kWgh] iWjh
egy r gkWjou ljcan fN lkWfj; fljhuxj gjl eaT+kA vej ukFk r rqyeqy fN g]a|u
ga| T+k ifo= rhFkZLFkkuA gt+jrcy r [kkudkg fN elyekuu gaT+k eqDdnl ft+;kjP+kA
dYgu ifMFk vksl dWhfj gqan v[k ck]M ckj rkWjh[knku r yy |n r uqan j~;k]
vkWL;~ T+kqW Fkfn ikf;D;~ lwQh kWf;jA dkWfj~;u gat+ t+cku fN dkWqjA
vvv

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