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GAS FLOW (AF 922) PLANT CONTROL

1.0

SUMMARY

To identify the important components of the air flow control system

and to mark them in the P&1 Diagram.


To carry out the start-up procedure systematically.
To study gas volumetric flow rate measurement using the orifice plate.
To study gas mass flow rate measurement using the orifice plate and
perfect gas
law to compute the gas density from the pressure and temperature

measurements.
To study gas mass flow rate (Fm) control using PID controller.
To design a PID controller using Ziegler Nichols closed loop method.

2.0 OBJECTIVES
In the gas flow process control system experiment, an equipment model AF
922 will be used. There are six objectives need to achieve which to identify
the important components of the air flow control system and to mark them in
the P&1 Diagram, to carry out the start-up procedure systematically, to study
gas volumetric flow rate measurement using the orifice plate, to study gas
mass flow rate measurement using the orifice plate and perfect gas law to
compute the gas density from the pressure and temperature measurements,
to study gas mass flow rate (Fm) control using PID controller and to design a
PID controller using Ziegler Nichols closed loop method. The experiment will
follow the procedures systematically by follow the lab manual in order to
avoid any error. In this experiment there are two indicators that used in this
experiments which are Control of Gas Flow System and PID Controller Tuning.
All these conditions are needed to test in order to test its function response
whether fast or not. In the theory states that by decreasing the value of PB,
the oscillation will increase and the response damping extremely for the
second trial at 150% compared to 200% of set point. At the last of
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GAS FLOW (AF 922) PLANT CONTROL

experiments, there are oscillations in the graft and PB was increase until the
oscillation damped out which is about 96 %.
3.0 INTRODUCTION
The air flow process control training system (Model AF922) uses air to
simulate a gas or vapor phase flow process. Gas/vapor volumetric flow can
be measured either by the differential pressure across an orifice or by a
variable

area

flow

meter.

Compensation for pressure and temperature

variation using the Perfect Gas Law can be made to the flow measurement
by the differential pressure measurement.
PID became most useful when a mathematical model of the plant is not
available. There are many different PID tuning rules. The uses of loop tuning
techniques helped make the PID algorithm the most popular of all feedback
control strategies used in industrial applications. The objectives of the
experiment are to identify the important components of the air flow control
system, to study gas volumetric flow rate and gas mass flow rate
measurement using orifice plate. Besides that, to study gas mass flow rate
control using PID controller and to design a PID controller using Ziegler
Nichols closed loop method.
Ziegler and Nichols used the following definition of acceptable stability as a
basis for their controller tuning rules.The ratio of the amplitudes of
subsequent peaks in the same direction (due to a step change of the
disturbance or a step change of the setpoint in the control loop) is
approximately illustrated in Figure 1. (Haugen F., 2010)

GAS FLOW (AF 922) PLANT CONTROL

Figure 1: If A2/A1 1/4 the stability of the system is ok, according to Ziegler
and Nichols

The Ziegler-Nichols closed loop method is based on experiments executed on an


established control loop (a real system or a simulated system) which ilustrated in
Figure 2.

Figure 2: The Ziegler-Nichols closed loop method is executed on an


established control system.
An orifice plate basically a thin plate with a hole in the middle used to
measure the rate of fluid flow. It constricts the flow and measuring the
pressure differential across the constriction gives the flow rate. It used
Bernoullis principle that states, there is a relationship between the pressure
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GAS FLOW (AF 922) PLANT CONTROL

of the fluid and the velocity of the fluid. When the velocity increases, the
pressure decreases and vice versa that presented in Figure 3. (eFunda, Inc.,
2011)

Figure 3: Orifice Plate Diagram


4.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Start Up Procedure
The result was shown in a graph form with three colors of lines which is red
line, the green line and the blue line. The red line was representing as the
mass flow rate, the green line represent as the volumetric flowrate and blue
line for TE91 (C). At this stages, MV of FIC91 was set to -6.3% and it was
adjust the manual valve MV900A till the air flow rate is about 50 kg/Hr. After
that, MV was set at 106.3% and change to 50%.

Control of Gas Flow System


As for starting of the experiment, the PID controller was start in trial mode
with a specific data input that was shown in Table 1. Based on those trial
modes, the equipment condition can be identifying.
Table 1: The PID Trial Values
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GAS FLOW (AF 922) PLANT CONTROL

PB1: 200%
TI1: 6 secs
TD1: 0 secs

PB2: 150%
TI2: 6 secs
TD3: 0 secs

PB3: 100%
TI3: 6 secs
TD3: 0 secs

Figure 4: PID trial

Based on Figure 1, the graph shows that the red line was the oscillate
conditions. The red line was representing as the mass flow rate, the green
line represent as the volumetric flowrate. According to the graph, mass flow
rate in the red line is in a proper curve which presented about 95% of value
that was set in the equipment. The equipment was set in manual mode with
with MV = 25% for the first trial and with MV = 30% for the second trial.
Next, mass flow rate in the red line in the second trial presented about 98%
of value. As the result, the red line responds quickly than the green line and
it states that the mass flow rate represent more sensitive than the
volumetric flowrate. By decreasing the value of PB, the oscillation will
increase. The PB corresponding to the constant amplitude oscillation as PB*
ultimate. PB is actually the fractional error change, relative to the error
range, required to produce a 100% change in the proportional term output.
The response damping extremely for the second trial at 150% compared to
200% of set point setting that illustrated in Figure 4.
For this experiment, the PID controller using Ziegler Nichols closed loop
method was used. The point of tuning a PID loop is to adjust how
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GAS FLOW (AF 922) PLANT CONTROL

aggressively the controller reacts to errors between the measured process


variable and desired setpoint. If the controlled process happens to be
relatively sluggish, the PID algorithm can be configured to take immediate
and dramatic actions whenever a random disturbance changes the process
variable or an operator changes the setpoint. Then the PID algorithm must
apply more conservative corrective efforts over a longer period. The essence
of loop tuning is identifying just how dramatically the process reacts to the
controller efforts and how aggressive the PID algorithm can afford to be as it
tries to eliminate errors.

PID Controller Tuning

PB=100%
T1=

9999sec

(max)
TD=

sec

(min)
For the second experiment which is controller tuning was run to develop
optimizes the closed loop response for process model with the absence of

GAS FLOW (AF 922) PLANT CONTROL

specified disturbance or set-point change. The FIC91 in Manual (M) mode


with the set point SV=25kg/hr.
The PID values was adjusted with PB= about 100%, TI=9999 sec (max) and
TD=0sec (Min). Then, the MV in FIC91 was adjusted until the PV reads close
to the set point 25kg/hr. The FIC91 was transferred to Auto (A) mode. The
controller need to be sure in the Auto mode.
In this step, the set point pulse disturbance was introduced. The Close Loop
Method was repeated with a decreasing PB until uniform (constant
amplitude) oscillation is observed. In this experiment, the value PB was
decrease at 50 % which is constant amplitude. The distance between
adjacent peaks was assumed 2 mm. After the constant amplitude appear,
the Tn need to be calculated by using this formula.
Tn = measured period in mm x 3600 =
Chart speed eg 500mm/hr

1 x 3600 = 7.2
500

TI = Tn = 7.2 = 6
1.2

1.2

So, the PB* = 2 x PB* = 2 x 50 = 100%

Based on the calculation, the new PID value is PB= 100%, TI=6 sec and
TD=0sec (Min). A major control system that makes the effect to the process
is called a closed loop control system. There is feedback to the control
system so it can regulate the process. There are oscillations in the graft and
PB was increase until the oscillation damped out which is about 96 % which
illustrated in Figure 5.

GAS FLOW (AF 922) PLANT CONTROL

An on/off controller only has two outputs, either full maximum or full
minimum. For this system it has been determined that when the
measurement falls below the set point, the valve must be closed to cause it
to increase. Thus, whenever the signal to the automatic controller is below
the set point, the controller output will be 100%. As the measurement
crosses the set point the controller output goes to 0%. This continuous
oscillation may or may not, be acceptable depending upon the amplitude
and length of the cycle. Rapid cycling causes frequent upsets to the plant
supply system and excessive valve wear. On large capacity process, such as
temperature vats, the large capacity causes a very long time constant.
Therefore, the measurement can change only very slowly. The disadvantages
using Ziegler Nichols tuning method are gives very aggressive tuning, some
trial and error and also process upset. The disadvantages using Ziegler
Nichols tuning method are gives very aggressive, some trial and error and
also tuning process upset.

Figure 5: PID Controller Tuning


5.0

CONCLUSION

GAS FLOW (AF 922) PLANT CONTROL

The experiment consists design a PID controller using Ziegler Nichols closed
loop method, identifying the important components of the air flow control
system and to carry out the start-up procedure systematically in gas flow
control. In addition, there are two indicators that used in this experiments
which are Control of Gas Flow System and PID Controller Tuning. By
decreasing the value of PB, the oscillation will increase and the response
damping extremely for the second trial at 150% compared to 200% of set
point. A major control system that makes the effect to the process is called a
closed loop control system. There is feedback to the control system so it can
regulate the process. There are oscillations in the graft and PB was increase
until the oscillation damped out which is about 96 %. At the end of the
experiments, it was consists important components of the gas flow control
system and achieved to carry out the start up procedures systematically.

6.0 REFERENCES
eFunda, Inc., 2011.Orifice Flowmeter Calculator
[online] Available at:
http://www.efunda.com/formulae/fluids/calc_orifice_flowmeter.cfm
[Accessed 12 October 2011].
Haugen F, 2010. Ziegler-Nichols Closed-Loop Method
[online] Available at:
http://techteach.no/publications/articles/zn_closed_loop_method/zn_closed_lo
op_method.pdf
[Accessed 12 October 2011].

GAS FLOW (AF 922) PLANT CONTROL

7.0 APPENDIXES

GAS FLOW (AF 922) PLANT CONTROL UNIT

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