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Brussels, Belgium. July 11-13, 2012

Flexible-Joint Robot Modeling and

Identification

Maria Makarov , Mathieu Grossard

Pedro Rodrguez-Ayerbe Didier Dumur

F-92265, France (e-mail: maria.makarov@cea.fr)

Gif sur Yvette Cedex F-91192, France

Abstract: This paper proposes a control-oriented modeling and identification framework for

flexible-joint robot arms using motor-side measurements only. From the perspective of modelbased control strategies including an inner feedback linearization loop, the proposed method

allows an explicit treatment of the vibrational behavior induced by the flexibilities. A theoretical

model of the partially decoupled system is derived and a frequency-domain identification

procedure allowing an estimation of the flexible parameters is detailed. The obtained description

of the system is experimentally validated on the CEA lightweight robot arm ASSIST.

Keywords: robotic manipulators, flexible arms, feedback linearization, control-oriented models.

1. INTRODUCTION

Over the last two decades modeling and control of flexible

robots have attracted a special attention of the robotic

community (Dwivedy and Eberhard, 2006; De Luca and

Book, 2008). These studies are all the more motivated

today by emerging applications in service, medical, space

or industrial fields. Innovative mechanical designs provide

the desired features for these applications, such as safety

in case of shared human-robot workspace, leading to

an expansive development of lightweight robots (KUKA;

DLR; ABB; Barrett Technology; Sugano Laboratory).

These mechanisms are often intrinsically flexible due to

their slender structure and/or transmissions and can be

subject to resonant modes. In this context, advanced

control techniques taking into account the flexibilities are

required to reach a high control bandwidth for precise

high-speed operation.

The present study focuses on flexible-joint robots, where

the transmissions between the motors and the rigid links

are assumed to concentrate the essential part of the elasticities (possibly due to harmonic drives, transmission belts

or cable driven mechanisms) and are modeled as springs.

When compared with the robot dynamics under standard

rigid body assumptions, these flexibilities introduce supplementary degrees of freedom between the motor and the

joint angles. To cope with this issue, a large number of

solutions propose additional sensors to measure the elastic

deformations between the motors and the joints. These

additional measurements allow powerful and theoretically

well founded control strategies such as flexible feedback

linearization (De Luca and Book, 2008) or full state feedback (Petit and Albu-Schaffer, 2011; Albu-Schaffer and

Hirzinger, 2000). However, these relatively complex solutions can not always be implemented on robots in a

978-3-902823-06-9/12/$20.00 2012 IFAC

motor position sensors and controlled in real-time at a high

sampling rate. Possible control strategies in this case are

motor feedback which may be completed with feedforward

terms based on the desired joint reference trajectory and

the flexible model (De Luca, 2000).

Similarly to the above cited control strategies, the modeling and identification approaches for flexible-joint robots

heavily depend on the available measurements and the

intended use of the model. A control-oriented description

must provide an adequate level of details while remaining

exploitable for control design. The simplest model is the

single joint model (the inertial couplings between the joints

being neglected), suitable for single-input single-output

(SISO) control strategies. Such a physically parametrized

linear model has been identified on an industrial robot

by Ostring

et al. (2003). When a higher level of precision is required, the coupled vibration effects have to be

taken into account and a multivariable model has to be

considered. In most approaches the rigid body dynamics

are assumed to be known, from CAD estimates or experimental identification, reducing the identification problem

to the stiffness parameters estimation. Following this approach, Albu-Schaffer and Hirzinger (2001) use additional

joint torque sensors to identify the elasticity and damping

separately for each joint on testbed before the assembly of

the robot. Oaki and Adachi (2009) employ additional link

accelerometers in a gray-box modeling approach. Pham

et al. (2001) propose an identification procedure based

on bandpass filtering which uses only motor-side measurements, identifying one joint at a time. Hovland et al. (2000)

describe a frequency-based identification method under

linearizing assumptions for an industrial robot with two

coupled flexible joints. Nonlinear gray-box identification

and multivariable nonparametric methods for frequency

583

10.3182/20120711-3-BE-2027.00127

Brussels, Belgium. July 11-13, 2012

This section recalls the classical dynamical models for a

n-link rigid manipulator and its flexible-joint counterpart.

2.1 Rigid dynamic model

manipulator.

response function (FRF) estimation have been developed

by Wernholt (2007) for industrial robots.

The present work addresses the identification problem

from a control perspective. A modeling strategy is proposed for flexible-joint robots using only motor-side measurements. In particular, the presented method aims at

providing a physically parametrized model suitable both

for further control design and an effective identification. To

this end, a theoretical description of a partially decoupled

flexible system containing an inner feedback-linearization

loop based on a rigid model (Fig. 1) is proposed. The model

structure being thus fixed, its multivariable frequencydomain identification offers valuable insights on the residual flexible dynamics to be taken into account in the design

of the outer-loop controller.

Section 2 recalls the standard dynamic modeling of rigid

and flexible-joint robots. In Section 3, the model of the

residual system resulting from the inner model-based loop

is derived. Section 4 details the identification methodology used for frequency-domain validation of this model

and its parameter estimation. In Section 5 the introduced

modeling strategy is applied to a lightweight robot arm

developed at the CEA LIST in the context of the humanrobot interaction and safe manipulation. The proposed

theoretical model is compared with the experimental multivariable FRF allowing an estimation of the unknown

flexible parameters.

Following notations are used throughout this paper. Table 1 introduces the physical variables and parameters. In

denotes the identity matrix of dimension n.

manipulator can be obtained from the Lagrange formalism

and is given by:

M (q)

q + H(q, q)

+ f =

(1)

with Rn the motor torque vector after the reduction

stage, q, q and q Rn the joint positions, velocities

and accelerations vectors, M (q) Rnn the robot inertia

matrix, H(q, q)

Rn the vector of Coriolis, centrifugal and

gravitational torques, and f Rn the friction torque.

A rigid transmission is assumed between the motor angles

after the reduction stage and the joint angles q, so that

m and q are connected by a purely algebraic relation:

q = = R1 m

(2)

Feedback linearization The nonlinear and coupled dynamic model (1) can be linearized and decoupled by feedback (Khalil and Dombre, 2004) according to the scheme

summarized in Fig. 1. The linearizing control torque is:

(q)u + H(q,

q)

=M

(3)

are updated at

each sampling time for the current position q and velocity

q.

The new control vector is denoted u. In case of a

perfectly known model, applying the control torque (3)

to the system (1) of relative degree 2 leads to:

(q) = M (q)

M

q = u

(4)

q)

H(q,

= H(q, q)

The linearized system (4) therefore consists of n independent double integrators, and linear SISO controllers can

thus be applied to control each of them in an outer loop.

2.2 Flexible-joint dynamic model

In case of flexible-joint robots, relation (2) no longer holds.

The elastic behavior in the transmission between motors

and links is represented by a torsional spring (Fig. 2).

Table 1. Notations

Name

Signification or expression

Units (SI)

m

m

R

motor torque

reduction matrix

motor angular position after reduction

= R1 m

joint angular position

motor torque after reduction = R m

rigid-body inertia matrix

diagonal matrix of rotor inertias

matrix of rotor inertias after reduction

J = R 2 Jm

rigid-body inertia matrix in rigid model

M = ML + J

Coriolis, centrifugal and gravity terms

diagonal joint stiffness matrix

joint and motor viscous friction

rad

Nm

rad

ML

Jm

J

M

H

K

Fv,

vm

rad

Nm

kg m2

kg m2

kg m2

kg m2

Nm

Nm rad1

Nm s rad1

The state of the system is therefore composed of both the

motors and links coordinates : x = ( q q)

T R4n . Under

the assumption that the angular velocity of the rotors is

due only to their own spinning (De Luca and Book, 2008),

the flexible-joint manipulator is modeled by the reduced

dynamic model as follows :

ML (q)

q + H(q, q)

+ f a + K(q ) = 0

(5)

J + f m + K( q) =

(6)

with K the joint stiffness matrix, ML the rigid body inertia

matrix, J the diagonal rotors inertia matrix and f a and

f m respectively the joint and motor friction torques.

584

Brussels, Belgium. July 11-13, 2012

In this section the flexible model of a partially linearized

robot arm using only motor-side measurements is first

derived, then a physically parametrized transfer matrix

form of this system is proposed and illustrated on a 2

degrees-of-freedom (dof) system.

Fig. 3. Local representation of the system ().

In the reduced measurements case when only the motorside signals are available, a partial feedback linearization

based on the rigid model (1) may be attempted. This

strategy is described by the system () in Figure 1 with

input u and output , and composed of the robot described

by (5) and (6) with the inner loop (3). Since the latter

does not take into account the flexibilities, () does not

consist on n independent double integrators as expected

in the ideal linearization case. It is instead still nonlinear,

coupled and affected by resonant flexible modes. In order

to evaluate these effects, equations (5) and (6) under the

feedback law (3) are expressed in the motor variables. The

friction terms f a and f m are assumed to represent the

viscous friction contribution with coefficients Fv and Fvm :

f a = Fv q,

f m = Fvm

(7)

From (6) we obtain :

q = K 1 J + K 1 Fvm + K 1

(8)

Differentiating (8) twice and replacing from (3), (5) can

be reformulated as :

(4) + A3 (3) + A2 + A1

= B2 u

+ B1 u + B0 u + dH

(9)

with the matrix coefficients Ai and Bj Rnn depending

on q and q:

A3 = J 1 Fvm + LJ

(10)

A2 = J 1 K(I + ML1 J) + Fv Fvm

A1 = J 1 KML1 (Fv + Fvm )

B2 = J 1 M

+ 2J 1 M

B1 = LM

+ LM

+ J 1 M

B0 = J 1 KML1 M

L = J 1 KML1 Fv K 1

Hq + Fv K 1 H

+ ML K 1 H

dH = H

Note that the estimates of M (q) and H(q, q)

= Hq are

approximated by their evaluation in the motor variable

and H

. This approximation is justified

as denoted by M

in a local study by the relatively slow variations of arm inertia with the robot configuration. The difference between

is seen as a disturbance. The validity of the

Hq and H

simplifying assumptions successively applied throughout

this section is confirmed by simulations of the flexible

robot dynamics.

3.2 Transfer matrix form

Following a frequency-oriented approach, the obtained

system is then rewritten under a more easily interpretable

transfer matrix form. In a first-order approximation, the

derivatives of M

This assumption is justified around a given configuration

q = q0 due to small variations of the robot inertia matrix.

With this assumption, (9) can be locally written as an LTI

system in the Laplace domain:

A(s)(s) = B(s)U (s) + dH

(11)

1

1

(s) = A(s) B(s)U (s) + A(s) dH

(12)

1

(13)

with

A(s) = s4 In + s3 A3 + s2 A2 + sA1

B(s) = s2 B2 + sB1 + B0

(14)

(15)

The term dH is seen as a filtered output perturbation dH

and is not intended to be identified but instead treated

with the help of robust control techniques in a future outerloop control strategy.

Finally, the local model (13) can be expressed around q0

in the transfer matrix form :

(s) = G(s)U (s) + dH

(16)

with G(s) Cnn . The bloc diagram of this system is

shown in Fig. 3.

3.3 Discussion on a 2-dof example

The term Gij (s) of the matrix G in (16) represents the

influence of input uj on output i . For a 2-dof arm case

(n = 2), Gij (s) has the following form :

(17)

a0 (s + a1 )(s2 + a2 s + a3 )(s2 + a4 s + a5 )

Gij (s) =

s(s + b1 )(s + b2 )(s2 + b3 s + b4 )(s2 + b5 s + b6 )

with ai and bj real scalar coefficients.

Without viscous motor and joint friction, the terms L, A3 ,

A1 and B1 vanish so that

A0 (s) = s4 In + s2 A02

(18)

0

2 0

0

B (s) = s B2 + B0

(19)

and (17) reduces to:

a0 (s2 + a03 )(s2 + a05 )

(20)

G0ij (s) = 02 2

s (s + b04 )(s2 + b06 )

with a0i and b0j real scalar coefficients.

As the decoupled double integrator model expected in the

case of an ideal feedback linearization (4) is often used

for the design of the outer-loop controller in Fig. 1, it is

important to observe the differences that might appear in

a case of a robot affected by joint flexibilities, in order to

take them explicitly into account.

Figure 4 shows the typical profile of the FRF of the 2dof system G in a given configuration q0 , assuming a

perfectly known rigid part of the model, with and without

585

Brussels, Belgium. July 11-13, 2012

that the double integrator behavior initially expected on

the diagonal terms is now affected by anti-resonances

and resonances due to a finite stiffness matrix K. The

system including viscous friction behaves only as a simple

integrator at low frequencies. Besides, the system is still

coupled due to non-null extradiagonal terms.

without friction.

Consider a linear system G with nu inputs u and ny outputs y. Assuming periodic data affected by measurement

noise V , with U (k ) and Y (k ) the DFTs of the input

and output at frequency k , the following input-output

relation holds:

Y (k ) = G(k )U (k ) + V (k ).

(23)

ny nu

To estimate G(k ) C

, data from ne nu different

experiments is collected:

Y(k ) = G(k )U(k ) + V(k )

(24)

nu ne

ny ne

with U (k ) C

and Y (k ) C

.

In case of a nonlinear system, a linear approximation of

the input-output relation is sought. Different estimators

from (24).

can be used to compute the FRF estimate G

In (Wernholt, 2007) the harmonic mean estimator has

been reported as providing better estimates in case of low

SNR, for instance at low frequencies or at resonances. The

harmonic mean estimator is defined as :

"

#

Ne h

i1 1

X

1

k) =

[m]

G(

G

(25)

Ne m=1

with

h

i1

[m] = Y[m] (k ) U[m] (k )

G

h

i1

[m]1 = U[m] (k ) Y[m] (k )

G

4. IDENTIFICATION METHODOLOGY

This section details the identification procedure employed

to validate the previously derived model. The method for

experimental multivariable FRF estimation is described,

including the choice of exciting input signals and the

estimator used (see Wernholt (2007) for more details).

(26)

(27)

to partition the system (24) into Ne integer number of

blocs of size nu nu to average over.

5. A CASE STUDY - THE ASSIST ROBOT ARM

Exciting input signals for FRF measurements must be

chosen carefully. Periodic signals are preferred as they

avoid leakage issues in the Discrete Fourier Transform

(DFT) computations and improve the signal-to-noise ratio

(SNR) by averaging over periods. Sums of sinusoids also

called multisine signals appear as an attractive solution to

achieve a certain spectrum at precisely specified frequencies in only one experiment, thus reducing the measurement time. Random phase multisines are defined as :

identification procedure is applied to the CEA robot arm

ASSIST. The obtained experimental results are compared

with the theoretically derived model in Section 3.

5.1 System description

n

o

Np

,

l

=

0,

1..

1

. Nf is the number

with k N2l

T

2

p s

of excited frequencies k , Ak the signal amplitudes, k

the random phases uniformly distributed on [0, 2], Ts the

sampling time, and Np (even) the length of the signal.

Odd random phase multisines can be used to excite only

the odd harmonics

2

Np

odd

k

(2l + 1), l = 1..

1

(22)

Np Ts

4

For the flexible model validation purposes, the 7-dof ASSIST robot arm is considered without loss of generality as

a two-joint manipulator, the other five rotational dof being

fixed. This system therefore corresponds to the theoretical

model proposed in Section 3.3. The two joints of interest

are the shoulder j1 and the elbow j2 (Fig. 5) so that

the robot motion is restricted to the vertical plane. The

joint actuators are based on a screw-and-cable mechanism

to ensure a high mechanical backdrivability, essential for

safe human-robot interaction (Jarrasse et al., 2008). DC

motors driven by PWM servo amplifiers in torque mode

are employed. The motor shafts are equipped with incremental position encoders. The robot arm is controlled by

a real-time dedicated controller running VxWorks, with a

sampling time Ts = 3ms.

et al., 2001) to obtain the best linear approximation of

a dominantly linear system under nonlinear distortions.

Random phase multisines allow averaging the FRF over

several realizations to reduce the nonlinear effects, and

thus combine the benefits of random and periodic signals.

can be found in (Makarov et al., 2011). The control scheme

based on the rigid feedback linearization (Fig. 1) is applied.

This strategy provided satisfactory results in the trajectory tracking experiments at low speed. However, cablebased transmissions introduce joint flexibilities which can

u(t) =

Nf

X

Ak cos(k t + k )

(21)

k=1

586

Brussels, Belgium. July 11-13, 2012

joints j1 , j2 considered in this paper, and 5 other dof.

frequency response estimation.

not be neglected for efficient high-speed operation and

disturbance rejection, and require a flexible identification.

G11 from u1 to 1 .

G22 from u2 to 2 .

Experimental protocol The local model (16) depending

on the robot configuration q0 , the identification experiments have been performed in 7 different configurations

shown in Fig. 6. They correspond to three angular positions for each of the 2 joints, qimin = /2 rad, qimed = 0

rad and qimax = /2 rad. Odd random phase multisines

are used as input signals for the closed-loop identification,

with the odd frequencies selected over the range 0.5-12Hz

from the grid (22). Each joint is excited separately, with

5 realizations of the input signal, resulting in ne = 5 2

experiments. The used signal length is Np = 212 points.

The multivariable frequency response is estimated using

the harmonic mean estimator (25).

Experimental results Figures 7 to 10 show the obtained

frequency responses of the 2-dof ASSIST arm in the tested

configurations. They represent the transfers G11 , G22 ,

G21 and G12 according to the notation introduced in

Section 3.3. All configurations display an antiresonance

followed by a resonance varying between 4.5Hz and 8.5Hz.

The resonances are grouped around 8Hz with deviation of

1Hz for all configurations except for P1a. In bended configurations (P2a, P2b, P3a, P3b) additional low-frequency

resonances appear on G22 . The observed resonant behavior

confirms the necessity of an active vibration damping

control strategy to achieve high control bandwidth.

G21 from u1 to 2 .

Comparison with the theoretical model In Fig. 11 the

flexible model (16) is superimposed with the experimental

frequency response in two configurations (P1b and P2b).

The rigid body parameters are assumed known from

previous identification experiments (see Makarov et al.

(2011)). The unknown parameters K, Fv and Fvm in the

flexible model (16) are adjusted in the frequency domain

to match the resonance and the law frequency behavior. In

the present case, the identified joint stiffness parameters

are K1 = 1150 Nm/rad for j1 and K2 = 220 Nm/rad for j2 .

The difference in the resonance frequency between these

two experiments is entirely explained by the variation of

the rigid body inertia matrix with the configuration q0 .

587

Brussels, Belgium. July 11-13, 2012

G12 from u2 to 1 .

Fig. 11. Experimental and theoretical MIMO frequency response of the approximately decoupled flexible system

in configurations P1b and P2b.

6. CONCLUSION

In this paper, a new modeling approach was proposed

for flexible-joint robots based on motor-side measurements

only and an inner feedback linearization loop. A physically

parametrized flexible model was identified and validated

using experimental FRF measurements, providing valuable insights for further control design of the outer-loop

controller.

The observed resonances at relatively low frequencies motivate active damping solutions to achieve a high control

bandwidth. Robust control strategies will be considered to

deal with the flexible modes variation in loaded conditions.

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