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1.What is translation?

Translation :is the comprehension of themeaningof a text and the

subsequentproduction of anequivalenttext, likewise calleda
"translation," that communicates the samemessagein another
language. The text that istranslated is called thesource text, and
thelanguage that it is translated into is called thetarget language. The
product is sometimescalled the target text.
Translation, when practiced by relativelybilingualindividuals but
especially when bypersons with limited proficiency in one or
bothlanguages, involves a risk of spilling-overof idiomsandusagesfrom
the source languageinto the target language. On the other hand,interlinguistic spillages have also served theuseful purpose of
importingcalquesandloanwordsfrom a source language into a
targetlanguage that had previously lacked a conceptor a convenient
expression for the concept. Translators and interpreters have thus
playedan important role in the evolution of languages andcultures.
The art of translation is as old as writtenliterature.
Parts of theSumerian
Epic of Gilgamesh
, among the oldest known literaryworks, have been found in
translations intoseveralSouthwest Asianlanguages of thesecond
millennium BCE. The
Epic of Gilgamesh
may have been read, in their own languages, byearly authors of the
and the

Developments since theIndustrial Revolution have influenced the

practice of translation,nurturing schools, professional associations,
TheInternethas helped expand themarket for translation and has
facilitatedproductlocalization. Currently, some 75% of professional
translators work with technicaltexts.
Since the 1940s,
attempts have been made tocomputerizethe translation of naturallanguage texts (machine translation) or to use computersas an
to translation (computer-assistedtranslation).
[Lat.,=carrying across], therendering of a text into another
language.Applied to literature, the term connotes the artof
recomposing a work in another languagewithout losing its original
flavor, or of finding ananalogous substitute, for example,
Remembrance of Things Past
la recherche du temps perdu,
which,translated literally, means "Looking for Lost Time." Translations
of the most ancient textsextant into modern languages are
calleddecipherments. Two well-known examples arethe decoding of the
Egyptian hieroglyphs on theRosetta Stone (see underRosetta) by
JeanFranois Champollion and the decoding of thePersian cuneiform
inscriptions on the rock of Behistun by Henry Rawlinson.
Translatingsacred texts has always been the chief meansby which a
culture transmits its values toposterity. Important translations of the

Biblebegan with the Vulgate (Hebrew and Greek intoLatin) of St.

Jeromein the 4th cent. A.D. Englishtranslations of the Bible include that
of JohnWyclif in the 14th cent. (from Latin),William Tyndale's in the
16th cent. (fromHebrew and Greek), and the great AuthorizedVersion
of 1611, the King James Version, whichhas been called the most
influential work of translation in any language. The Renaissancewas a
golden age of translations, especially intoEnglish. Renewed interest in
the Latin classicscreated a demand for renderings of Ovid's
(tr. by ArthurGolding,1565-67), Vergil's
(tr. by GawinDouglas, c.1515; Henry Howard, earl of Surrey, c.1540;and
Richard Stanyhurst, 1582), andPlutarch's
(tr. by Sir Thomas North, 1579). The flavor of these renderings is
indicated in theopening lines of Stanyhurst's
"Nowmanhood and garbroyles [battles] I chaunt, andmartial horror." In
addition there weretranslations of important contemporary worksinto
English: Castiglione's
(tr. by Sir Thomas Hoby, 1561), Montaigne's
(tr. by JohnFlorio, 1603), and Cervantes's
(tr. by John Shelton, 1612). Notabletranslations of the 19th and 20th
cent. includeBaudelaire's translations of the works of EdgarAllan Poe,
Scott Moncrieff's translation of Proust,and Eustache Morel's translation
of James Joyce.American authors whose works have beentranslated
into several European languagesinclude Mark Twain, Jack London,
ErnestHemingway, John Dos Passos, Pearl Buck,Margaret Mitchell (

Gone with the Wind

), andUpton Sinclair, who set a record withtranslations into 47
is a "carrying across"or "bringing across". TheLatin
derivesfrom theperfect passive participle,
("I transfer"from
, "across" +
, "I carry" or "I bring"). The modernRomance,GermanicandSlavic
Europeanlanguageshave generally formed their ownequivalentterms
for this concept after the Latinmodelafter
or after the kindred
("I bring across" or "I lead across").
Additionally, theAncient Greekterm for"translation", (
, "aspeaking across"), has suppliedEnglishwith

(a "literal translation", or "word-for-word" translation)as contrasted

("a saying in other words", from theGreek ,

corresponds, in one of the more recentterminologies, to "formal
equivalence"; and
, to "dynamic equivalence."
A widely recognizediconfor the practice andhistoric role of translation is
theRosetta Stone,which in theUnited Statesis incorporated intothecoat
of armsof theDefense LanguageInstitute.
( What are the principles of