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TIA/EIA-136-440

Contents
1.

Introduction............................................................................................................................................1

2.

References and Definitions....................................................................................................................2


2.1
2.2

References........................................................................................................................................2
Terminology.....................................................................................................................................3

3.

Overview of the AMR System...............................................................................................................4

4.

Speech Coding (Adaptive Multi-Rate).................................................................................................6


4.1

DTX..................................................................................................................................................6

5.

Noise Suppression...................................................................................................................................8

6.

Link Adaptation....................................................................................................................................10
6.1
Setup Procedure..............................................................................................................................10
6.1.1
Definition of the AMR Active Codec Set...............................................................................11
6.1.2
Default AMR Configuration...................................................................................................12
6.1.3
AMR Configuration Order Link Information Element..........................................................12
6.1.4
Initial Codec Mode Selection at Call Setup and Handover....................................................13
6.1.5
Definition of Codec Mode Command/Request Decision Thresholds....................................13
6.2
Inband Signaling.............................................................................................................................15
6.3
Out-of-Band Signaling...................................................................................................................16
6.3.1
Inband Signaling During DTX...............................................................................................16
6.3.2
AMR Configuration Using FACCH.......................................................................................16
6.4
Codec Mode Adaptation.................................................................................................................16
6.4.1
Channel Quality Measure.......................................................................................................16
6.4.2
Generation of Codec Mode Commands and Requests...........................................................17
6.4.3
Reference C/(I+N) Performance.............................................................................................17
6.4.4
Performance Requirements....................................................................................................18
6.5
Transmitter/Receiver Inband Channel Synchronization.................................................................19

7.

Optimization for Tandem Free Operation.........................................................................................21


7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4

8.

Operation with Ongoing TFO.........................................................................................................21


DTX with Ongoing TFO................................................................................................................21
Comfort Noise in DL with TFO.....................................................................................................21
Operation during Handoff with Ongoing TFO...............................................................................22

Channel Coding....................................................................................................................................23
8.1
Definitions of Terms, Nomenclature and Assumptions..................................................................24
8.2
Overview........................................................................................................................................24
8.3
Interleaving Options.......................................................................................................................25
8.4
Subjective Ordering........................................................................................................................26
8.5
Channel Coding Mobile Station..................................................................................................27
8.5.1
Speech Data Classes...............................................................................................................28
8.5.2
Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC)..........................................................................................29
8.5.3
Convolutional Encoding.........................................................................................................29

TIA/EIA-136-440

8.5.4
Channel Encoding for the Inband Channel............................................................................39
8.5.5
Merging of Data Blocks.........................................................................................................39
8.5.6
Puncturing and Mapping to 8PSK Symbols...........................................................................40
8.5.7
Interleaving.............................................................................................................................40
8.5.8
Mapping to Time Slots...........................................................................................................41
8.6
Channel Coding Base Station......................................................................................................41
8.6.1
Speech Data Classes...............................................................................................................43
8.6.2
Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC)..........................................................................................43
8.6.3
Convolutional Encoding.........................................................................................................44
8.6.4
Channel Encoding for the Inband Channel............................................................................52
8.6.5
Merging of Data Blocks.........................................................................................................52
8.6.6
Puncturing and Mapping to 8PSK Symbols...........................................................................54
8.6.7
Interleaving.............................................................................................................................54
8.6.8
Mapping to Time Slots...........................................................................................................54
9.

Change History for TIA/EIA-136-440................................................................................................57

Annex A. (Informative) Example Solution for Link Quality Estimation................................................59


Annex B. (Informative): Example Definition of Mode Command/Request Decision Thresholds........61
Annex C. Puncturing and Mapping............................................................................................................63

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TIA/EIA-136-440

Tables
Table 1.
Table 2.
Table 3.
Table 4.
Table 5.
Table 6.
Table 7.
Table 8.
Table 9.
Table 10.
Table 11.
Table 12.
Table 13.
Table 14.
Table 15.
Table 16.
Table 17.
Table 18.
Table 19.
Table 20.
Table 21.
Table 22.
Table 23.
Table 24.
Table 25.
Table 26.
Table 27.
Table 28.
Table 29.
Table 30.
Table 31.
Table 32.
Table 33.
Table 34.
Table 35.
Table 36.
Table 37.
Table 38.
Table 39.
Table 40.
Table 41.

Active Codec Set (ACS) Bit Map...............................................................................................11


Codec Mode Information Encoding...........................................................................................12
Link Information Element..........................................................................................................12
Definition of Threshold and Hysteresis......................................................................................14
Encoding of Thresholds..............................................................................................................15
Encoding of Hysteresis...............................................................................................................15
Reference C/(I+N) Performance for Full-Rate...........................................................................18
Reference C/(I+N) Performance for Half-Rate..........................................................................18
Interleaving Formats for Full-rate..............................................................................................25
Interleaving Format for Half-rate...............................................................................................25
Speech Encoder Frame Size for Each Mode..............................................................................26
Bit Classification for Full-rate Uplink........................................................................................28
Bit Classification for Half-rate Uplink.......................................................................................28
Encoding of the Inband Channel................................................................................................39
Merging of Data Blocks Before Purncturing and Mapping to Symbols....................................40
Full-rate Uplink..........................................................................................................................41
Half-rate Uplink..........................................................................................................................41
Bit Classification for Full-rate Downlink...................................................................................43
Bit Classification for Half-rate Downlink..................................................................................43
Merging of Data Blocks Before Purncturing and Mapping to Symbols....................................53
Full-rate Downlink.....................................................................................................................54
Half-rate Downlink, First Half Slot User...................................................................................55
Half-rate Downlink, Second Half Slot User...............................................................................55
Filter Coefficients of C/(I+N) Measuring Filter for AMR on FRUL, FRDL and HRDL..........59
Filter Coefficients of C/(I+N) Measuring Filter for AMR on Half-rate Uplink.........................59
CMC/CMR Decision Thresholds for AMR on Full-rate............................................................61
CMC/CMR Decision Thresholds for AMR on Half-rate...........................................................61
Puncturing and Mapping for MR122FRUL with 2-slot and 3-slot Interleaving........................63
Puncturing and Mapping for MR102FRUL with 2-slot and 3-slot Interleaving........................65
Puncturing and Mapping for MR795FRUL with 2-slot and 3-slot Interleaving........................67
Puncturing and Mapping for MR74FRUL with 2-slot and 3-slot Interleaving..........................69
Puncturing and Mapping for MR67FRUL with 2-slot and 3-slot Interleaving..........................71
Puncturing and Mapping for MR59FRUL with 2-slot and 3-slot Interleaving..........................73
Puncturing and Mapping for MR515FRUL with 2-slot and 3-slot Interleaving........................75
Puncturing and Mapping for MR475FRUL with 2-slot and 3-slot Interleaving........................77
Puncturing and Mapping for MR795HRUL with 2-slot Interleaving........................................79
Puncturing and Mapping for MR74HRUL with 2-slot Interleaving..........................................81
Puncturing and Mapping for MR67HRUL with 2-slot Interleaving..........................................83
Puncturing and Mapping for MR59HRUL with 2-slot Interleaving..........................................85
Puncturing and Mapping for MR515HRUL with 2-slot Interleaving........................................87
Puncturing and Mapping for MR475HRUL with 2-slot Interleaving........................................89

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Table 42.
Table 43.
Table 44.
Table 45.
Table 46.
Table 47.
Table 48.
Table 49.
Table 50.
Table 51.
Table 52.
Table 53.
Table 54.
Table 55.

Puncturing and Mapping for MR122FRDL with 2-slot and 3-slot Interleaving........................91
Puncturing and Mapping for MR102FRDL with 2-slot and 3-slot Interleaving........................93
Puncturing and Mapping for MR795FRDL with 2-slot and 3-slot Interleaving........................95
Puncturing and Mapping for MR74FRDL with 2-slot and 3-slot Interleaving..........................97
Puncturing and Mapping for MR67FRDL with 2-slot and 3-slot Interleaving..........................99
Puncturing and Mapping for MR59FRDL with 2-slot and 3-slot Interleaving........................101
Puncturing and Mapping for MR515FRDL with 2-slot and 3-slot Interleaving......................103
Puncturing and Mapping for MR475FRDL with 2-slot and 3-slot Interleaving......................105
Puncturing and Mapping for MR795HRDL with 3-slot Interleaving......................................107
Puncturing and Mapping for MR74HRDL with 3-slot Interleaving........................................108
Puncturing and Mapping for MR67HRDL with 3-slot Interleaving........................................109
Puncturing and Mapping for MR59HRDL with 3-slot Interleaving........................................110
Puncturing and Mapping for MR515HRDL with 3-slot Interleaving......................................111
Puncturing and Mapping for MR475HRDL with 3-slot Interleaving......................................112

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Figures
Figure 1.
Figure 2.
Figure 3.
Figure 4.
Figure 5.
Figure 6.
Figure 7.

High Level AMR Block Diagram.................................................................................................5


Definition of Threshold and Hysteresis for Codec Mode Adaptation........................................14
Overview of the Full-rate Uplink Channel Encoding.................................................................27
Overview of the Half-rate Uplink Channel Encoding................................................................27
Example of RSC Encoder...........................................................................................................30
Overview of the Full-rate Downlink Channel Encoding............................................................42
Overview of the Half-rate Downlink Channel Encoding...........................................................42

TIA/EIA-136-440

1.

Introduction
This document provides a description of the AMR speech service, including speech
coding, channel coding and link adaptation.
GSM references in this specification are specific, in the sense that they refer to release
and version numbers. If there are future changes that require changes to the channel
coding or other parts, this specification will have to be revisited. See Section 3 for
specific references.
Section 2 provides an overview of the AMR system.
Section 3 describes the speech coding.
Section 4 describes the optional noise suppression.
Section 5 describes the link adaptation and inband signaling that control the mode
adaptation.
Section 6 describes support for tandem free operation (TFO).
Section 7 provides a detailed description of the channel encoder. The channel decoder is
not considered a part of this standard, and may be performed with any method capable of
decoding Recursive Systematic Convolutional (RSC) codecs and block codes.
The implementations of the speech codec in the MS shall be bit-exact. Bit-exact
implementation shall conform to the fixed point C-code, see GSM 06.73,[2], and is
subject to the test vectors defined in the ETSI specification for AMR, see GSM 06.74,
[3]. The implementation of the speech codec in the BS is not required to be bit-exact;
however, non bit-exact implementation is subject to the minimum performance
requirements for the AMR codec, contained in TIA/EIA-136-240.

TIA/EIA-136-440

References and Definitions

1.1

References

[1]

GSM06.71,v7.0.2Digitalcellulartelecommunicationssystem(Phase2+);AdaptiveMultiRate
(AMR);Speechprocessingfunctions;Generaldescription

[2]

GSM06.73,v7.4.0Digitalcellulartelecommunicationssystem(Phase2+);AdaptiveMultiRate
(AMR)speech;ANSICcodefortheAMRspeechcodec

[3]

GSM06.74,v7.0.1Digitalcellulartelecommunicationsystem(Phase2+);Testsequencesforthe
AdaptiveMultiRate(AMR)speechcodec

[4]

GSM06.90,v7.2.0Digitalcellulartelecommunicationssystem(Phase2+);AdaptiveMultiRate
(AMR)speechtranscoding

[5]

GSM06.91,v7.1.0Digitalcellulartelecommunicationssystem(Phase2+);Substitutionand
mutingoflostframesforAdaptiveMultiRate(AMR)speechtrafficchannels

[6]

GSM06.92,v7.1.1Digitalcellulartelecommunicationsystem(Phase2+);Comfortnoiseaspects
forAdaptiveMultiRate(AMR)speechtrafficchannels

[7]

GSM06.93,v7.3.0Digitalcellulartelecommunicationsystem(Phase2+);Discontinuous
Transmission(DTX)forAdaptiveMultiRate(AMR)speechtrafficchannels

[8]

GSM06.94,v7.1.1Digitalcellulartelecommunicationssystem(Phase2+);VoiceActivity
Detector(VAD)forAdaptiveMultiRate(AMR)speechtrafficchannels;Generaldescription

[9]

GSM05.09,v7.3.0Digitalcellulartelecommunicationssystem(Phase2+);LinkAdaptation

[10]

GSM05.03,v7.1.1Digitalcellulartelecommunicationssystem(Phase2+);Channelcoding

[11]

GSM06.77,v8.0.0MinimumPerformanceRequirementsforNoiseSuppresserAplicationtothe
AMRSpeechEncoder.

[12]

IS853,NoiseSuppressionMinimumPerformanceforAMR

TIA/EIA-136-440

1.2

Terminology
ACS

ActiveCodecSet

CHD

ChannelDecoder

CHE

ChannelEncoder

Class1

Bitsthatareconvolutionallyencoded

Class2

Bitsthatareunprotected

CMC

CodecModeCommand

CMI

CodecModeIndication

CMR

CodecModeRequest

Codecmode
information

CMC,CMIorCMR

Constraintlength

Onemorethanthememoryorder,K=m+1

CRC

CyclicRedundancyCheckingcode

CRCgenerator

TheCRCgeneratorpolynomial

DL

Downlink

Downlink

BStoMS

DTX

Discontinuoustransmission

FRDL

Fullratechannel,downlink(BStoMS)

FRUL

Fullratechannel,uplink(MStoBS)

HRDL

Halfratechannel,downlink(BStoMS)

HRUL

Halfratechannel,uplink(MStoBS)

IE

InformationElement

Inbandsignaling

Modeinformationsignaledasinbanddatainthespeech
trafficchannelusingapartofitstransmissioncapacity

Interleaving

Orderingofthesymbolsonthechannel.

Memoryorder,m

Memoryorderoftheconvolutionalcode,where2m=the
numberofconvolutionalstates.Foruplinkm=5,for
downlinkm=6

SPD

SpeechDecoder

SPE

SpeechEncoder

TFO

Tandemfreeoperation

TRAU

TranscoderandRateAdaptorUnit

UL

Uplink

Uplink

MStoBS

TIA/EIA-136-440

2.

Overview of the AMR System


A high-level block diagram of the complete AMR system is depicted in Figure 1.. The
system consists of the major components in the BS and the MS.
The AMR system consists of 8 speech codec modes: , 12.2 kb/s 10.2 kb/s, 7.95 kb/s, 7.4
kb/s, 6.7 kb/s, 5.9 kb/s, 5.15 kb/s and 4.75 kb/s. All 8 modes can be used for the full-rate
channel. The 6 lowest rates, 7.95 kb/s down to 4.75 kb/s, can be used for the half-rate
channel. The channel to be used, whether full-rate or half-rate, is controlled by the
network. Uplink and downlink always use the same channel rate, full-rate or half-rate.
Each mode has a corresponding channel codec, giving more protection for the lower
speech codec rates than for higher rate speech codecs. The different rates enable an
adaptation of the speech and channel modes, depending on the channel state. For good
channels, a higher speech codec mode rate, with corresponding weaker channel codec
mode, can be used to improve the speech quality. For degraded channels, a lower speech
codec mode rate, with stronger channel coding, can be used to improve the robustness
against channel impairments.
During a call up to 4 modes can be used in an Active Codec Set (ACS). The network
defines the ACS at call setup. The network may update the ACS at handoff, but also has
the option to change it at any time during a call, for example to ensure common codec
modes in case of TFO. The selected ACS applies to both links. During an ongoing call,
the AMR system adapts among the modes in the ACS depending on the channel state.
Associated with this Active Codec Set is a list of 1 to 3 switching thresholds and
hysteresises, see Section 5.1.5, used by the DL Mode Request Generator and the UL
mode control unit, to generate the Codec Mode Requests and Codec Mode Commands.
The thresholds and hysteresises are defined by the network at call setup and may be
modified at handoff or during a call.
For each link, quality information is derived by estimating the current channel state.
Based on the channel state, and also taking into consideration possible constraints from
network control, the codec mode control selects the codec mode to be applied.
For codec mode adaptation, the receiving side performs link quality measurements of the
incoming link. The measurements are processed yielding a Quality Indicator.
For uplink adaptation, the Quality Indicator is directly fed into the UL mode control unit.
This unit compares the Quality Indicator with certain thresholds and generates a Codec
Mode Command, indicating the codec mode to be used on the uplink. The network has
the option to override this Codec Mode Command. The Codec Mode Command is then
transmitted inband to the mobile side, where the incoming speech signal is encoded in the
corresponding codec mode.
For downlink adaptation, the DL Mode Request Generator within the mobile compares
the DL Quality Indicator with certain thresholds and generates a Codec Mode Request
indicating the preferred codec mode for the downlink. The Codec Mode Request is
transmitted inband to the network side where it is fed into the DL Mode Control unit.
This unit generally grants the requested mode; however, considering possible constraints
from network control, it may also override the request. The resulting codec mode is then
applied for encoding of the incoming speech signal in downlink direction. For both

TIA/EIA-136-440

uplink and downlink, information about the presently applied codec mode is transmitted
inband as Codec Mode Indication, together with the coded speech data. At the decoder,
the Codec Mode Indication is decoded and is applied for decoding of the received speech
data.
Figure 1.

High Level AMR Block Diagram

Base Station

SPE

speech data

Mobile Station

CHE

DL codec mode

network
control
DL Mode Request
(received)

ULMode Ctrl
UL Quality Indicator

ULMeas.

DLMeas.

UL Mode Command
(received)

DL Quality Indicator

DLReq.Gen
DL Mode Request

UL codec mode (received)

speech data

SPD
DL codec mode (received)

UL Mode Command

DLMode Ctrl

SPD

CHD

CHD

CHE

SPE

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3.

Speech Coding (Adaptive Multi-Rate)


See the following referenced GSM release 98 specifications, see Section 1.1:
GSM06.71,version7.0.2

GeneralDescription

GSM06.73,version7.4.0

CSourceCode

GSM06.74,version7.0.1

Testsequences

GSM06.90,version7.2.0

VoiceCoder

GSM06.91,version7.1.0

ErrorConcealment

GSM06.92,version7.1.1

ComfortNoise

GSM06.93,version7.3.0

DTX

GSM06.94,version7.1.1

VAD

The speech coding algorithms are defined in the above referenced documents.
AMR implementations in mobile stations may be one of the following:

3.1

Full-rate channel only, all 8 AMR speech codec modes shall be supported.

Half-rate channel only, the 6 lowest AMR speech codec rates (MR795 and below)
shall be supported.

Both full-rate channel and half-rate channel, all 8 AMR speech codec modes shall be
supported.

DTX
For TDMA, comfort noise is updated with AMR Comfort Noise FACCH messages, as
defined in TIA/EIA-136-133. The encoding of the parameters shall be the same as in
GSM 06.92.
Comfort noise estimates shall be updated and AMR Comfort Noise FACCH messages
shall be transmitted every 8th speech frame in the same way as is done in GSM. However,
the receiver shall not rely on receiving the AMR Comfort Noise message at this interval.
When going from DTX-high to DTX-low, the AMR Implicit Comfort Noise FACCH
message, see TIA/EIA-136-133, shall be sent after the hangover period to indicate to the
receiver that the transmitter has gone into DTX-low mode. SID_FIRST frames, as
defined in GSM 06.93, are not used on the air interface (although they may be used
between base stations in case of TFO with other AMR capable systems, see Section 6.2).
The receiver shall react on the AMR Implicit Comfort Noise FACCH message in the
same manner as GSM-AMR does on the SID_FIRST frame.
ONSET frames, as defined in GSM 06.93, are not used.

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For half-rate uplink, when two speech frames are encoded together, one of the two speech
frames may be unavailable, both for the transition DTX-high to DTX-low and for the
transition DTX-low to DTX-high. In this case the following special handling is needed:

A dummy speech data frame shall be used to fill up the free space due to the
missing frame in the input vector to the channel encoder.

When going from DTX-high to DTX-low, the AMR Implicit Comfort Noise message
shall be delayed one speech frame, to avoid clipping the end of the speech.

When going from DTX-low to DTX-high, and if either an AMR Comfort Noise
FACCH message or an AMR Implicit Comfort Noise FACCH message is queued for
transmission, this message should be removed, to avoid clipping the beginning of the
speech if possible.

A dummy speech data frame may be generated by either:

Copying the existing speech frame and set the CRC to an invalid value; or

Setthedummyspeechframeparameterstotheirinitialvalues,seeGSM06.90,and
settheCRCtoaninvalidvalue.

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4.

Noise Suppression
Noise suppression is a highly desirable feature. The noise suppression function in the MS
shall fulfill IS-853 or GSM 06.77, see Section 1.1.
In cases where a noise suppression unit external to the MS is used, for example in handsfree equipment with built-in noise suppression, it is allowed to turn the noise suppression
unit in the MS off.
In configurations using multiple microphones, where the noise suppression minimum
performance requirements cannot be used, equivalent or better performance than IS-853
must be demonstrated.

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TIA/EIA-136-440

5.

Link Adaptation
The link adaptation is performed by estimating the channel quality in the receiver,
comparing the measured quality with the codec rate switching thresholds, choosing a
proper codec mode from the Active Codec Set, and signaling the chosen mode to the
transmitter.
The setup procedure is described in Section 5.1.
The codec mode information consist of:

Codec Mode Indication (CMI) is transmitted in both links and informs the receiver
of the currently applied codec mode.

CodecModeCommand(CMC)istransmittedfromtheBStotheMSandinforms
theMSofthecodecmodetobeappliedontheuplink.

Codec Mode Request (CMR) is transmitted from the MS to the BS and informs the
BS of the preferred codec mode to be applied in the downlink. Network control may
override Codec Mode Requests.

For AMR on full-rate and AMR on half-rate DL, the codec mode information consists
alternately of CMI and CMC/CMR, see Section 5.5. For AMR on half-rate UL, the codec
mode information always consists of both CMI and CMR.
There are two types of AMR signaling:

Inband signaling, consist of codec mode information transmitted with the speech
data in active speech mode (DTX-high), see Section 5.2.

Out-of-band signaling, carried in FACCH messages, is used for:


-

transmitting coded mode information (CMI and CMC/CMR) together with the
comfort noise parameters during DTX-low, see Section 5.3.1

changing the AMR configuration, see Section 5.3.2.

Codec Mode Adaptation is described in Section 5.4.


To properly decode the CMI and CMC/CMR the transmitter and receiver needs to be
synchronized., see Section 5.5.

5.1

Setup Procedure
The definition at call setup and handoff of AMR Active Codec Set and mode adaptation
thresholds is defined in the following sections.

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TIA/EIA-136-440

5.1.1 Definition of the AMR Active Codec Set


AMR codec mode adaptation is done within a set of up to four codec modes. The codec
mode set (Active Codec Set) to be used by the BS and the MS is defined during call
setup, and may be updated during handoff, by sending the AMR configuration order
FACCH message, see TIA/EIA-136-133.
AMR configuration is mandatory at call setup and handoff from non-AMR to AMR.
Before this order has arrived the default AMR Configuration shall be used.
AMR configuration is optional for handoff from AMR to AMR.
The Active Codec Set (ACS) in the AMR Configuration Order FACCH message is
defined with a bit map as described in the table below:
Table 1.

Active Codec Set (ACS) Bit Map

Identifier

Encoding

Description

MR122_USED

1xxxxxxx

MR122isintheACS

MR102_USED

x1xxxxxx

MR102isintheACS

MR795_USED

xx1xxxxx

MR795isintheACS

MR74_USED

xxx1xxxx

MR74isintheACS

MR67_USED

xxxx1xxx

MR67isintheACS

MR59_USED

xxxxx1xx

MR59isintheACS

MR515_USED

xxxxxx1x

MR515isintheACS

MR475_USED

xxxxxxx1

MR475isintheACS

Unused modes shall be identified with a 0 in the above described bit map. No more
than four bits may be set to 1.
The Active Codec Set (ACS) can be changed during a call using the out-of-band
signaling procedure for AMR configuration defined in Section 5.3.2.
The following convention (see Table 2.) applies for the coding of the codec modes for the
inband signaling (Codec Mode Indications, Codec Mode Commands/Requests).

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TIA/EIA-136-440

Table 2.

Codec Mode Information Encoding

Identifier

Encoding

Description

CODEC_MODE_1

00

Representsthelowestspeechcodecmode
(lowestbitrate)oftheACS

CODEC_MODE_2

01

Representsthesecondlowestspeechcodec
mode,iftheACSincludesmorethanone
mode

CODEC_MODE_3

10

Representsthethirdlowestspeechcodec
mode,iftheACSincludesmorethantwo
modes

CODEC_MODE_4

11

Representsthehighestspeechcodecmode,
iftheACSincludesfourmodes

If a handoff is made without signaling a new ACS, then the ACS from before the handoff
shall be used.

5.1.2 Default AMR Configuration


The default Active Codec Set consists of one mode, the MR74 mode, and is used in both
uplink and downlink, both for full-rate and half-rate.
The thresholds and the hysteresises in this default case are undefined since only one
codec mode is used. The Initial Codec Mode (ICM) is the MR74 mode.

5.1.3 AMR Configuration Order Link Information Element


To facilitate cases where the ACS in the uplink and the downlink may be different the
following Link IE is defined in the Table 3:
Table 3.

Link Information Element

Link

Encoding

Description

Uplink

0x

TheAMRconfigurationorderdoesnot
applytotheuplink

Uplink

1x

TheAMRconfigurationorderapplytothe
uplink

Downlink

x0

TheAMRconfigurationorderdoesnot
applytothedownlink

Downlink

x1

TheAMRconfigurationorderapplytothe
downlink

16

TIA/EIA-136-440

5.1.4 Initial Codec Mode Selection at Call Setup and Handover


The Initial Codec Mode (ICM), to start the speech coding operation with at call setup and
after handoff, may be signaled by layer 3 signaling as defined in TIA/EIA-136-133. This
explicitly signaled ICM shall have precedence over the default ICM, which is described
below.
If the Initial Codec Mode is not signaled, then the default Initial Codec Mode is given by
the following implicit rule. If the Active Codec Set contains
1mode

ThenthisshallbetheInitialCodecMode

2or3modes

ThentheInitialCodecModeshallbethemostrobustmodeof
theset(withlowestspeechcodecbitrate)

4modes

ThentheInitialCodecModeshallbethesecondmostrobust
modeoftheset(withsecondlowestspeechcodecbitrate).

Both the signaled ICM and the default ICM are always relative to the ACS.
If the Active Codec Set is changed during the call, the ICM shall also be signaled.
If a handoff is made without updating the ACS and without signaling a new ICM, then
the ICM from before the handoff shall be used. If a handoff is made and the ACS is
updated, then a new ICM shall be signaled.

5.1.5 Definition of Codec Mode Command/Request Decision Thresholds


The Codec Mode Command/Request decision thresholds shall be defined at call setup.
They may be changed during a call or at at handoff by layer 3 signaling, see TIA/EIA136-133.
For each pair of neighboring codec modes in the Active Codec Set, a threshold and a
hysteresis value, in terms of normalized carrier-to-impairment ratio, C/(I+N)norm, are
defined.
The lower decision threshold for switching from mode j to mode j-1 is given by the
signaled threshold. This threshold is referred to as THR_MC_Dn(j) or THR_MR_Dn(j) in
case of Codec Mode Commands or Codec Mode Requests correspondingly.
The higher decision threshold for switching from mode j to mode j+1 is given by the sum
of the signaled threshold and hysteresis. This threshold is referred to as THR_MC_Up(j)
or THR_MR_Up(j).
The figure below illustrates the definition of the decision thresholds, and the operational
range of the Codec Modes.

17

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Figure 2.

Definition of Threshold and Hysteresis for Codec Mode


Adaptation

C/(I+N)norm
CODEC_MODE_4
THR_3 + HYST_3 = THR_MX_Up(3)
THR_3

= THR_MX_Dn(4)

CODEC_MODE_3
THR_2 + HYST_2 = THR_MX_Up(2)
THR_2

CODEC_MODE_2

= THR_MX_Dn(3)

THR_1 + HYST_1 = THR_MX_Up(1)


THR_1

CODEC_MODE_1

= THR_MX_Dn(2)

There are only two rules for the switching thresholds.


The switching threshold values shall be given by the network in a ascending order such
that:
THR_1 THR_2 THR_3
and:

(THR_1 HYST_1) (THR_2 HYST_2) (THR_3 HYST_3)


The thresholds and hysteresises use the following format:
Table 4.

Definition of Threshold and Hysteresis

Parameter
name

Description

Range

Bits

THR_1/2/3

Lowerthresholdsforswitching
betweenmodejandj1

063

HYST_1/2/3

Hysteresisvaluestoobtainthehigher
thresholdsforswitchingbetweenmode
jandj+1

015

A threshold (THR) is given as an absolute value in 0.5 dB steps. The THR values
between 0 and 63 shall be mapped to normalized C/(I+N) values as follows:

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Table 5.

Encoding of Thresholds
Value
(integer)

Encoding
(binary)

Threshold

THR1/2/3

000000

0.0dB

THR1/2/3

000001

0.5dB

THR1/2/3

000010

1.0dB

THR1/2/3

62

111110

31.0dB

THR1/2/3

63

111111

31.5dB

NOTE: The threshold for codec mode j should be set to a normalized C/(I+N) value
where the speech quality of speech codec mode j-1 is better.
A hysteresis parameter is given 0.5 dB steps. The HYST values between 0 and 15 shall be
encoded as follows:
Table 6.

Encoding of Hysteresis
Value
(integer)

Encoding
(binary)

Hysteresis

HYST1/2/3

0000

0.0dB

HYST1/2/3

0001

0.5dB

HYST1/2/3

0010

1.0dB

HYST1/2/3

14

1110

7.0dB

HYST1/2/3

15

1111

7.5dB

If a common hysteresis is signaled, then this value shall be used for all hysteresises.
If a handoff is made without signaling new thresholds and hysteresises, then the
thresholds and hysteresises from before the handoff shall be used.

5.2

Inband Signaling
The inband signaling for AMR on full-rate and AMR on half-rate downlink uses the same
alternating transmission of Codec Mode Indication and Codec Mode Command/Request
as for GSM.
For AMR on half-rate uplink, since two speech frames are encoded and transmitted
together, both Codec Mode Indication and Codec Mode Request are transmitted every
time together with the speech data.

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Channel coding for the inband channel is defined in Section Error: Reference source not
found for the uplink and in Section Error: Reference source not found for the downlink.

5.3

Out-of-Band Signaling
There are two types of out-of-band signaling carried in FACCH messages; codec mode
information during DTX and AMR Configuration using FACCH.

5.3.1 Inband Signaling During DTX


When DTX is used, both Codec Mode Indication and Codec Mode Command/Request
shall be transmitted together with the AMR comfort noise FACCH message, as defined in
TIA/EIA-136-133.
When the speech encoder goes from DTX-low to DTX-high, the applied codec mode
shall be the same as indicated in the last comfort noise message, unless the codec is also
transmitting a new Codec Mode Indication in the first speech frame after DTX-low.
ONSET frames, as defined in GSM 06.93, are not used.

5.3.2 AMR Configuration Using FACCH


The AMR Active Codec Set, Initial Codec Mode, upper and lower decision thresholds
and hysteresises may be changed during an ongoing call without interruption of the
speech transmission by using the Countdown Status IE in the AMR Configuration Order
FACCH message.
The configuration is done by sending FACCH messages, see EIA/TIA 136-133.

5.4

Codec Mode Adaptation

5.4.1 Channel Quality Measure


Codec mode adaptation is based on a normalized, one-dimensional measure of the
channel quality, called the Quality Indicator. For reference purposes, the Quality Indicator
is defined as an equivalent carrier-to-impairment ratio, C /( I N ) norm . The MS and BS
shall continuously update the Quality Indicator estimates.
The Quality Indicator may be derived from an estimate of the current carrier-toimpairment ratio, C /( I N ) est , or an estimate of the current raw bit error rate,

BERest . A fixed normalization factor may be applied between the estimate,


C /( I N ) est or BERest , and the Quality Indicator to compensate for higher receiver
performance, see Section 5.4.3.
A second normalization factor should be applied to normalize the estimate with respect to
different channel types, such that, with given C /( I N ) norm and given codec mode,

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TIA/EIA-136-440

the FER after channel decoding becomes independent of the channel type. An example of
channel quality measuring is given in Annex A.

5.4.2 Generation of Codec Mode Commands and Requests


For codec mode adaptation, the channel Quality Indicators are mapped to Codec Mode
Commands/Requests, by quantizing the Quality Indicators. The output values of the
quantizer shall represent the different codec modes.
Hysteresis in the mapping from Quality Indicators to Codec Mode Commands/Requests
should be used to prevent undesirable fast switching of Codec Mode Commands/
Requests. The hysteresis in the mapping is defined in the following way:
The previously sent Codec Mode Command, CMC (respectively Codec Mode Request,
CMR) is used as the current state of the adaptation logic. For each state, lower and upper
thresholds THR_MC_Dn(CMC) and THR_MC_Up(CMC) for the downlink, and
THR_MR_Dn(CMR) and THR_MR_Up(CMR) for the uplink are defined, see Section
5.1.5. If the measure falls below the lower threshold, the next lower Codec Mode
Command/Request commanding/requesting a more robust codec mode shall be
generated. If the measure exceeds the upper threshold, then the next higher Codec Mode
Command/Request commanding/requesting a less robust codec mode shall be issued:
otherwise, the previous Codec Mode Command/Request shall be repeated.
The degree of hysteresis is controlled by appropriately setting the upper and lower
decision thresholds. The thresholds shall be defined by layer 3 signaling at call setup, and
may be modified at handoff or during an ongoing call, as defined in Section 5.3.2. An
example of decision thresholds is given in Annex B.
For reasons of channel error robustness of the codec mode information, both Codec Mode
Commands and Requests shall be restricted to change at maximum to their nearest
neighbors within the Active Codec Set. This means that mode switches to modes that are
not direct neighbors to the previously transmitted mode shall be avoided. Exceptions may
occur at handoff and when the AMR configuration is changed.

5.4.3 Reference C/(I+N) Performance


These tables show the reference C/(I+N) in dB corresponding to 1% FER for every mode.
Table 7.
Link
Mode
MR122
MR102
MR795
MR74
MR67
MR59
MR515
MR475

Reference C/(I+N) Performance for Full-Rate


Downlink
(2-slot interleaving)
10 Hz
180 Hz
18.7
12.2
16.6
10.4
15.1
9.1
14.7
8.2
14.0
8.0
13.5
7.1
12.0
5.8
11.6
5.0

Uplink
(2-slot interleaving)
10 Hz
180 Hz
20.5
13.3
17.1
10.7
16.0
9.9
15.6
9.0
14.9
8.4
14.3
7.4
12.7
6.1
12.3
5.8

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Table 8.
Link
Mode
MR795
MR74
MR67
MR59
MR515
MR475

Reference C/(I+N) Performance for Half-Rate


Downlink
10 Hz
180 Hz
22.1
16.2
20.0
14.9
18.9
14.4
16.9
12.5
15.1
10.5
14.3
9.8

Uplink
10 Hz
180 Hz
26.0
18.5
23.3
15.6
21.7
14.3
19.2
13.0
16.4
11.1
15.7
10.6

The difference between this reference performance and the performance of the used
receiver gives the normalization factor to be used when compensating for differences in
receiver performance.

5.4.4 Performance Requirements


The following sections define the link adaptation behavior for both the MS and the BS.
5.4.4.1 Performance of the Codec Mode Request Generation
For a flat fading channel without DTX activated, the MS shall produce Codec Mode
Requests with the following accuracy:

When a carrier-to-impairment ratio, C/(I+N), of 4 dB higher than a defined upper


threshold is applied to the antenna connector, the MS shall request a higher mode
with a probability exceeding 90%. This shall be measured immediately after a
settling-time of 200 ms.

When a carrier-to-impairment ratio, C/(I+N), of 4 dB lower than a defined lower


threshold is applied to the antenna connector, the MS shall request a lower mode
with a probability exceeding 90%. This shall be measured immediately after a
settling-time of 200 ms.

5.4.4.2 MS Response to the Codec Mode Command


The MS shall after the reception of a Codec Mode Command apply the corresponding
codec mode in uplink direction for the next possible speech frame, and no more than
three speech frames later. This shall be independent of whether TFO is ongoing or not. If
the Codec Mode Command would require a change of the uplink codec mode by more
than one step within the defined Active Codec Set, then the MS shall perform the
transition from the currently used codec mode into the commanded codec mode in
several steps, one step occurring during every second speech frame. Exceptions may
occur only at call setup and after handoff and when the AMR configuration is modified.
5.4.4.3 BS Response to the Codec Mode Request
The BS should apply the requested mode for the earliest possible speech frame, unless
the BS intends to override the Codec Mode Request from the MS due to network control
needs.

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5.5

Transmitter/Receiver Inband Channel Synchronization


The alternating transmission of codec mode information for full-rate downlink, full-rate
uplink and half-rate downlink requires that the transmitter and receiver be synchronized.
For half-rate uplink there is no need for synchronization of the speech encoder and
decoder since both Codec Mode Indication and Codec Mode Request are sent with every
pair of speech frames in the same time slot.
To assist the synchronization process, 8PSK full-rate channels and 8PSK half-rate
channels will always use different synchronization words for the two time slots in the pair
of time slots in the TDMA frame that is used for the channel, see TIA/EIA-136-131.
In a TDMA frame, we will refer to:
Sending CMI in time slot 1,2 or 3 and sending CMC/CMR in time slot 4,5 or 6 as the
odd phase
Sending CMC/CMR in time slot 1,2 or 3 and sending CMI in time slot 4,5 or 6 as the
even phase.
The speech encoder shall synchronize the codec mode switching to the Codec Mode
Indication, so that the new codec mode is used only when a new Codec Mode Indication
is sent. Thus, the codec mode, indicated by the Codec Mode Indication, is valid both for
the current and for the following speech frame. For half-rate uplink, since two speech
frames are channel encoded and transmitted together as a pair, the Codec Mode
Indication applies to both speech frames.
The default phase for full-rate downlink and half-rate downlink shall be odd. The
default phase is used at call setup and after every handoff. The phase may be changed by
sending the AMR phase change order FACCH message, see TIA/EIA-136-133. In case of
handoff failure and fall back to the previous BS, the phase used before the handoff
attempt shall restored.
The phase in the full-rate uplink is odd and is never changed.

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6.

Optimization for Tandem Free Operation


The following sections define procedures to enhance tandem free operation (TFO).

6.1

Operation with Ongoing TFO


If tandem free operation is ongoing, the speech signal has to be transmitted over two
radio links, first uplink (MS1 to BS1) and then downlink (BS2 to MS2), respectively
symmetrically in the reverse direction. The optimal Codec Mode in direction MS1 to
MS2 shall be derived from the Codec Mode Command for the first uplink (CMC1, within
BS1). The optimal Codec Mode Request is derived for the second downlink (CMR2
within MS2) in the following way:
MS2 shall send the CMR2 to BS2 in the usual way. BS2 shall either accept this CMR2
(default) or may modify it according to network control needs: CMR2. Then BS2 shall
send the CMR2 further uplink to its TRAU2, to TRAU1 and downlink to BS1. BS1
combines the received CMR2 with its own derived CMC1 by taking the minimum of
both values. If needed, BS1 may modify this minimum value according to own network
control (--> CMC1) and shall send it finally downlink to MS1 as CMC. The identical
procedure shall be performed in the reverse direction.

6.2

DTX with Ongoing TFO


To support DTX during TFO with other AMR capable systems, the following are
required:

6.3

If an AMR Implicit Comfort Noise FACCH message is generated by a TDMA


mobile, it shall be forwarded to the other mobile. A SID_FIRST message, for
example as defined in GSM 06.93, may have to be generated by the TDMA BS to be
transmitted to the other BS.

If a SID_FIRST frame is received in the TDMA BS from, for example, a GSM MS,
the BS shall replace it with an AMR Implicit Comfort Noise FACCH message, which
is then sent to the TDMA MS.

ONSET frames, as defined in GSM, are not forwarded to the TDMA MS, nor are
they generated by the TDMA MS.

Comfort Noise in DL with TFO


In case of TFO with other AMR capable systems, the base station shall do the following
in DL to support DTX:

The base station shall pass the comfort noise parameters to the mobile as FACCH
messages.

The BS shall send FACCH filler messages in-between the Comfort Noise FACCH
messages.

The MS shall support comfort noise generation in DL.

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TIA/EIA-136-440

6.4

Operation during Handoff with Ongoing TFO


Before and during a handoff, at one or both sides of the MS-to-MS connection, it may be
necessary to freeze the codec mode adaptation for a short while; e.g. to optimize the
common Active Codec Set, or to allow fast (re-)synchronization of speech and channel
codecs in the BSs and MSs, or to optimize the CMI/CMC phase in downlink. Therefore,
both BSs may enable or disable the codec mode adaptation by sending the freeze order
FACCH message. As long as the codec mode adaptation is frozen to a specific codec
mode, indicated by the codec mode IE in the freeze order, then this codec mode shall be
used in both directions as long as tandem free operation is ongoing, otherwise tandem
free operation shall be discontinued. The Codec Mode Requests from the MSs may be
taken into account so as to decide whether to continue TFO or not, but not for codec
mode adaptation.

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TIA/EIA-136-440

7.

Channel Coding
The channel error control for the speech codec data defined in this standard employs
three techniques for the mitigation of channel errors.

The first technique is to use a convolutional code to protect the more vulnerable bits
of the speech codec data stream.

The second technique interleaves the transmitted data for each speech codec frame
over two or three time slots to mitigate the effects of Rayleigh fading.

The third technique employs the use of a cyclic redundancy check over some of the
most perceptually significant bits of the speech codec output.

After the error correction is applied at the receiver, these cyclic redundancy bits are
checked to see if the most perceptually significant bits were received properly.
The channel error control for the inband signaling defined in this standard employs two
techniques for the mitigation of channel errors.

The first technique is to use a block code to protect the information.

The second technique interleaves the transmitted data for each speech codec frame
over two or three time slots, in the same way as is done for the speech data.

For the MS, it is mandatory to support both 2-slot interleaving and 3-slot interleaving.

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7.1

7.2

Definitions of Terms, Nomenclature and Assumptions


S

Datablockoutputfromsubjectivesorting

S1

Datablockoutputfromsubjectivesortingforfirstframein
HRUL(twospeechframesareencodedsimultaneously)

S2

Datablockoutputfromsubjectivesortingforsecondframe
inHRUL(twospeechframesareencodedsimultaneously)

Paritybits(7),outputfromCRCcalculation

P1

Paritybits(7),outputfromCRCcalculationforfirstframein
HRUL(twospeechframesareencodedsimultaneously)

P2

Paritybits(7),outputfromCRCcalculationforsecond
frameinHRUL(twospeechframesareencoded
simultaneously)

Codedbits,outputfromconvolutionalencoder

ID

Inputinbandbits(2forfullrateuplink,fullratedownlink
andhalfratedownlink,2+2forhalfrateuplink)

IC

Codedinbandbits(16forfullrateuplinkandfullrate
downlink,8forhalfratedownlink,8+8forhalfrateuplink)

Blockofmergedbits(codedbitsC,class2bitsandcoded
inbandbitsIC).

Blockofbitstobeconvolutionallyencoded,consistsofthe
class1bitsandthe7CRCbits

G0..G3

Polynomialsforconvolutionalencodingforuplink,
constraintlengthK=6.

G4..G7

Polynomialsforconvolutionalencodingfordownlink,
constraintlengthK=7.

Overview
The channel encoding is done in the following steps:
1.

Subjective ordering of the bits from the speech encoder; the most sensitive bit is
placed first in the output block and the least sensitive bit is placed last. See Section
7.4.

2.

Classification to class 1 and class 2 (if applicable) bits. The class 1 bits are the bits
that use the convolutional code for error correction. The class 2 bits (if used; not all
full-rate modes use class 2 bits) are sent unprotected over the channel. See Sections
7.5.1 and Error: Reference source not found.

3.

Calculation of CRC. The class 1 bits are further divided into two classes: the
perceptually most sensitive bits, the class 1a bits, over which the CRC is calculated,
and the remaining class 1 bits which are called the class 1b bits. See Sections 7.5.2
and Error: Reference source not found.

4.

Convolutional encoding with a rate 1/2, 1/3 or 1/4 convolutional code for the class 1
bits and the CRC bits. See Sections 7.5.3 and Error: Reference source not found.

27

TIA/EIA-136-440

5.

Channel encoding for the inband channel. See Sections Error: Reference source not
found and Error: Reference source not found.

6.

Puncturing and mapping to 8PSK symbols. See Sections Error: Reference source not
found and Error: Reference source not found.

7.

Interleaving. See Sections Error: Reference source not found and Error: Reference
source not found.

8.

Mapping to time slot format. See Sections Error: Reference source not found and
Error: Reference source not found.

The channel decoding is the reversed process. The fact that the inband channel is decoded
before the speech data allows decoding of the speech data with knowledge of the applied
mode.

7.3

Interleaving Options
If the MS support AMR on full-rate, it shall support the following interleaving formats:
Table 9.

Interleaving Formats for Full-rate

Formatnumber

Description

1
(default)

2slotinterleavingfortheuplink
2slotinterleavingforthedownlink

2slotinterleavingfortheuplink
3slotinterleavingforthedownlink

3slotinterleavingfortheuplink
2slotinterleavingforthedownlink

3slotinterleavingfortheuplink
3slotinterleavingforthedownlink

The interleaving format to be used is defined at call setup and may be changed at handoff, see Extended Voice Mode in TIA/EIA-136-123.
If the MS support AMR on half-rate, it shall support the following interleaving format:
Table 10.

Interleaving Format for Half-rate

Formatnumber

Description

1
(mandatory)

2slotinterleavingfortheuplink
3slotinterleavingforthedownlink

28

TIA/EIA-136-440

7.4

Subjective Ordering
The first step in the error correction process is to sort the speech codec bits into
subjective sensitivity order, so that the most sensitive bits are placed first in the
subjectively sorted vector and the least sensitive bits are placed last in the subjectively
sorted vector. See the following GSM specifications, see Section 1.1:
GSM05.03,version7.1.1
Tables714

Channelcoding

The subjective ordering is defined in the above referenced document and is identical for
both uplink, downlink, full-rate and half-rate. The sorting procedure produces the block
S(0)...S(N-1), where N is the number of bits produced by the speech encoder for each
mode as shown in the table below:
Table 11.

Speech Encoder Frame Size for Each Mode


Mode

Numberofbitsineachframe
(N)

MR122

244

MR102

204

MR795

159

MR74

148

MR67

134

MR59

118

MR515

103

MR475

95

.
The ordering algorithm is in pseudo code as:
Fork=0toN1
S(k):=input_data(table(k)+1);

where input data is the speech encoded bits produced by the speech encoder in the order
described in GSM 06.90, and table(k) is read line by line left to right.
Note that input_data is a vector from 1N, while the sorting table has values from
0N-1.

7.5

Channel Coding Mobile Station


An overview of the full-rate and half-rate uplink channel encoding is given in Figure 3.
and Figure 4..

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TIA/EIA-136-440

Figure 3.

Speech
frame
95..244
bits

Subjective
ordering
In:
95..244 bits
Out:
95..244 bits

class 1a

Overview of the Full-rate Uplink Channel Encoding

CRC
7 bits

Convolutional
code
In:
102..191 bits
Out:
360..501 bits

class 1b

Puncturing and
mapping to
symbols
In:
406..521 bits
Out:
124 symbols

class 2
Inband
data
2 bits

Symbol
interleaving
In:
124 symbols
Out:
124 symbols

Block code
In: 2 bits
Out: 16 bits

Figure 4.

2 Speech
frame
190..318
bits

Subjective
ordering
In:
190..318
bits
Out:
190..318
bits

class 1a

Overview of the Half-rate Uplink Channel Encoding

CRC
7+7
bits

class 1b

class 2
Inband
data
4 bits

Convolutional
code
In:
180..218 bits
Out:
370..446 bits

Puncturing and
mapping to
symbols
In:
410..560 bits
Out:
129 symbols
(some bits
unused)

Symbol
interleaving
In:
129 symbols
Out:
129 symbols

Block code
In: 2+2 bits
Out: 8+8 bits

7.5.1 Speech Data Classes


The second step in the error correction process is the separation of the N-bit speech codec
frames information into class 1 bits and class 2 bits (if applicable). The class 1 bits are
further divided into class 1a and class 1b bits. The following bit classifications are used:

30

TIA/EIA-136-440

Table 12.

Bit Classification for Full-rate Uplink

Mode

Numberof
bitsclass1
(N1)

Numberof
bitsclass1a
(N1A)

Numberof
bitsclass1b
(N1B)

Numberof
bitsclass2
(N2)

MR122

184

81

103

60

MR102

168

65

103

36

MR795

155

70

85

MR74

148

55

93

MR67

134

55

79

MR59

118

55

63

MR515

103

45

58

MR475

95

40

55

Table 13.

Bit Classification for Half-rate Uplink

Mode

Numberof
bitsclass1
(N1)

Numberof
bitsclass1a
(N1A)

Numberof
bitsclass1b
(N1B)

Numberof
bitsclass2
(N2)

MR795

98

74

24

61

MR74

96

55

41

52

MR67

102

55

47

32

MR59

98

55

43

20

MR515

83

45

38

20

MR475

83

40

43

12

The class 1a bits are the first bits in the subjectively sorted vector. Then comes the class
1b bits. The class 2 bits are the last bits in the subjectively sorted vector.

7.5.2 Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC)


The 7 bit CRC is calculated over the first N 1A bits of the bits received from the subjective
sorting, S(0)..S(N-1). The 7 parity bits are generated by the cyclic generator polynomial
(identical to TIA/EIA-136-410):

g(X ) 1 X X 2 X 4 X 5 X 7
from the first N1A bits of class 1, where N 1A refers to number of bits in protection class 1a
as shown above for each codec mode. The encoding of the cyclic code is performed in a
systematic form, which means that, in GF(2), the polynomial:

S (0) X ( N1 A 6 ) S (1) X ( N1 A 5) ... S ( N 1 A 1) X 7 P (0) X 6 ... P(5) X P (6)


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TIA/EIA-136-440

where P (0, P (1),..., P (6) are the parity bits, when divided by g ( X ) , yields a
remainder equal to 0.

7.5.3 Convolutional Encoding


Before convolutional encoding, a new block of data, U, is created as shown in the
following manner:
For full-rate uplink: The first N1A bits in U are copied from the first N 1A bits of S. The
following 7 bits in U are the parity bits from the CRC calculation (P(0)P(6)). Finally,
the last N1B bits are copied from S to U. This means that the number of bits in U is N 1+7,
where 7 comes from the 7 CRC bits. A more formal description:

32