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Engineering Encyclopedia

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards

PIPING SYSTEMS

Note: The source of the technical material in this volume is the Professional
Engineering Development Program (PEDP) of Engineering Services.
Warning: The material contained in this document was developed for Saudi
Aramco and is intended for the exclusive use of Saudi Aramcos employees.
Any material contained in this document which is not already in the public
domain may not be copied, reproduced, sold, given, or disclosed to third
parties, or otherwise used in whole, or in part, without the written permission
of the Vice President, Engineering Services, Saudi Aramco.

Chapter : Civil and Structural


File Reference: CSE-110.03

For additional information on this subject, contact


PEDD Coordinator on 874-6556

Engineering Encyclopedia

Analysis and Design of Tanks, Vessels and Piping


Piping Systems

MODULE COMPONENT

PAGE

INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................. 6
TYPES, COMPONENTS, AND USES OF PIPING SYSTEMS........................................ 7
Background .......................................................................................................... 7
Plant Piping .......................................................................................................... 7
Components .............................................................................................. 7
Uses........................................................................................................... 9
Cross-Country Pipelines ....................................................................................... 9
Components ............................................................................................ 10
Uses......................................................................................................... 10
Underground Pipelines ............................................................................ 10
Aboveground Pipelines ............................................................................ 11
Submarine Pipelines ................................................................................ 12
APPLICABLE CODES AND STANDARDS FOR PIPING SYSTEMS AND
THEIR COMPONENTS................................................................................................. 14
Industry Standards for Piping Systems and Their Components ......................... 14
ANSI/ASME B31.3, Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery
Piping....................................................................................................... 14
ANSI/ASME B31.4, Liquid Transportation Systems for
Hydrocarbons, Liquid Petroleum Gas, Anhydrous Ammonia, and
Alcohols ................................................................................................... 15
ANSI/ASME B31.8, Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping ............... 16
ANSI and API Standards and Publications .............................................. 16
Saudi Aramco Standards for Piping Systems and Their Components................ 17
SAES-A-004, Pressure Testing ............................................................... 17
SAES-A-005, Safety Instruction Sheet..................................................... 18
SAES-H-002, Internal and External Coatings for Steel Pipelines
and Piping................................................................................................ 18
SAES-L-001, Basic Criteria for Pressure Piping Systems........................ 18
SAES-L-002, Design Conditions for Pressure Piping............................... 19
SAES-L-003, Design Stress Criteria for Pressure Piping......................... 19
SAES-L-004, Pressure Design of Piping Components ............................ 19
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Piping Systems

SAES-L-005, Limitations on Piping Components..................................... 19


SAES-L-006, Metallic Pipe Selection ....................................................... 20
SAES-L-007, Selection of Metallic Pipe Fittings ...................................... 20
SAES-L-008, Selection of Valves ............................................................ 20
SAES-L-009, Metallic Flanges, Gaskets, and Bolts ................................. 20
SAES-L-010, Limitations on Piping Joints................................................ 21
SAES-L-011, Flexibility, Support, and Anchoring of Piping...................... 21
SAES-L-012, Design of Piping Systems Inside Plant Areas .................... 21
SAES-L-032, Materials Selection for Piping Systems .............................. 21
SAES-L-033, Corrosion Protection Requirements for
Pipelines/Piping ....................................................................................... 21
SAES-L-041, Utility Piping Connections to Process Equipment............... 22
SAES-L-044, Anchors for Cross-Country Pipelines ................................. 22
SAES-L-045, Scraper Trap Station Piping and Appurtenances ............... 22
SAES-L-046, Pipeline Crossings Under Roads and Railroads ................ 22
SAES-L-050, Construction Requirements for Metallic Plant
Piping....................................................................................................... 23
SAES-L-051, Construction Requirements for Cross-Country
Pipelines .................................................................................................. 23
SAES-L-052, Hot Tap Connections ......................................................... 23
SAES-L-055, Inspection of Piping Systems ............................................. 23
SAES-L-060, Nonmetallic Piping ............................................................. 23
Saudi Aramco Design Practices ......................................................................... 23
SADP-L-001, Basic Criteria for Pressure Piping Systems ....................... 24
SADP-L-002, Design Conditions for Pressure Piping .............................. 24
SADP-L-003, Design Stress Criteria for Pressure Piping......................... 24
SADP-L-004, Pressure Design of Piping Components ............................ 24
SADP-L-011, Flexibility, Support, and Anchoring of Piping...................... 24
SADP-L-012, Design of Piping Systems Inside Plant Areas .................... 24
SADP-L-014, Design of Pump and Compressor Station Piping ............... 24
SADP-L-020, Transportation Piping Systems .......................................... 24
SADP-L-021, Design of Submarine Pipelines and Risers........................ 25
SADP-L-022, Design of Well Flowlines and Trunklines ........................... 25
SADP-L-044, Anchors for Cross-Country Pipelines ................................. 25
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Piping Systems

SADP-L-046, Pipeline Crossings Under Roads and Railroads ................ 25


SADP-L-050, Construction Requirements for Metallic Plant
Piping....................................................................................................... 25
SADP-L-051, Construction Requirements for Cross-Country
Pipelines .................................................................................................. 25
MAJOR CONSIDERATIONS FOR DESIGN OF PIPING SYSTEMS AND
THEIR EFFECT ON PIPE SUPPORT LOADING.......................................................... 26
Background ........................................................................................................ 26
Supports .................................................................................................. 26
Restraints................................................................................................. 26
Major Considerations for Layout of Piping Systems ........................................... 27
Operations Requirements ........................................................................ 27
Maintenance Requirements ..................................................................... 29
Safety Requirements ............................................................................... 29
Major Considerations for Detailed Design of Piping Systems............................. 31
Material Selection .................................................................................... 31
Allowable Stress ...................................................................................... 32
Flexibility .................................................................................................. 33
Equipment Tie-In ..................................................................................... 33
Weight Stress .......................................................................................... 34
Deflection Tolerance ................................................................................ 34
Other Support Considerations ................................................................. 35
Effect on Support and Restraint Loading............................................................ 35
Weight...................................................................................................... 36
Effect of Restraints on Movement............................................................ 36
CALCULATING SELECTED CIVIL/MECHANICAL LOADS ON PIPING
SYSTEMS ..................................................................................................................... 39
Estimating the Wall Thickness Required for Internal Pressure ........................... 39
Dead and Live Loads.......................................................................................... 42
Hydrostatic Test Weight ..................................................................................... 44
Wind ................................................................................................................... 45
Saudi Aramco Standards ......................................................................... 45
Wind Shielding ......................................................................................... 45
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Calculation Procedure.............................................................................. 46
Friction................................................................................................................ 48
TYPES AND FUNCTIONS OF SUPPORTS AND RESTRAINTS FOR
VARIOUS PIPING SYSTEMS ....................................................................................... 49
Background ........................................................................................................ 49
Types and Functions of Supports ....................................................................... 50
Rigid Supports ......................................................................................... 50
Flexible or Resilient Supports .................................................................. 56
Stops........................................................................................................ 60
Guides ..................................................................................................... 60
Anchors.................................................................................................... 63
SUMMARY.................................................................................................................... 68
WORK AID 1: PROCEDURES AND INFORMATION FOR CALCULATING
CIVIL/MECHANICAL LOADS ON PIPING SYSTEMS .......................... 69
Work Aid 1A: Procedures and Information for Calculating Dead and
Live Load on a Support for a Straight Pipe Run........................... 69
Dead Load ............................................................................................... 69
Live Load ................................................................................................. 74
Total Static Load...................................................................................... 75
Work Aid 1B: Procedure for Calculating the Hydrostatic Test Load on
a Support for a Straight Pipe Run ................................................ 75
Work Aid 1C: Procedure and Information for Calculating Wind Load on
a Piping Support in Open Terrain ................................................ 76
Work Aid 1D: Procedure for Calculating Friction Force on a Piping
Support ........................................................................................ 78
GLOSSARY .................................................................................................................. 79

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FIGURE LIST
Figure 1. Process Plant Piping System Diagram........................................................... 8
Figure 2. Aboveground and Underground Pipelines.................................................... 11
Figure 3. Submarine Pipeline ...................................................................................... 13
Figure 4. Wind on a Piping System ............................................................................. 45
Figure 5. Wind Shielding ............................................................................................. 45
Figure 6. Pipes in Pipe Support Diagram .................................................................... 46
Figure 7. Shoe Support ............................................................................................... 51
Figure 8. Saddle Support ............................................................................................ 51
Figure 9. Base Adjustable Support.............................................................................. 52
Figure 10. Dummy Support ......................................................................................... 52
Figure 11. Trunnion ..................................................................................................... 53
Figure 12. Sling-Type Pipe Hanger ............................................................................. 54
Figure 13. Pipe Hanger Suspended From Side of Structure ....................................... 55
Figure 14. Pipe Support Beam Suspended By Rods................................................... 56
Figure 15. Variable Load Support................................................................................ 57
Figure 16. Constant Load Support .............................................................................. 58
Figure 17. Stop............................................................................................................ 60
Figure 18. Channel Guide ........................................................................................... 61
Figure 19. Sleeve Guide.............................................................................................. 61
Figure 20. Box-In Guide .............................................................................................. 62
Figure 21. Vertical Box-In Guide on Side of Vessel..................................................... 62
Figure 22. Anchor........................................................................................................ 63
Figure 23. Anchor........................................................................................................ 64
Figure 24. Anchor........................................................................................................ 65
Figure 25. Concrete Block Anchors............................................................................ 66
Figure 31. Commercial Wrought Steel Pipe Data........................................................ 69
Figure 32. Height and Gust Factors ............................................................................ 77
Figure 33. Coefficients of Friction................................................................................ 78

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Analysis and Design of Tanks, Vessels and Piping


Piping Systems

INTRODUCTION
CSE 110.03, Piping Systems, provides civil and mechanical
engineers with an overview of the civil/mechanical engineering
aspects that govern the analysis and design of piping systems.
The module identifies the various types of piping systems, their
components, their uses, and the applicable codes and
standards that are used in their design, fabrication, inspection,
installation, and testing. This module also identifies the major
considerations for the design of piping systems and the impact
of design on pipe support loading. CSE 110.03 demonstrates
how selected loads that are imposed on piping systems are
calculated. In addition, the module identifies the types and
functions of supports and restraints for piping systems.

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Analysis and Design of Tanks, Vessels and Piping


Piping Systems

TYPES, COMPONENTS, AND USES OF PIPING SYSTEMS


Background
Fluids are substances that conform to the outline of their
containers. Gases and liquids are fluids. The function of piping
systems is to safely contain and convey fluids from one location
to another.
This section discusses the primary components and uses of the
following general types of piping systems:

Plant piping

Cross-country pipelines

Plant Piping
Plant piping is used within the boundaries of a process plant,
such as a petroleum refinery or chemical plant.
Components
Figure 1 illustrates a typical process plant piping arrangement.
The following components are commonly required in plant
piping systems:

Connections for sampling and monitoring.

Fittings to establish pipe layout geometry.

Flanged connections to plant equipment to facilitate


maintenance.

Guides and restraints.

Pipe, typically 600 mm (24 in.) and less in diameter.

Steam traps to remove condensate from steam


piping.

Supports.

Valves to control process conditions or flow, isolate


equipment, and separate process streams.

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Horizontal drum

Vertical drum

H80
. SC
n
i
10
A

R
HE-B

H40
. SC
n
i
8

HE-A

where:
R

= Rigid support

= Spring support
= Thermal expansion at equipment nozzles

HE = Heat exchanger
A

= 10" x 8" concentric reducer

Figure 1. Process Plant Piping System Diagram

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Uses
Plant piping transports liquids or gases from one item of plant
equipment to another, or between plots within one plant area.
Plant equipment consists of items such as the following:

Compressors

Furnaces

Heat exchangers

Pressure vessels

Pumps

Storage tanks

Cross-Country Pipelines
Cross-country pipelines are used outside the boundaries of
process plants, and convey liquid petroleum, petroleum
products, liquid-gas mixtures, or natural gas. Depending on the
application, these pipelines connect one or more of the
following:

Wellhead

GOSP

Pumping or compressing facilities

Oil termination and shipping facilities

Refineries and chemical plants

Temporary storage facilities

Gas treating

Gas metering and regulation

Gas mains

Gas service to end users

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Components
The types of components that are required for cross-country
pipelines are generally the same components required for plant
piping. The size of pipe for cross-country pipelines is usually
(but not always) larger than the size used in plant piping; that is,
diameters 750 mm (30 in.) and greater in most cases. Crosscountry pipelines are also much longer than plant piping and
can run for many miles. Cross-country pipelines require the
following components that are in addition to the components
usually found in plant piping:

Scraper launcher and receiver equipment at pump


or compressor stations.

Pressure relief systems at pump or compressor


stations.

Uses
Cross-country pipelines transport liquids, gases, or liquid-gas
mixtures between the facilities previously cited. These pipelines
provide a convenient method of transferring material from one
facility to another and from the source of crude oil or gas to the
final delivery terminals or end users.
This section discusses the following general types of crosscountry pipelines:

Underground

Aboveground

Submarine

Underground Pipelines
The most common type of cross-country pipeline is buried
underground. A cross-country pipeline is normally buried
because it is:

Usually the least expensive form of construction.

Safer than aboveground construction.

Underground pipelines are buried by digging a trench, leveling


the trench bottom, installing appropriate bedding material to
provide uniform support, placing the pipe in the trench, and
filling the trench back in. Sufficient cover must be used over the
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pipe to restrain the line and protect it from external loads.


Figure 2 illustrates a section of underground and aboveground
cross-country pipeline. Note that underground pipelines are
often located inside steel casings where they cross under roads
or railroads. The casing provides additional protection from the
concentrated loads that exist at these crossings.
Edge of road pavement
or railroad bed
Traffic barrier

Edge of road berm


Warning sign

Edge of
berm

Valve

Mound

Pipe support
(typical)

Casing

Vent

Support
(typical)

Figure 2. Aboveground and Underground Pipelines


Aboveground Pipelines
Aboveground pipelines are cross-country pipelines that are
constructed above the surface of the ground. Aboveground
pipelines are used when a buried pipeline is not practical. The
primary reasons for the use of aboveground pipelines include
terrain features, such as solid rock, that make underground
piping expensive or impossible to construct. It is not unusual to
use sections of aboveground pipeline in an otherwise buried
system to avoid local terrain features. Aboveground pipelines
are supported by support structures and associated
foundations, similar to plant piping. An aboveground pipeline
with its associated supports and foundations is usually more
expensive than digging and filling trenches for an underground
pipeline. Differential thermal expansion is a more significant
design issue for aboveground pipelines than for underground
pipelines because of the former's direct exposure to the sun.

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Aboveground pipelines may either be restrained or


unrestrained. A restrained pipeline has anchors or restraints
installed to restrict its thermal expansion movements and limit
the loads that are imposed on any above-to-belowground
transition points. An unrestrained pipeline does not have
anchors installed; therefore the pipe is theoretically free to
expand or contract due to changes in its metal temperature.
Most aboveground pipelines are designed as restrained
systems, since the free thermal movements can result in
excessive loads being imposed on any above-to-belowground
transitions. It is also possible that large friction loads at support
points could prevent the free thermal movement of the pipe
when the metal temperature decreases. Subsequent
temperature increases would then start the pipe thermal
movement from this already displaced position. In extreme
cases, this could eventually cause the pipe to move off its
supports. The anchors that are used in restrained piping
systems, and their associated foundations, must be designed
for the anticipated loads that are caused by pipe thermal
expansion/contraction and friction.
Submarine Pipelines
Submarine pipelines are cross-country pipelines that deliver oil
or gas that is produced offshore. They are submerged in water,
rest on the marine bottom, or are trenched and buried in the sea
bed. To counteract buoyancy, submarine pipelines may be
coated with concrete. Figure 3 illustrates a submarine pipeline.

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Production platform

Anchor

Sea level
Grade
Riser

Anchor
Sea bed

Figure 3. Submarine Pipeline

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APPLICABLE CODES AND STANDARDS FOR PIPING SYSTEMS AND THEIR


COMPONENTS
Industry Standards for Piping Systems and Their Components
This section summarizes the scope of the following codes and
standards that apply to Saudi Aramco piping systems and
components:

ANSI/ASME codes
ANSI/ASME B31, Code for Pressure Piping
+

ANSI/ASME B31.3, Chemical Plant and Petroleum


Refinery Piping

ANSI/ASME B31.4, Liquid Transportation Systems


for Hydrocarbons, Liquid Petroleum Gas, Anhydrous
Ammonia, and Alcohols

ANSI/ASME B31.8,
Distribution Piping

Gas

Transmission

and

ANSI and API standards and publications

ANSI/ASME B31.3, Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping


ANSI/ASME B31.3 establishes requirements for the safe
design, construction, inspection, and testing of chemical plant
and petroleum refinery piping. This code applies to all piping
within the property limits of facilities that process or handle
chemical, petroleum, or related products. It applies to piping for
all fluids, including the following:

Gas, steam, air, and water

Fluidized solids

Petroleum products

Raw, intermediate, and finished chemicals

Refrigerants

ANSI/ASME Code B31.3 excludes systems that operate above


0 but below 103 kPa (15 psig) (within specified service and
temperature restrictions), piping within a fired heater enclosure,
process equipment (for example, pressure vessels, heat
exchangers, etc.), and other specified items.
Piping
components that are included in this code are pipe, fittings,
valves, flanges, gaskets, and bolting.

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ANSI/ASME B31.4, Liquid Transportation Systems for Hydrocarbons, Liquid


Petroleum Gas, Anhydrous Ammonia, and Alcohols
ANSI/ASME B31.4 establishes requirements for the safe
design, construction, inspection, testing, operation, and
maintenance of piping that transports the following liquids:

Condensate

Crude oil

Liquid alcohol

Liquid anhydrous ammonia

Liquefied petroleum gas

Liquid petroleum products

Natural gas liquids

Natural gasoline

Piping components that are covered in this code include the


following:

Pipe

Flanges

Bolting

Gaskets

Valves

Relief devices

Fittings

Pressure-containing
components

parts

of

other

piping

This code excludes systems that operate at or below 103


kPa (15 psig), below -29C (-20F), or above 121C (250F);
auxiliary piping systems for specified services; equipment items;
and other specified components and systems.

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ANSI/ASME B31.8, Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping


ANSI/ASME B31.8 establishes requirements for the safe
design, construction, inspection, testing, operation, and
maintenance of gas transmission and distribution piping.
This code applies to:

Gas transmission and distribution systems,


including gas pipelines, gas compressor stations,
gas metering and regulation stations, gas mains, and
service lines up to the outlet of the customers meter
set assembly.

Gas storage equipment of the closed-pipe type,


fabricated or forged from the pipe or fabricated
from the pipe fittings, and gas storage lines.

Pipe, valves, fittings, flanges, bolting, gaskets,


regulators, pressure vessels, pulsation dampers, and
relief valves.

ANSI/ASME B31.8 excludes systems operating at or below 29C (-20F) or above 232C (450F), equipment items, piping
beyond the customers meter set, and other specified
components and systems.
ANSI and API Standards and Publications
The industry codes that are noted above, and the Saudi Aramco
standards and specifications that will be discussed later, include
references to ANSI, API, and other industry standards and
publications. By reference, these publications become integral
parts of the industry and Saudi Aramco design standards.
These publications provide additional detailed requirements for
specific piping system components, such as valves and flanges,
and for particular piping system applications, such as offshore
production platform piping or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)
installations. These ANSI and API standards are not discussed
since they provide detailed information that is beyond the scope
of this course. Participants are referred to the ANSI/ASME B31
Codes and relevant Saudi Aramco standards and specifications
as necessary for additional information.

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Saudi Aramco Standards for Piping Systems and Their Components


The L series of the Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards
(SAES's) is the primary group of standards that specify
additional Saudi Aramco engineering requirements for piping
systems that are within the scope of the ANSI/ASME B31
Codes. These SAES's also include other pressure piping
services that are excluded from the Code. SAES-L-000, Piping
Standard Forward and Index, provides an index that identifies
the content of each standard in the series.
The Saudi Aramco engineer should refer to SAES-L-000 to
identify the applicable standards as required during his work.
Saudi Aramco engineering standards from other groups (for
example, the A, B, H, J, and N series) are referred to from within
these standards, as required for particular piping systems
and/or applications.
Saudi Aramco Material Systems Specifications (SAMSS's)
provide detailed design, fabrication, inspection and testing
requirements for particular piping system components, such as
valves, fabricated carbon steel pipe, or pipe in wet, sour service.
The SAMSS's are primarily purchase type documents that are
included in the purchase order for an item to further specify its
technical requirements. They are not discussed in this course,
and the Participants are referred to the Saudi Aramco Material
System Specifications Manual as required for information.
The following material highlights several of the SAES's that are
relevant to piping system design.
SAES-A-004, Pressure Testing
SAES-A-004 provides the general principles that apply to
pressure testing of plant equipment and plant piping. This
standard applies to newly installed and existing equipment and
piping.
The standard specifies that a pressure test be
performed as follows:

Before the equipment or piping is placed into


service.

After repairs or alterations that affect the strength of


the equipment.

At scheduled intervals.

Whenever considered necessary or advisable by the


responsible manager.

This standard provides conditions, limits, and exceptions for


pressure testing.
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SAES-A-005, Safety Instruction Sheet


SAES-A-005 outlines the procedure for preparing Safety
Instruction Sheets (SIS's) for new plants, for additions to
existing plants, and for re-rating existing equipment. SIS's
provide information in a consistent format on safe operating
limits, protection devices, and special safety precautions. This
information is primarily used by operations, maintenance, and
inspection personnel. Critical plant piping and cross-country
pipelines must have SIS's.
SAES-H-002, Internal and External Coatings for Steel Pipelines and Piping
SAES-H-002 provides the mandatory internal and external
coating selection and installation requirements for steel
pipelines and piping, including the associated fittings and
appurtenances.
SAES-L-001, Basic Criteria for Pressure Piping Systems
SAES-L-001 provides the scope and definitions of terms that
apply to the SAES's that concern piping. This standard specifies
the minimum basic requirements for pressure piping systems.
The SAES's on piping, in general, adopt the latest edition of the
relevant ANSI/ASME B31 Code as the primary minimum
requirement for all pressure piping systems and then
supplement this code as required. SAES-L-001 (and therefore
ANSI/ASME B31) applies to pressure piping in plants, Saudi
Aramco camps, and cross-country and offshore pipelines, with
the following exceptions:

Piping systems built before the date of approval.

Sanitary and other gravity sewers in which the static


head does not exceed 103 kPa (15 psig).

Plumbing, as defined in the Saudi Aramco


Plumbing Code.

Stacks, flues, vents, and ducts.

Tubes, tube fittings, and headers for boilers, heat


exchangers, and furnaces.

Piping that is inside fluid handling or processing


equipment.

Casing, tubing, and wellhead valve assemblies in


gas, oil, or water wells.

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SAES-L-002, Design Conditions for Pressure Piping


SAES-L-002 defines the design conditions for plant piping and
pipeline services. Among its requirements and exclusions are
the following:

Exposed piping systems are to be designed for a 35


m/s (78 mph) fastest wind speed. Where applicable,
the effects of wind-induced vibration are to be
included.

Above-grade piping and pipelines that are in vapor


services and their supporting structures are to be
designed to withstand slug forces that act at
changes in pipe direction.

Seismic loads are not applicable to piping in Saudi


Aramco operating areas.

Adequate damping and/or restraint is to be


provided for piping that is subject to induced
vibration (caused by pressure-reducing valves,
rotating or reciprocating equipment, two-phase
flow, wind, and wave currents).

SAES-L-003, Design Stress Criteria for Pressure Piping


SAES-L-003 defines the design criteria for plant piping and
pipeline services.
SAES-L-004, Pressure Design of Piping Components
SAES-L-004 provides additional requirements and limitations for
the pressure design of components and branch connections in
metallic piping in plants and pipelines.
SAES-L-005, Limitations on Piping Components
SAES-L-005 covers the selection of compatible piping material
items which are used together in a specific system or service.
This standard establishes general requirements for listing in a
piping specification and related identification on Piping and
Instrument Diagrams (P&IDs) and other drawings.

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SAES-L-006, Metallic Pipe Selection


SAES-L-006 provides limitations on the selection of metallic
pipe and tubing for pressure services in plant piping and
transportation piping. This standard limits selection of pipe and
tubing to materials, types, and sizes that are in the Saudi
Aramco Materials System (SAMS) Catalog, unless no suitable
material is listed. This standard also places other restrictions on
pipe sizes and materials based on pipe service and for
standardization purposes.
SAES-L-007, Selection of Metallic Pipe Fittings
SAES-L-007 provides limitations on the selection of metallic
pipe fittings, bends, miters, laps, and branch connections for
pressure services in plant piping and transportation piping. This
standard limits selection of pipe fittings to items in the SAMS
Catalog unless no suitable material is listed. It also places other
restrictions on fittings based on the type of pipe and the usage.
SAES-L-008, Selection of Valves
SAES-L-008 provides limitations on the selection of all valves
normally classified under SAMS Class 04. This class normally
includes angle, ball, check, diaphragm, needle, butterfly, gate,
globe, choke, and plug valves used for on-off, for manual control
service, or for prevention of reverse flow. The standard places
other restrictions on valve type selection based on use. This
standard excludes:

Control, safety-relief, relief, surge relief, solenoid,


pilot, and other valves that are classified under
SAMS Class 34.

Applications that involve flues and chimneys, as


well as air conditioning and ventilating ducts.

Drilling and wellhead valves and chokes that are


classified under SAMS Class 45.

SAES-L-009, Metallic Flanges, Gaskets, and Bolts


SAES-L-009 provides limitations on the selection of metallic
pipe flanges, gaskets, and bolting for pressure services in plant
piping and transportation piping.

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SAES-L-010, Limitations on Piping Joints


SAES-L-010 provides limitations on the type of joints that are
used in metallic piping for pressure services in plants and
pipelines. The joint types that are included are welded, flanged,
expanded, threaded, and tubing joints.
SAES-L-011, Flexibility, Support, and Anchoring of Piping
SAES-L-011 provides the design requirements that are related
to the flexibility and the full or partial restraint, supporting, and
anchoring of plant piping and transportation piping, when the
piping is metal or lined metal.
SAES-L-012, Design of Piping Systems Inside Plant Areas
SAES-L-012 provides the general design requirements for
pressure piping that is located within plant areas. Further
requirements related to specific plant piping systems are
covered by separate SAES's in the series SAES-L-013 through
SAES-L-029. These SAES's include the following:

SAES-L-014, Design of Pump and Compressor Station


Piping

SAES-L-015, Design of Piping on Offshore Structures

SAES-L-020, Design of Transportation Piping Systems

SAES-L-021, Design of Submarine Pipelines and Risers

SAES-L-022, Design of Well Flowlines and Trunklines

SAES-L-032, Materials Selection for Piping Systems


SAES-L-032 provides guidelines for selection of the basic
construction materials used for piping systems. These
guidelines depend on the fluid to be transported and the fluid's
temperature.
SAES-L-033, Corrosion Protection Requirements for Pipelines/Piping
SAES-L-033 provides the minimum corrosion control measures
for carbon steel pipelines and piping in the following
applications:

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Cross-country
and
hydrocarbon service.

offshore

pipelines

in

Critical water service lines in all locations, including


plants, industrial areas and communities, and crosscountry and offshore pipelines.

Piping in plant areas.

SAES-L-041, Utility Piping Connections to Process Equipment


SAES-L-041 provides limitations applicable to the piping that
connects a supply of steam, water, air, nitrogen, or other inert
gas to process equipment in hazardous services. This standard
covers connections for purging or cleaning when the process
equipment is not in operation.
This standard excludes
connections to open furnaces or fire boxes and to process
equipment where the process flow and utility flow remain
physically separated.
SAES-L-044, Anchors for Cross-Country Pipelines
SAES-L-044 provides the design requirements for anchors that
are used on cross-country pipelines. The standard includes the
design bases for calculating the resisting force of concrete
anchors (on the basis of bearing and soil friction loads) and
attachment requirements between the anchor and pipe.
SAES-L-045, Scraper Trap Station Piping and Appurtenances
SAES-L-045 provides minimum requirements for the design of
piping and appurtenances for permanent pipeline scraper
launching and receiving stations.
SAES-L-046, Pipeline Crossings Under Roads and Railroads
SAES-L-046 provides the requirements that govern pipeline
crossings under roads, parking lots, railroads, and airport
runways within Saudi Aramco jurisdiction. It also applies to
pipelines in any service within plant and residential areas as well
as sewers and culverts of flexible materials. The standard
defines traffic load classifications used to establish applicable
external loads and specifies when the pipeline must be enclosed
in a steel casing for protection from external loads.

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SAES-L-050, Construction Requirements for Metallic Plant Piping


SAES-L-050 specifies fabrication and installation requirements
for plant piping systems within the scope of ANSI/ASME B31.3.
This standard applies to metallic plant piping, piping assemblies
such as jumpovers for cross-country pipelines, and piping on
offshore platforms.
SAES-L-051, Construction Requirements for Cross-Country Pipelines
SAES-L-051 provides the construction requirements for steel
cross-country pipelines, aboveground or buried, restrained or
unrestrained, in all services. The standard does not apply to
offshore pipelines and nonmetallic pipelines.
SAES-L-052, Hot Tap Connections
SAES-L-052 provides the requirements for piping connections
that are made to existing pipelines, tanks, and pressure vessels
by hot tapping, (i.e., by installation while the pipe or equipment
is in service).
SAES-L-055, Inspection of Piping Systems
SAES-L-055 provides the basic, code-related requirements for
examination, inspection, and testing of all pressure piping
systems and related work before or during the commissioning
for initial operation.
SAES-L-060, Nonmetallic Piping
SAES-L-060 provides the requirements and limitations for the
design, installation, and testing of nonmetallic piping in all areas
except plumbing.
Saudi Aramco Design Practices
Saudi Aramco Design Practices (SADP's) supplement the
corresponding Saudi Aramco Engineering Standard (SAES's) by
providing additional information on the background and use of
specific SAES's. The following paragraphs overview specific
SADP's that are of most interest to civil and mechanical
engineers.

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SADP-L-001, Basic Criteria for Pressure Piping Systems


SADP-L-001 provides background information on the basic
requirements for pressure piping systems. The design practice
also defines terms that are applicable to the SAES-L series of
standards.
SADP-L-002, Design Conditions for Pressure Piping
SADP-L-002 provides background information on design
conditions for pressure piping.
SADP-L-003, Design Stress Criteria for Pressure Piping
SADP-L-003 provides background information on design stress
criteria for plant piping and transportation piping.
SADP-L-004, Pressure Design of Piping Components
SADP-L-004 provides background information on the pressure
design of piping components.
SADP-L-011, Flexibility, Support, and Anchoring of Piping
SADP-L-011 provides background information that is related to
the flexibility and the full or partial restraint of piping and the
requirements for supporting and anchoring.
SADP-L-012, Design of Piping Systems Inside Plant Areas
SADP-L-012 provides general design considerations that relate
to pressure piping inside plant areas. The design practice
addresses items such as general layout, aboveground versus
underground installation, and general system requirements.
SADP-L-014, Design of Pump and Compressor Station Piping
SADP-L-014 provides guidelines for the design of piping in
pump and compressor stations.
SADP-L-020, Transportation Piping Systems
SADP-L-020 provides background information on the design
requirements that generally apply to cross-country and offshore
transportation piping systems.
The design practice also
provides specific requirements such as material selection,
fabrication, testing, and limitations on components for certain
services.
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SADP-L-021, Design of Submarine Pipelines and Risers


SADP-L-021 is a reference to the latest revision of SAER-1337,
Submarine Pipeline Project Guidelines. This design practice
and SAER-1337 provide background information for SAES-L021.
SADP-L-022, Design of Well Flowlines and Trunklines
SADP-L-022 provides background information on the design
requirements for oil pipelines that are in flowline service.
SADP-L-044, Anchors for Cross-Country Pipelines
SADP-L-044 provides background information on the design of
concrete and steel anchors for buried or aboveground
restrained cross-country pipelines.
SADP-L-046, Pipeline Crossings Under Roads and Railroads
SADP-L-046 provides background information on pipeline
crossings under roads, parking lots, railroads, and airport
runways within Saudi Aramco jurisdiction.
SADP-L-050, Construction Requirements for Metallic Plant Piping
SADP-L-050 provides background information on the fabrication
and installation requirements for metallic plant piping.
SADP-L-051, Construction Requirements for Cross-Country Pipelines
SADP-L-051 provides background information on the
construction requirements for steel cross-country pipelines.
These requirements are in addition to the requirements of
ANSI/ASME B31.4, Chapter V, Sections 434 and 435. For
services containing free gas, these requirements are also in
addition to the requirements of ANSI/ASME B31.8, Sections
841.13 through 841.27.

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MAJOR CONSIDERATIONS FOR DESIGN OF PIPING SYSTEMS AND THEIR


EFFECT ON PIPE SUPPORT LOADING
This section provides information on the factors that affect the
design of piping systems and their effect on support and
restraint loading. The factors that affect piping system design
are covered in two parts as follows:

Layout considerations
Detailed design considerations

Background
The following material is a general introduction to supports and
restraints. A later section of this module provides more
information on supports and restraints.
Supports
Pipe supports are used to support the weight of the piping
system and the contents of the system. The supports keep the
pipe elevated at a desired height above the ground. The
specific number and locations for pipe supports are determined
to ensure the following:

The pipe stress that is caused by the weight load


must be kept within allowable limits.
The pipe must not sag excessively.
Reaction loads at equipment connections must not
be excessive.

Restraints
Restraints control or limit movement of the pipe in one or more
directions. Such restraint may be required to reduce thermal
expansion reaction loads at equipment connections, or to limit
pipe vibration. Some restraints keep the pipe from moving
vertically or laterally but allow the pipe to move longitudinally.
Other restraints do not allow the pipe to move in any direction.
A support is a specialized type of restraint that prevents pipe
movement under vertical weight loading.

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Major Considerations for Layout of Piping Systems


The primary considerations that influence the layout of a piping
system are related to requirements in the following areas:

Operations

Maintenance

Safety

These considerations influence both the overall and detailed


design of the structural steel and associated foundations
needed for piping systems.
Operations Requirements
Operating and control equipment, such as valves, flanges,
instruments, sample points, drains, and vents, must be located
for easy and safe access. For example, valves must be located
so that they can be reached. This may require locating the
valve near an existing platform or adding a new platform with
appropriate ladder or stairway access.
Clearances Below Piping - There must be sufficient clearance

below the pipe to perform operations on valves and flanges,


such as removing a valve or unbolting a flange. In addition,
suspending pipe above the ground helps prevent corrosion that
may be caused by water accumulation or contact with corrosive
substances. SAES-L-011 requires aboveground piping to have
the following minimum clearances between the bottom of the
pipe and finished grade:

0.3m (1 ft.), in plant areas and where the grade


under the pipe is a hard surface.

0.45 m (1-1/2 ft.), outside of plant areas without


nearby unstabilized sand dunes.

0.9 m (3 ft.), in areas with moving sand dunes.

Clearances Above Piping - There must be sufficient clearance


above the pipe to perform operations on valves and flanges.
These operations include the opening and closing of valves as
well as the operation and replacement of equipment.
Clearance Around Piping - The minimum clearances between
buried pipelines at crossings and pipe, flanges, or valves and
any structure that is not used to support the piping are as
follows:

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If the length is three pipe diameters or less, 0.3 m (1


ft.).

If the length is greater than three pipe diameters, 0.6


m (2 ft.).

For aboveground piping and structures, sufficient to


provide reasonable access for inspection and to
avoid interference with pipe movement.

Scraper Traps - A scraper is a device that is used for internal


cleaning, gauging, inspection, or batching of a piping system.
Scraper traps are the locations for inserting and removing
scrapers. Operation personnel need enough space around the
scraper trap to remove and reinsert scrapers. SAES-L-045
specifies that the clearance between grade and the bottom of
the trap in onshore plants must be approximately 1 m (40 in.),
and that a surface drainage system must be provided. Scrapers
are primarily used in pipeline rather than plant systems.
Existing Pipeways and Supports - When practical, new piping

should use existing supports to minimize costs. As much as


possible, new piping should be located in existing pipeways.
Intersecting pipeways are located at different elevations to
facilitate access and future piping installation.
Standard
Drawing AC-036207 specifies the minimum spacing of lines that
are supported on sleepers or pipe racks.

Thermal Expansion - Sufficient clearance must be provided


between adjacent lines, and between lines and structures, to
allow for thermal expansion of the piping. The clearances
provided must also consider the thickness of fireproofing that
may be installed on nearby structures, pipe insulation, and any
projections from the pipe (for example, small-diameter
connections and flanges).
Facilitating Support and Restraint - Piping systems should be

routed to facilitate their support and restraint, to minimize cost,


and to limit additional structural and foundation requirements.
The following guidelines should be considered:

The piping system should support itself to the


extent possible to minimize the amount of
additional structural steel that is required to provide
support.

Piping with excessive flexibility may require the


addition of restraints to minimize excessive
movement and/or vibration that may be caused by

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fluid flow, wind, or earthquake. Therefore, piping


systems should be designed with only the flexibility
needed to accommodate the expected thermal
movement without causing excessive pipe stresses
or end point reaction loads. Systems should not be
overly flexible.

Piping that is prone to vibration, such as


reciprocating compressor suction and discharge
systems, should be supported independently from
other piping systems. This independent support
keeps the effects of the vibration-prone system
confined to that system and directly associated
structures. The effects are not transmitted to other
systems.

Piping that is located in structures should be routed


beneath platforms and near major structural
members, at points that permit added loading.
Routing
beneath
platforms
avoids
access
interference problems.
Routing near major
structural members minimizes the need to increase
the size of structural members or to provide
additional local reinforcement, due to increased
bending moment.

When possible, piping should be routed near


existing structural members to minimize the need
for additional structure and foundations.

Maintenance Requirements
The layout of the piping system must allow for inspection, repair,
or replacement of components with minimum difficulty. The
layout must provide adequate clearance for maintenance
equipment, such as cranes and trucks, and provide access to
the supports.
The system also must not interfere with
maintenance and possible removal of large pieces of
equipment. For example:

Heat exchanger tube bundles must be pulled out for


cleaning.

Rotating equipment requires frequent monitoring


and maintenance, and sometimes must be removed.

Safety Requirements

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The layout of the piping system must consider the safety of


personnel who may be near the pipe.
Major pieces of
equipment, particularly heat exchangers, vessels, and tanks,
must be accessible for fire-fighting equipment. Pipeways must
be routed to provide this access.

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There must be adequate space under pipeways for people to


walk and work. Typically, 2 m (7 ft.) of clearance under a
pipeway is sufficient. Firewater piping must be routed so that it
is not damaged if piping that contains hazardous fluids ruptures.
Major Considerations for Detailed Design of Piping Systems
Major considerations for the detailed design of piping systems
include the following:

Material selection
Allowable stress
Flexibility
Equipment tie-in
Deflection tolerance

Material Selection
Pipe and piping components such as flanges, fittings, and
valves are available in a wide variety of materials. These
materials include plastics, cast iron, copper, nickel, carbon steel
and high alloy materials. The first consideration in the selection
of a piping material is to determine the material's resistance to
corrosion or to other forms of chemical attack that may occur in
service. Since there are many different types of corrosion or
chemical attack mechanisms, some guidance to material
selection is required.
In many cases, the basic material selection may be based on
criteria that are contained in SAES-L-032. These criteria
consider the fluid service, temperature, and flow velocity. Table
1 in this standard lists materials for many common services that
are found in Saudi Aramco facilities. If the particular service is
not covered by SAES L-032, a corrosion/metallurgical engineer
in CSD should be consulted. Note that if the service contains
even small quantities of some chemicals such as H2S, then
additional requirements on pipe fabrication or manufacture may
be required by the SAES's or SAMSS's.
For many services, carbon steel has adequate corrosion
resistance or a nominal corrosion allowance may be used to
account for corrosion.
Corrosion allowance is additional
thickness that is added to a pipe for corrosion that takes place
during service. Carbon steel pipe and piping components are
manufactured to various ASTM and API specifications, and they
are available in various grades or strength levels.

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Steel pipe is also available in two basic varieties: seamless or


welded. In the case of piping that is less than 600 mm (24 in.)
in size, seamless pipe is often used. For larger diameter pipe,
electric resistance welded or electric fusion welded pipe may be
used.
However, it should be noted that there may be
restrictions on the use of various types of welded pipe in refinery
service.
In addition to corrosion resistance, other pipe material selection
considerations include strength at elevated temperatures,
fracture toughness at low temperatures, cost, and availability.
Allowable Stress
The loads that are imposed on a piping system due to pressure,
weight, differential thermal expansion, and other external
factors, cause stresses in the pipe and piping components. The
term "allowable stress" refers to the maximum limit that these
stresses are permitted to reach within the system design
parameters. There must also be a safety margin between the
allowable stress and the stress level that would cause a pipe
failure.
Before an allowable stress can be determined, the Code that
governs the piping system must be determined. If the piping is
in a refinery, then the piping would typically be covered by the
ANSI/ASME B31.3 piping code. In this case, the allowable
stress for ferritic materials is usually determined based on 1/3 of
the ultimate tensile strength of the material or 2/3 of the material
yield strength, whichever is greater. If the piping is crosscountry piping, then the allowable stress may be as high as
72% of the yield strength or as low as 40% of the yield strength,
depending on how close the piping system is to a populated
area.
The different piping codes also permit different allowable
stresses for longitudinal stress in the pipe, such as stress that is
due to weight effects. In the B31.3 code, the stress in the pipe
due to sustained weight loads is also limited to the above
allowables. Since the longitudinal stress in the pipe due to
pressure is equal to about 1/2 of the circumferential stress due
to pressure, approximately one half of the allowable stress may
be considered available for the support of the pipe.

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Flexibility
When a pipe or piece of equipment heats up (or cools down)
from its installation temperature, thermal expansion (or
contraction) occurs. Sufficient flexibility must exist in the piping
system to accommodate the thermal expansion or contraction of
both the piping and any attached equipment. If the piping
system does not have sufficient flexibility, thermal expansion
and contraction may cause excessive pipe stresses and/or
equipment reaction loads. In extreme cases, this can lead to
the following:

Damaged equipment

Excessive maintenance

Leaky flanges

Pipe failure

Operating problems

The flexibility of the piping system may be increased by the use


of the following:

Offsets

Bends

Expansion loops

Expansion joints (SAES-L-011 limits the use of


expansion joints.)

Spring supports instead of rigid supports

Restraints are sometimes installed to minimize thermal and


friction loads at equipment and/or to direct thermal movement
toward a more flexible portion of the system that is better able to
absorb the movement.
Equipment Tie-In
Wherever equipment connects to the pipe, the pipe must align
properly with the equipment connection, within relatively tight
tolerances. If the pipe does not align properly with the
equipment, excessive loads may be imposed on the equipment
nozzle during the process of connecting the pipe to the nozzle.
Excessive loads could cause the following problems:

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Equipment may not function correctly.


For
example, high loads can cause excessive vibration of
rotating equipment.

Excessive stress may cause component failure.

Equipment maintenance needs, such as bearing and


seal problems with rotating equipment, can be
increased.

Nozzles may be damaged or flanges may leak.

Weight Stress
Pipe weight stress is not a consideration for properly installed
underground pipelines because
the pipe is continuously
supported by the bedding. Supports for aboveground sections of
pipeline and plant piping systems must be spaced closely
enough to ensure that the pipe stress due to weight loads is
within acceptable limits (based on the relevant ANSI/ASME B31
Code requirements).
Support spacing for horizontal pipes in open areas is generally
governed by the strength of the pipe, and only enough structural
steel is added to provide the needed support. Support spacing
for pipes that are inside process plants is determined more by
the spacing of conveniently located columns, since a large
quantity of structural steel is already present for other piping
systems and equipment support structures. Spacing of pipe
racks usually provides for the weakest pipe. In some cases,
small-diameter lines can be supported off larger lines, bundled
with other small lines, or increased in diameter to be selfsupporting.
Deflection Tolerance
To avoid excessive sag, pipes need to be adequately supported.
It is possible for an excessive sag in a pipe to cause flow
problems in liquid systems due to pocketing. Excessive sag
also makes a poor visual impression even if it does not cause
any technical problems. Maximum deflection is generally limited
to about 19 mm (3/4 in.) for process plant piping and to 25 mm
(1 in.) for offsite piping and pipelines.

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Other Support Considerations


Other practical considerations also influence the location and
spacing of supports, especially within process plants. For
example:

Pipe and structural steel come in standard lengths.


For example, pipe and structural steel are
commonly available in 6 m (20 ft.) lengths. The use
of standard lengths of pipe and steel is maximized
to reduce the required number of cuts and splices.
This is one of the main reasons why the column
spacing and level elevations of pipe rack structures
look very similar worldwide.

Erection efficiency can be a consideration in locating


structural steel. For example, conveniently located
structural steel can facilitate and expedite pipe
erection by reducing personnel and heavy
equipment requirements.
The addition of
permanent structural steel solely for the purpose of
pipe erection is generally not done. However, if the
erection
needs
are
anticipated,
detailed
dimensioning and spacing of structural steel that is
required can help pipe erection with little, if any,
cost penalty.

Saudi Aramco Standard Drawing AC-036697


defines the maximum allowed spacing between
supports on unrestrained pipelines.

Effect on Support and Restraint Loading


The design requirements of the piping system determine the
location and requirements for supports and restraints. Factors
in the design that affect the support and restraint requirements
are as follows:

Pipe layout.

Pipe design conditions, especially temperature.

Location of end points and any thermal movements


to be considered.

Location of support and restraint points.

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Amount and direction of pipe movements that are


allowed at the support or restraint (if any).

Weight of the pipe to be supported, including its


contents, insulation, and lining.

Pipe vibration dampening required (if any).

Weight of other pipe components (valves, flanges,


etc.) to be supported.

Of these design factors, pipe component weight and the amount


of restraint required have the strongest effect on support and
restraint design.
Weight
Support structures and associated foundations for a piping
system must be able to support the weight of the pipe, its
contents, and all other components in the system. Such support
is particularly required during hydrostatic testing. However, if
the support structures are adequate for normal operation but are
marginal or inadequate for hydrostatic testing, temporary
support structures can be added during hydrostatic testing. In
this case, because re-hydrotesting may be required in the future
as a part of maintenance, repairs, or alterations, the design
records must indicate that hydrostatic testing requires additional
support for the pipe. Special attention should be paid to
systems that operate in vapor service, since the hydrostatic test
weight can be much higher than the operating weight. This
weight difference becomes greater as the pipe diameter
increases.
Effect of Restraints on Movement
If a pipe were allowed to move without restraint under weight,
thermal, or other imposed loads, there would be no stress in the
pipe or loads to absorb. Not allowing the pipe to move freely
results in added stresses in the pipe and loads (that is, forces
and moments) that must be absorbed by the restraint, with its
associated structure and foundation. A restraint may be
designed to prevent pipe translation and/or rotation in one or
more directions at a given location, depending on the pipe
design requirements. When the pipe is not allowed to move in a
particular direction, the support or restraint and its associated
foundation must be designed to withstand the forces that
attempt to move the pipe. These forces include those that result
from the following:
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Thermal expansion and contraction

Wind

Slug, surge, or other vibrational loads

Thermal Expansion and Contraction - Whenever a pipe is heated or

cooled, the pipe material attempts to expand or contract from its


as-installed position. When the pipe movement is prevented by
a restraint, stresses result in the pipe, and loads are imposed on
the restraint. The detailed design of the restraint attachment to
the pipe, and the steel structure and foundation that are
associated with the restraint, must be able to absorb these
loads without being overstressed themselves or experiencing
excessive deformation or movement. Since the purpose of the
restraint is to limit pipe movement, the restraint will not perform
its intended function if the structure to which it is attached
deflects excessively under the applied loads.
Wind - Exerts a force on exposed pipe and tends to deflect it,

resulting in additional pipe stresses and end-point reaction


loads. It is sometimes necessary to add additional lateral
restraints to a piping system to resist wind-induced forces and to
prevent excessive deflection. Addition of lateral restraints is
commonly done for pipe that is attached to tall, vertical towers
that are exposed to the wind. These restraints must be
designed to withstand the forces imposed by the wind without
excessive deflection.
Slug, Surge, or Other Vibrational Loads - In two-phase flow,

interaction between the liquid and vapor phases can lead to


flow-induced vibration in certain flow regimes. In slug flow,
slugs of liquid can form intermittently and travel down the pipe at
relatively high velocity. This liquid slug can cause large reaction
forces at changes in pipe direction, such as at bends and
branch intersections. In extreme cases, these forces have been
large enough to lift pipe off its supports and cause considerable
damage. It is sometimes necessary to add supplemental
restraints to a piping system in order to absorb these slug forces
and to prevent excessive pipe movements. These restraints
must be attached to structures and associated foundations that
are designed to be strong enough to absorb the slug forces
without excessive deflection.

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Hydraulic surge develops in a piping system when the steadystate fluid velocity is suddenly altered. The most common
causes of surges are rapid valve closure or opening, vapor
pocket collapse, safety valve blowdown into a liquid-filled line,
and starting or stopping a centrifugal pump. When the flow is
altered suddenly, a pressure wave moves down the pipe at the
speed of sound. Such surge pressures and resulting forces
have caused pipe to jump off its supports, damage to anchors
and restraints, and damage due to system overpressure or
vacuum. Surge is of concern only in liquid-filled systems due to
the much higher fluid density when compared to gaseous
systems. In extreme situations, as with slug flow, it may be
necessary to add restraints to the piping system to absorb these
surge loads.
Vibration loads may also be imposed by other flow-related
problems or connected machinery.
For example, steady
pressure pulsations are normal in reciprocating compressor
piping systems. The piping system must be designed so that its
mechanical natural frequency does not coincide with the forcing
pressure pulsation frequency to prevent resonant vibration.
Avoiding coincidence between the mechanical natural frequency
and the forcing frequency may require addition of supports
and/or restraints or alteration of their spacing. Again, the design
of the structural steel and foundations must be strong enough to
resist the pulsation-induced loads. Since the loads in this case
are applied at a regular frequency, the structural steel and
foundation designs must also consider the potential for fatigue
failure.
As highlighted above, addition of restraints is a common method
for control of excessive piping vibration. However, these
additional restraints also directly affect pipe thermal expansion.
Therefore, care must be taken to ensure that the addition of
restraints to solve a vibration problem does not introduce a
thermal expansion stress and/or load problem.

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CALCULATING SELECTED CIVIL/MECHANICAL LOADS ON PIPING SYSTEMS


This section
calculations:

discusses

and

demonstrates

the

following

Wall thickness required for internal pressure

Dead and live loads

Hydrostatic test weight

Wind

Friction

Estimating the Wall Thickness Required for Internal Pressure


The first step in determining the dead weight loads on a piping
system is to determine the required pipe wall thickness. In
many cases the required pipe wall thickness is determined
based on the thickness required for internal pressure, plus
allowances for corrosion and mill tolerance. In some cases
various minimum thicknesses that are indicated in SAES-L-006
must be used. The following equation can be used to estimate
the minimum wall thickness that is required for internal
pressure. For definitive work, the applicable code equation
should be used, since this equation contains slight
simplifications.
t=

PD + A
(2SE
)

(1 M.T.)
where:
t

P
D
S

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards

= Minimum thickness that is required for pressure


plus allowances for corrosion, erosion, thread,
and groove depth, as required by the applicable
code, in inches.
= Internal design pressure of the pipe at the point
under consideration, in psig.
= Outside diameter of the pipe, in inches.
= Allowable stress for the pipe material at the
design temperature considering the piping code
used for the design, in psi.
Note that in ANSI/ASME B31.1 and B31.3, "S"
denotes the material allowable stress. B31.1 and
B31.3 contain tables that specify allowable stress
as a function of material specification and design
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temperature.
In ANSI/ASME B31.4 and B31.8, the material
specified minimum yield strength must be
multiplied by factors to account for pipeline
location and temperature to arrive at an allowable
stress.
E=

Longitudinal joint efficiency of the pipe which is


based on the piping code that is used for design
and on whether the pipe is seamless or has a
welded seam. E = 1 for seamless pipe. For
welded pipe, the different codes have different
joint efficiencies that depend on the type of
welding details and inspection requirements that
are used when manufacturing the pipe. The joint
efficiency accounts for the quality of the welded
seam and will typically range from 0.8 to 1.0 for
the details that are commonly used.

A=

Sum of the mechanical allowances, in inches. A


nominal corrosion allowance of 1.5 to 3 mm
(0.0625 to 0.125 in.) is typically used for B31.3
piping to account for corrosion that occurs during
operation. However, the corrosion allowance
may also include a thread depth allowance for
small pipes or a groove depth if special fittings
are used.

M.T. = Mill Tolerance factor to account for the variations


in pipe wall thickness that is due to the
manufacturing process that was used to make the
pipe.
Note that consideration of mill tolerance varies with
the piping code that is used for design. In the
case of B31.3 piping, a 12.5% tolerance is used
for seamless pipe that is made to the ANSI/ASME
B36.10 Standard. Thus, pipe may be supplied
up to 12.5 % thinner than the
specified nominal thickness, and M.T. = .125 in
this case. In the case
of piping that is designed to the B31.4 and B31.8
Codes, mill tolerance
is not normally used and M.T. = 0.
Pipe is manufactured to standard diameters and wall
thicknesses. ANSI/ASME B36.10 and API 5L are two industry
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specifications that define standard diameters and wall


thicknesses that are manufactured worldwide. Figure 31 in
Work Aid 1 summarizes design information for standard pipe
sizes and includes standard nominal wall thicknesses (or
schedules). After the minimum required pipe wall thickness for
internal pressure is determined using the previous equation,
then the next higher standard nominal thickness is used for the
pipe. In this manner, the as-supplied pipe thickness will, after
the maximum possible mill tolerance is subtracted, will still be
sufficient for the internal pressure. Note that API 5L lists many
more nominal pipe thicknesses than ANSI/ASME B36.10 but
that all these thicknesses may not be readily available.

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Sample Problem 1 - Determine the nominal pipe wall thickness


or pipe schedule for a 12 inch NPS pipe.
Given:

The B31.3 refinery piping code is applicable

The internal design pressure is 300 psig

The actual outside diameter of a 12 inch NPS pipe is


12.75 inches

The pipe is A106 Grade B seamless pipe

A106 Grade B has an allowable stress of 14500 psi

The corrosion allowance is 0.125 inch

Solution:
t = ((300 x 12.75)/(2 x 14500 x 1.0) + 0.125)/(1 - 0.125)
t = 0.2936 inch
A review of a standard pipe wall thickness table (Figure 31 in
Work Aid 1) indicates that the next larger nominal pipe thickness
would be 0.33 inch. This corresponds to a Schedule 30 pipe.
Therefore, at least a Schedule 30 pipe should be used.
Dead and Live Loads
The design engineer must design the piping system and its
associated supports for the weight of the pipe, its contents, and
other piping components.
Work Aid 1A provides the procedure for calculating the dead
and live weight of the piping system.
Sample Problem 2: Dead and Live Loads
Calculate the dead and live loads on a piping system.
Given:
The piping system:

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards

Is made of NPS 24, Schedule 80 pipe

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Has supports every 20 ft.

Transports material with a specific gravity of 0.75

Pipe uninsulated,
components

unlined,

no

other

pipe

The pipe is uninsulated and unlined, and there are no additional


pipe components to be supported.
Solution:
The following step numbers correspond to the step numbers in
Work Aid 1A:
Dead Weight
1.

The weight of pipe is 296.36 lb./ft.

2.

LDW

[(WPPF + WILPF)DS] + WC

LDW

296.36

LDW

20

5,927 lb.

Live Load
1.

The weight of water is 158.26 lb./ft.

2.

LLL =

Wwpf GDS

LLL =

158.26

LDW

0.75

20

2,374 lb.

Total Static Load


LS =

LDW + LLL

LS =

5,927 + 2,374

LS =

8,301 lb

Answer:
The dead weight on each support is approximately 5,927 lb.
The live load on each support is approximately 2,374 lb. The
total static load on each support is approximately 8,301 lb.

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Hydrostatic Test Weight


When designing the support system for the piping, the design
engineer must consider the weight of the empty pipe and the
maximum weight of its contents. Since petroleum products are
all lighter than water, and since almost all piping systems are
hydrostatically tested, the heaviest content load occurs during
hydrostatic testing. However, if a support holds more than one
pipe, such as in a pipe rack structure, typically only one pipe at
a time undergoes hydrostatic testing. Therefore, the design
engineer designs the support and associated foundation for the
worst-case combination of one pipe undergoing hydrostatic
testing while the other pipes are under normal operating load.
Work Aid 1B provides the procedure for calculating the
hydrostatic test weight.
Sample Problem 3: Hydrostatic Test Weight
Calculate the hydrostatic test weight load on a support for the
pipe given in the Sample Problem 2: Dead and Live Loads.
Solution:
The following step numbers correspond to the step numbers in
Work Aid 1B:
1.

The dead weight is approximately 5,927 lb. as previously


calculated.

2.

LW =

Wwpf DS

Lw =

158.26

Lw

3,165 lb.

LH =

LDW + LW

LH =

5,927 + 3,165

LH =

9,092 lb.

3.

20

Answer:
The hydrostatic test weight load on a support is approximately
9,092 lb.

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Wind
If the design engineer does not properly design an aboveground
piping system with its supports and restraints, a strong wind can
cause serious damage to the piping system, supports,
restraints, and associated structure. Therefore, it is critical that
the designers of piping systems provide for possible wind
forces. Figure 4 is a diagram of wind on a piping system.

Wind

Figure 4. Wind on a Piping System


Saudi Aramco Standards

SAES-L-002 requires that the design of exposed piping systems


allow for the wind loading that corresponds to a 35 m/s (78 mph)
wind speed. When applicable, it also requires that design
engineers consider wind-induced vibration.
Wind Shielding

When multiple pipes are installed on a pipe rack, one pipe may
shield or partially shield another pipe from the wind. The
placement of a small pipe near to and on the lee side of a large
pipe may even eliminate the wind load from being imposed on
the small pipe. Figure 5 illustrates wind shielding.
Shielded area
Wind
A
D

B
X = 5D

NOTE: When X is more than 5D, no appreciable


shielding effect on pipe B occurs.

Figure 5. Wind Shielding

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Calculation Procedure

Work Aid 1C provides the procedure and information that are


needed to calculate wind forces on a pipe rack due to the pipes.
Sample Problem 4: Wind

Calculate the design wind load on the pipe in a pipe rack and
the resulting overturning moment on the pipe rack.
Given:

Figure 6 represents the pipes in the pipe rack. The pipe


supports are located 20 ft. apart. The pipes are supported 10 ft.
above the ground.

For the purpose of simplifying the calculation, this pipe layout is assumed
to be as shown below:
1.05
in.

8.625
in.

2.375
in.

16
in.

4.5
in.

Wind

12 in.
Pipe

20 in.
2

12.5 in.
3

6 in.
4

Figure 6. Pipes in Pipe Support Diagram

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Solution:

In this sample problem, the wind direction is given. In a


practical application, the calculation is made with the wind from
each side; and the worst case is used for the design load. The
following step numbers correspond to the step numbers in
Work Aid 1C:
1.

5.5D i d ji

= Dj

5.5

De 1 = 1.05
0

De 2 = 8.625 in . since 5.5 x 1.05 - 12 0


i

(5.5 8.625) 20
De 3 = 16
= 11.01 in.
2

5.5
(5.5 16) 12.5
=0
D e 4 = 2.375
3

5.5

(5.5 16) 18.5


=0
De 5 = 4.5
3

5.5

2.

DE = De
D E = 1.05 + 8.625 + 11.01 + 0 + 0
D E 20.685 in. = 1.72 ft

3.

Lwp = CsKhDsDEGqr
Lwp = 1.2 x 0.8 x 20 x 1.72 x 1.32 x 15.6
Lwp

4.

680 lb

Mwind-p = hLwp
Mwind-p = 680 x 10
Mwind-p

6,800 ft-lb

Solution:

The design wind load on the pipes in the pipe rack is


approximately 680 lb. The base shear force is approximately
680 lb. The base overturning moment from this wind load is
approximately 6,800 ft.-lb.

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Friction

As pipe expands and contracts due to heating and cooling, the


pipe applies forces to anything to which it connects to or rests
against. If design engineers do not design the pipe support
structure properly, the forces from the pipes supported by the
structure could damage the structure. For pipe racks that
support rather than actively restrain the pipe, these forces result
from friction between the structural steel supports and the pipe.
The frictional forces act opposite to the direction of pipe
movement. Unless a pipe is restrained at a support point, the
friction forces act both longitudinally and laterally. When
designing the pipe support structure for friction loads, engineers
generally assume that all the pipes expand (or contract) in the
same direction at the same time, which is the worst possible
case.
Engineers sometimes must reduce the magnitude of friction
loads in order to reduce the size of the structural steel and
foundations that are required.
These reductions are
accomplished through use of special materials with lower
coefficients of friction. A common method of reducing friction
loads between pipe and pipe rack structures is to install Teflon
bearing pads on both the pipe supports and the structural steel.
Work Aid 1D provides the procedure for calculating frictional
force.
Sample Problem 5: Friction

Calculate the friction force on a support rack from the pipe in


Sample Problem 2: Dead and Live Loads.
Given:

The pipe and pipe rack do not have any special friction-reducing
mechanisms (steel-on-steel).
Solution:

The following step numbers correspond to the step numbers in


Work Aid 1D:
LS = 8,301 lb.
Ff = CfLS
Ff = 0.4 x 8,301
Ff
3,320 lb
Answer:
1.
2.

The force due to friction on the pipe rack is approximately 3,320


lb. from this pipe.

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TYPES AND FUNCTIONS OF SUPPORTS AND RESTRAINTS FOR VARIOUS


PIPING SYSTEMS

This section discusses and illustrates various types of supports


and restraints for piping systems.
Background

A piping system needs supports and restraints to do the


following:

Permit the piping system to function under normal


operating conditions without failure of the pipe or
associated equipment.

Support piping system weight loads to:


-

Keep sustained longitudinal pipe stress within


allowable limits.

Limit pipe sag to avoid process flow problems.

Limit loads on connected equipment.

Control or direct thermal movement of the pipe to:


-

Keep pipe thermal expansion stresses within


allowable limits.

Limit loads on connected equipment.

Absorb other loads imposed on piping system to:


-

Limit loads on connected equipment.

Limit pipe deflection.

Limit resultant pipe stresses.

Selection of a particular type of support or restraint depends on


such factors as the following:

Weight load

Restraint load

Clearance available for attachment to pipe

Availability of nearby existing structural steel

Direction of loads to be absorbed or movement to


be restrained

Design temperature

Allowance required for thermal movement of pipe

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Types and Functions of Supports

The two general classes of supports are as follows:

Rigid

Flexible or resilient

Rigid Supports

Rigid supports are the more common of the two support types.
Engineers use rigid supports when weight support is needed
and no provision to permit vertical thermal expansion is
required. A rigid support does the following:

Allows lateral movement and rotation.

May or may not prevent movement up.

Prevents movement down.

Figures 7 through 11 illustrate some of the rigid support types


that are available. The rigid support that is selected for a
particular application depends primarily on the following:

Amount of load to be carried

Distance to solid attachment (structure, grade, etc.)

Point of attachment to pipe (horizontal or vertical


run, elbow, etc.)

Saudi Aramco drawing AB-036100 shows the construction


details for a large diameter pipe saddle that is bolted to a
support structure.

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Figure 7. Shoe Support

Figure 8. Saddle Support

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Figure 9. Base Adjustable Support

Figure 10. Dummy Support

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Figure 11. Trunnion

Pipe hangers are also a form of rigid support. Pipe hangers


support the pipe from structural steel or other facilities that are
located above the pipe and carry the pipe weight load in
tension.
A pipe hanger rod moves freely parallel and
perpendicular to the pipe axis; therefore, thermal expansion is
not restricted longitudinally or laterally. The rod does restrict
vertical thermal expansion. The rod also must be long enough
so that it does not restrict pipe lateral or longitudinal movement.
Figures 12 through 14 show some examples of pipe hangers.

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Figure 12. Sling-Type Pipe Hanger

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Figure 13. Pipe Hanger Suspended From Side of Structure

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Figure 14. Pipe Support Beam Suspended By Rods


Flexible or Resilient Supports

Flexible or resilient type supports carry the weight load and


allow the piping system to move in all three directions. A coil
spring that has the correct stiffness and precompression to carry
the weight load supports the weight. Because the spring is
resilient, it permits vertical movement while still carrying the
weight. The ability to move vertically allows the support to carry
the weight while permitting the pipe to expand and contract as
needed for thermal expansion. The thermal expansion may be
due to the heating of the pipe or of a vessel to which the pipe
attaches, or both. Two basic types of flexible supports are as
follows:

Variable load

Constant load

The type of flexible support selected from standard available


models is based on the following factors:

Design load

Required movement

Installation geometry

Standard models available

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Variable Load Flexible Support - The variable load flexible support
is the more common of the two types of flexible support. With
variable load supports, pipe movement stretches or compresses
the spring, changing the load that the spring exerts on the pipe.
The spring is selected to provide the correct amount of support
load to the pipe throughout the movement range. Figure 15
shows an example of a variable load support.

Load and
deflection scale

Figure 15. Variable Load Support

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Constant Load Flexible Support - With constant load flexible
supports, the load that is exerted by the support on the pipe
remains constant throughout the movement range. The use of
a
variable-length
internal-moment
arm
mechanism
accomplishes this constant load. This type of support is
required when the load variation caused by the vertical thermal
movement in a variable-load-type spring is too large to be
accommodated by the piping system, or when the thermal
movement is greater than approximately 3 in. (75 mm). Figure
16 shows an example of a constant load support.

Large change in
effective lever arm

Small change in
effective lever arm

Relatively
constant load

Figure 16. Constant Load Support

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Restraints have the following two primary purposes in a piping


system:

They control the unrestricted thermal movement of


the pipe by directing or limiting it.

Generally, a piping system is totally restrained


at its end connections to equipment.

Restraints control, limit, or redirect the thermal


movement either to reduce the thermal stress
in the pipe or to reduce the loads exerted due
to
thermal
movement
on
equipment
connections.

They absorb loads imposed on the pipe by other


conditions. Examples of these other conditions are
as follows:

Wind

Earthquake

Slug flow

Water hammer

Flow-induced vibration

Several different types of restraints may be used. The selection


of the type of restraint and its specific design details depends
primarily on the following:

Direction of pipe movement to be restrained.

Location of the restraint point.

Magnitude of the load to be absorbed.

One or more types of restraint or support may be combined at


one location, depending on the piping system design needs.
Three types of restraints are as follows:

Stops

Guides

Anchors

Note: Multiple types may be used.

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Stops

Stops are restraints that limit the movement of the pipe in the
longitudinal direction. Stops are designed to keep the pipe from
moving axially beyond a point or from moving axially at all.
Figure 17 shows an example of a stop.

Figure 17. Stop


Guides

Guides are types of supports that limit the movement of the pipe
perpendicular to the pipe axis in one or more directions while
allowing movement along the pipe axis. Pipe rotation may or
may not be restricted. Typical applications for guides are as
follows:

Long pipe runs on a pipe rack to:


-

Control thermal movement.

Prevent buckling.

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards

Straight runs down the side of towers to:


-

Prevent wind-induced movement.

Control thermal expansion.

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Figures 18 through 21 show examples of guides.

Figure 18. Channel Guide

Figure 19. Sleeve Guide

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Figure 20. Box-In Guide

Vessel

Figure 21. Vertical Box-In Guide on Side of Vessel

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Anchors

Anchors stop pipe movement in all three translational directions.


Engineers use anchors to totally isolate one section of a piping
system from another section in terms of loading and deflection.
A total anchor that eliminates all translation and rotation at one
location is not as common as one or more restraints that act at a
single location. It is difficult to design effective rotational
anchors or restraints.
Plant piping more commonly uses directional anchors that
restrain the pipes only in their translational directions. Figures
22 through 24 show examples of anchor types that are typically
used in aboveground plant piping systems.

Figure 22. Anchor

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Figure 23. Anchor

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Figure 24. Anchor

Aboveground and buried cross-country pipelines require


anchors to control pipeline movement and resulting pipe
stresses. Anchors are needed to limit movement at the ends of
the pipeline, at changes in direction or size, and at above- to
below-ground transition points. Excessive movement of a
buried pipeline can cause shifting of the soil that supports the
pipe, subsidence of the cover, or damage to the pipe's external
coating (if one is installed). In extreme cases, excessive
movement could cause pipe overstress, inadequate cover
depth, or external pipe corrosion.

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Since cross-country pipelines are typically large diameter and


much longer than plant piping systems, their anchors are
designed for much larger loads and thus use stronger design
details to be effective. Aboveground pipe anchors typically
employ local reinforcement at their attachment to the pipe, such
as sleeves and ring girders, to avoid local overstress in the pipe.
Also, the aboveground anchor structures are designed with
sufficient strength to prevent excessive deflection under the
applied loads, which would render the anchor ineffective.
Anchors for buried pipelines use local pipe reinforcement as
well. Buried pipelines are restrained by attachment to buried
concrete blocks. The concrete block anchors must be sized to
resist the applied loads considering the local terrain (for
example, soil or rock characteristics) and friction. Figure 25
illustrates typical concrete block anchors for buried pipelines.

Bearing
surface

Bearing
surface
Typical thrust block for
90 bend or elbow

Typical thrust block for


45 bend or elbow

Typical thrust block for


TEE connection

Bearing
surface

Bearing
surface
Typical thrust block
for end cap

Typical thrust block


for reducer

Source: Cited from Saudi Aramco Standard Drawing AB-036415

Figure 25. Concrete Block Anchors

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Aboveground restrained pipelines must have thrust anchors on


the ends that are designed to resist the full axial forces due to
differential thermal expansion and contraction, and internal fluid
pressure. The anchor structure must be designed to limit the
maximum pipe deflection under the applied loading to 6 mm
(0.25 in.). Differential thrust anchors are also provided on
aboveground restrained pipelines where there is a change in
thrust due to a change in pipe diameter or wall thickness, unless
the axial pipe movement is calculated to be less than 6 mm
(0.25 in.).
The potential end movements of buried pipelines must be
conservatively estimated. If these movements exceed 50 mm
(2 in.), a full thrust or drag anchor must be provided. A thrust
anchor is designed for the full axial forces that are expected at
the location. A drag anchor is not designed for the complete
thrust load
that is expected and permits some movement of the pipe. In
this case, the drag anchor installation must limit the end
movement of the pipeline to a maximum of 6 mm (0.25 in.).

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SUMMARY

This module has provided an overview of piping systems. The


Participant should be able to identify the general types of piping
systems and the codes and standards that apply to them. In
addition, the Participant should understand the effect of
additions or modifications to piping systems.
Also, the
Participant should be able to calculate some of the common
civil/mechanical loadings that are imposed on piping systems.

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WORK AID 1:

PROCEDURES AND INFORMATION FOR CALCULATING


CIVIL/MECHANICAL LOADS ON PIPING SYSTEMS

Work Aid 1A:

Procedures and Information for Calculating Dead and Live Load


on a Support for a Straight Pipe Run

Dead Load

1.

Look up the specified pipe in Figure 31 and determine the weight per foot, wppf.

NPS
(in.)

1/8

1/4

3/8

1/2

3/4

1-1/4

1-1/2

OUTSIDE
DIAMETER
(in.)

SCHEDULE
NUMBERS
(see note)

0.405

0.540

0.675

0.840

1.050

1.315

1.660

1.900

2.375

WALL
THICKNESS
(in.)

INSIDE
DIAMETER
(in.)

AREA OF
METAL
(in. 2 )

WEIGHT OF
PIPE
(lb/ft)

WEIGHT OF
WATER
(lb/ft)

40s

0.068

0.269

0.0720

0.244

0.025

80x

0.095

0.215

0.0925

0.314

0.016

40s

0.088

0.364

0.1250

0.424

0.045

80x

0.119

0.302

0.1574

0.535

0.031

40s

0.091

0.493

0.1670

0.567

0.083

80x

0.126

0.423

0.2173

0.738

0.061

40s

0.109

0.622

0.2503

0.850

0.132

80x

0.147

0.546

0.3200

1.087

0.102

160

0.187

0.466

0.3836

1.300

0.074

xx

0.294

0.252

0.5043

1.714

0.022

40s

0.113

0.824

0.3326

1.130

0.231

80x

0.154

0.742

0.4335

1.473

0.188

160

0.218

0.614

0.5698

1.940

0.128

xx

0.308

0.434

0.7180

2.440

0.064

40s

0.133

1.049

0.4939

1.678

0.375

80x

0.179

0.957

0.6388

2.171

0.312

160

0.250

0.815

0.8365

2.840

0.230

xx

0.358

0.599

1.0760

3.659

0.122

40s

0.140

1.380

0.6685

2.272

0.649

80x

0.191

1.278

0.8815

2.996

0.555

160

0.250

1.160

1.1070

3.764

0.458

xx

0.382

0.896

1.534

5.214

0.273

40s

0.145

1.610

0.7995

2.717

0.882

80x

0.200

1.500

1.068

3.631

0.765

160

0.281

1.338

1.429

4.862

0.608

xx

0.400

1.100

1.885

6.408

0.42

40s

0.154

2.067

1.075

3.652

1.45

80x

0.218

1.939

1.477

5.022

1.28

160

0.343

1.689

2.190

7.440

0.97

xx

0.436

1.503

2.656

9.029

0.77

Note:

The letters s, x, and xx in the SCHEDULE NUMBERS column indicate standard, extra
strong, and double extra strong pipe, respectively.
Source: Crane Technical Paper No. 410 - Flow of Fluids. Reprinted with permission of Crane
Valves.

SI Conversion Factors: in. = 25.4 mm, lb./ft. = 14.6 N/m

Figure 31. Commercial Wrought Steel Pipe Data

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards

69

Engineering Encyclopedia

Analysis and Design of Tanks, Vessels and Piping


Piping Systems

NPS
(in.)

OUTSIDE
DIAMETER
(in.)

2-1/2

2.875

WALL
THICKNESS
(in.)

INSIDE
DIAMETER
(in.)

AREA OF
METAL
(in. 2)

WEIGHT OF
PIPE
(lb/ft)

WEIGHT OF
WATER
(lb/ft)

40s

0.203

2.469

1.704

5.79

2.07

80x

0.276

2.323

2.254

7.66

1.87

160

0.375

2.125

2.945

10.01

1.54

xx

0.552

1.771

4.028

13.70

1.07

40s

0.216

3.068

2.228

7.58

3.20

80x

0.300

2.900

3.016

10.25

2.86

160

0.438

2.624

4.205

14.32

2.35

xx

0.600

2.300

5.466

18.58

1.80

40s

0.226

3.548

2.680

9.11

4.29

80x

0.318

3.364

3.678

12.51

3.84

40s

0.237

4.026

3.174

10.79

5.50

80x

0.337

3.826

4.407

14.98

4.98

120

0.438

3.624

5.595

19.00

4.47

160

0.531

3.438

6.621

22.51

4.02

xx

0.674

3.152

8.101

27.54

3.38

40s

0.258

5.047

4.300

14.62

8.67

80x

0.375

4.813

6.112

20.78

7.88

120

0.500

4.563

7.953

27.10

7.09

160

0.625

4.313

9.696

32.96

6.33

xx

0.750

4.063

11.340

38.55

5.61

40s

0.280

6.065

5.581

18.97

12.51

80x

0.432

5.761

8.405

28.57

11.29

120

0.562

5.501

10.70

36.40

10.30

160

0.718

5.189

13.32

45.30

9.16

xx

0.864

4.897

15.64

53.16

8.16

20

0.250

8.125

6.57

22.36

22.47

30

0.277

8.071

7.26

24.70

22.17

40s

0.322

7.981

8.40

28.55

21.70

60

0.406

7.813

10.48

35.64

20.77

80x

0.500

7.625

12.76

43.39

19.78

100

0.593

7.439

14.96

50.87

18.83

120

0.718

7.189

17.84

60.63

17.59

140

0.812

7.001

19.93

67.76

16.68

xx

0.875

6.875

21.30

72.42

16.10

160

0.906

6.813

21.97

74.69

15.80

3.500

3-1/2

SCHEDULE
NUMBERS
(see note)

4.000

4.500

5.563

6.625

8.625

Source: Crane Technical Paper No. 410 - Flow of Fluids. Reprinted with permission of Crane
Valves.

Figure 31. Commercial Wrought Steel Pipe Data, Cont'd

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards

70

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Analysis and Design of Tanks, Vessels and Piping


Piping Systems

NPS
(in.)

10

12

14

OUTSIDE
DIAMETER
(in.)

10.750

12.75

14.00

SCHEDULE
NUMBERS
(see note)

WALL
THICKNESS
(in.)

INSIDE
DIAMETER
(in.)

AREA OF
METAL
(in. 2)

WEIGHT OF
PIPE
(lb/ft)

WEIGHT OF
WATER
(lb/ft)

20

0.250

30

0.307

10.250

8.24

28.04

35.76

10.136

10.07

34.24

34.96

40s
60x

0.365

10.020

11.90

40.48

34.20

0.500

9.750

16.10

54.74

32.35

80

0.593

9.564

18.92

64.33

31.13

100

0.718

9.314

22.63

76.93

29.53

120

0.843

9.064

26.24

89.20

27.96

140

1.000

8.750

30.63

104.13

26.06

160

1.125

8.500

34.02

115.65

24.59

20

0.250

12.250

9.82

33.38

51.07

30

0.330

12.090

12.87

43.77

49.74

0.375

12.000

14.58

49.56

49.00

40

0.406

11.938

15.77

53.53

48.50

0.500

11.750

19.24

65.42

46.92

60

0.562

11.626

21.52

73.16

46.00

80

0.687

11.376

26.03

88.51

44.04

100

0.843

11.064

31.53

107.20

41.66

120

1.000

10.750

36.91

125.49

39.33

140

1.125

10.500

41.08

133.68

37.52

160

1.312

10.126

47.14

160.27

34.89

10

0.250

13.500

10.80

36.71

62.03

20

0.312

13.376

13.42

45.68

60.89

30s

0.375

13.250

16.05

54.57

59.75

40

0.438

13.124

18.66

63.37

58.64

0.500

13.000

21.21

72.09

57.46

60

0.593

12.814

24.98

84.91

55.86

80

0.750

12.500

31.22

106.13

53.18

100

0.937

12.126

38.45

130.73

50.04

120

1.093

11.814

44.32

150.67

47.45

140

1.250

11.500

50.07

170.22

45.01

160

1.406

11.188

55.63

189.12

42.60

Source: Crane Technical Paper No. 410 - Flow of Fluids. Reprinted with permission of
Crane Valves.

Figure 31. Commercial Wrought Steel Pipe Data, Cont'd

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71

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Analysis and Design of Tanks, Vessels and Piping


Piping Systems

NPS
(in.)

16

18

OUTSIDE
DIAMETER
(in.)

16.00

18.00

SCHEDULE
NUMBERS
(see note)

WALL
THICKNESS
(in.)

INSIDE
DIAMETER
(in.)

AREA OF
METAL
(in. 2 )

WEIGHT OF
PIPE
(lb/ft)

WEIGHT OF
WATER
(lb/ft)

10

0.250

15.500

12.37

42.05

81.74

20

0.312

15.376

15.38

52.36

80.50

30s

0.375

15.250

18.41

62.58

79.12

40x

0.500

15.000

24.35

82.77

76.58

60

0.656

14.688

31.62

107.50

73.42

80

0.843

14.314

40.14

136.46

69.73

100

1.031

13.938

48.48

164.83

66.12

120

1.218

13.564

56.56

192.29

62.62

140

1.438

13.124

65.78

223.64

58.64

160

1.593

12.814

72.10

245.11

55.83

10

0.250

17.500

13.94

47.39

104.21

20

0.312

17.376

17.34

59.03

102.77

0.375

17.250

20.76

70.59

101.18

30

0.438

17.124

24.17

82.06

99.84

0.500

17.000

27.49

92.45

98.27

40

0.562

16.876

30.79

104.75

96.93

60

0.750

16.500

40.64

138.17

92.57

80

0.937

16.126

50.23

170.75

88.50

100

1.156

15.688

61.17

207.96

83.76

120

1.375

15.250

71.81

244.14

79.07

140

1.562

14.876

80.66

274.23

75.32

160

1.781

14.438

90.75

308.51

70.88

Source: Crane Technical Paper No. 410 - Flow of Fluids. Reprinted with permission of
Crane Valves.

Figure 31. Commercial Wrought Steel Pipe Data, Cont'd

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards

72

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Analysis and Design of Tanks, Vessels and Piping


Piping Systems

NPS
(in.)

20

24

OUTSIDE
DIAMETER
(in.)

20.00

24.00

SCHEDULE
NUMBERS
(see note)

WALL
THICKNESS
(in.)

INSIDE
DIAMETER
(in.)

AREA OF
METAL
(in. 2 )

WEIGHT OF
PIPE
(lb/ft)

WEIGHT OF
WATER
(lb/ft)

10

0.250

19.500

15.51

52.73

129.42

20s

0.375

19.250

23.12

78.60

125.67

30x

0.500

19.000

30.63

104.13

122.87

40

0.593

18.814

36.15

122.91

120.46

60

0.812

18.376

48.95

166.40

114.92

80

1.031

17.938

61.44

208.87

109.51

100

1.281

17.438

75.33

256.10

103.39

120

1.500

17.000

87.18

296.37

98.35

140

1.750

16.500

100.33

341.10

92.66

160

1.968

16.064

111.49

379.01

87.74

10

0.250

23.500

18.65

63.41

187.95

20s

0.375

23.250

27.83

94.62

183.95

0.500

23.000

36.91

125.49

179.87

30

0.562

22.876

41.39

140.80

178.09

40

0.687

22.626

50.31

171.17

174.23

60

0.968

22.064

70.04

238.11

165.52

80

1.218

21.564

87.17

296.36

158.26

100

1.531

20.938

108.07

367.40

149.06

120

1.812

20.376

126.31

429.39

141.17

140

2.062

19.876

142.11

483.13

134.45

160

2.343

19.314

159.41

541.94

126.84

Source: Crane Technical Paper No. 410 - Flow of Fluids. Reprinted with permission of
Crane Valves.

Figure 31. Commercial Wrought Steel Pipe Data, Cont'd

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73

Engineering Encyclopedia

Analysis and Design of Tanks, Vessels and Piping


Piping Systems

2.

Using the following formula, determine the approximate dead weight from the
pipe on each support:
LDW = (( Wppf +Wilpf ) Ds )+ Wc

(Eqn. 1)

where:

LDW

= Dead weight load of the pipe on a support, N (lb.)

Wppf

= Weight of the pipe from Figure 31, N/m (lb./ft.)

Wilpf

= Weight of any installed insulation or lining, N/m (lb./ft.)

Ds

= Distance centerline-to-centerline between supports, m (ft.)

Wc

= Weight of additional pipe components, such as valves, flanges,


etc., to be carried by the support, N (lb.)

Live Load

1.

Look up the specified pipe in Figure 31 and determine the weight of water that
the pipe can hold per foot of pipe, Wwpf.

2.

Using the following formula, determine the live load from the pipe on each
support:
LLL = WwpfGDs

(Eqn. 2)

where:

LLL

= Live load on a support, N (lb.)

Wwpf

= Weight of water the pipe can hold from Figure 30, N/m (lb./ft.)

= Specific gravity of the pipe contents

Ds

= Distance centerline-to-centerline between supports, m (ft.)

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Total Static Load

Using the following formula, calculate the total static load on a support:
LS = LDW + LLL

(Eqn. 3)

where:

LS

= Static load on a support, N (lb.)

LDW

= Dead weight load of the pipe on a support, N (lb.)

LLL

= Live load on a support, N (lb.)

Work Aid 1B:

Procedure for Calculating the Hydrostatic Test Load on a Support


for a Straight Pipe Run

1.

Using the Dead Weight portion of Work Aid 1, calculate the dead weight from the
specified pipe on a support.

2.

Using the following formula, calculate the hydrostatic weight from the specified
pipe on a support:
LW = WwpfDs

(Eqn. 4)

where:

3.

LW

Load from the water that a pipe can hold, N (lb.)

Wwpf

Weight of water the pipe can hold (from Figure 31), N/m
(lb./ft.)

Ds

Distance centerline-to-centerline between supports, m (ft.)

Using the following formula, calculate the hydrostatic test load on a support:
LH

= LDW + LW

(Eqn. 5)

LH

Hydrostatic test load on a support, N (lb.)

LDW

Dead weight load from the weight of the pipe on a support, N


(lb.)

LW

where:

Load from the water that a pipe can hold, N (lb.)

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Work Aid 1C:

1.

Procedure and Information for Calculating Wind Load on a Piping


Support in Open Terrain

Determine the amount, if any, of the shielding from one pipe to another. The
pipes must have their centerlines aligned perpendicular to the prevailing wind
direction. Use the following formula:
5.5D i d ji

D e j = D j

i
5.5

(Eqn. 6)

where:
=

Effective diameter of the pipe j being shielded by pipe i, m (in.)

Dj

Actual outer diameter of the pipe j being shielded including any


insulation, m (in.)

Di

Actual outer diameter of the pipe i doing the shielding including any
insulation, m (in.)

dji

Distance between the pipes, centerline-to-centerline, m (in.)

D e j

Note: If the quantity of 5.5 Di-dji is 0, then Dej/i = Dj. If Dej/i 0, then use zero for the
effective diameter of the pipe in subsequent calculations.
2.

Using the following formula, calculate the effective total cross section exposed to
the wind from all of the pipes:
DE = De-j/i

where:
DE

(Eqn. 7)

= Effective diameter of all of the pipes in the pipe rack combined,


m (ft.)

De-j/i = Effective diameter after shielding of each of the pipes in the pipe
rack, m ( ft.)
3.

Using the following formula, calculate the wind force on the pipes in the pipe
rack:
Lwp = CsKhDsDEGqr
(Eqn. 8)

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where:

Lwp = Wind force on the pipes, N (lb.)


Cs

= Shape factor, 1.2 is typical for pipes

Kh

= Height factor from Figure 32

Ds

= Distance centerline-to-centerline between pipe supports, m (ft.)

DE = Effective diameter of all of the pipes in the rack combined,


m (ft.)
G

= Gust factor for the height of the pipes from Figure 32

qr

= Reference wind pressure at 10 m (33 ft.) above grade. qr equals


747 N/m2 in SI units and is equal to 15.6 lb./ft.2 in U.S. units.

HEIGHT ABOVE GRADE (ft)

Kh

0 to 15

0.80

1.32

20

0.87

1.29

25

0.93

1.27

30

0.98

1.20

40

1.06

1.23

50

1.13

1.21

60

1.19

1.20

70

1.24

1.19

80

1.29

1.18

90

1.34

1.17

100

1.38

1.16

120

1.45

1.15

140

1.52

1.14

160

1.58

1.13

180

1.63

1.12

200

1.68

1.11

250

1.79

1.10

Source: Based on Tables 6 and 8 in "Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures,"
ASCE 7-88 (formerly ANSI A58.1), copyright 1990.

Figure 32. Height and Gust Factors

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4.

Using the following formula, calculate the overturning moment on the support
structure resulting from the wind load on the pipe:
Mwind-p = hLwp

(Eqn. 9)

where:
Mwind-p

Work Aid 1D:

= Overturning moment on the structure due to the pipe being


exposed to the design wind, N-m (ft.-lb.)

= Height above the ground of the center of the pipes, m (ft.)

Lwp

= Wind force on the pipes calculated in Step 3, N (lb.)

Procedure for Calculating Friction Force on a Piping Support

1.

Use Work Aid 1A to calculate the total static load on the support.

2.

Using the following formula, calculate the friction force on the support:
Ff = CfLS

(Eqn. 10)

where:
Ff = Force due to friction on the pipe rack, N (lb.). Note that for
structural design purposes, this load may be applied both parallel
and perpendicular to the pipe axis.
Cf = Coefficient of friction from Figure 33
LS = Total static load on the pipe support from the pipe, N (lb.)
PHYSICAL CONDITION

FRICTION COEFFICIENT (Cf )

Steel-on-steel

0.4

Teflon-on-Teflon

0.1

Figure 33. Coefficients of Friction

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GLOSSARY
anchor

A rigid restraint providing substantially full fixation, ideally not


allowing translational or rotational displacement of the pipe
along any of the three reference axes. It is used for restraint
but usually serves equally well for support or as a brace.

brace

A device primarily intended to resist piping displacement due


to the action of any forces other than those due to thermal
expansion or gravity.

constant-effort
support

A support that is capable of applying a relatively constant


force at any displacement within its useful operating range
(that is, counterweight or compensating spring device).

corrosion

Material degradation due to chemical or electro-chemical


attack that involves metal loss.

damping device

A dashpot or other frictional device that offers high resistance


against rapid displacements caused by dynamic loads, while
permitting essentially free movement under gradually applied
displacement, such as from thermal expansion.

expansion joint

A flexible pressure-containing component of a piping system


that is designed to absorb thermal movement.

guide

A device preventing movement in one or more directions. In


common usage, a guide normally permits translation along
the pipe axis but prevents it perpendicular to the pipe axis.

hanger

A support by which piping is suspended from a structure or


other fixed point located above it and which functions by
carrying the piping load in tension.

limit stop

A device that restricts translational movement to a limited


amount in one direction along any single axis. Paralleling the
various stops, there may also be double-acting limit stops,
two-axis limit stops, etc.

pipe rack

An aboveground support structure designed to carry a


relatively large number of pipes within a process plant.

resilient or flexible
support

A support that includes one or more largely elastic members


(that is, a spring).

resting or sliding
support

A device for providing support from beneath the piping but


offering no resistance other than friction to horizontal motion.

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restraint

An attachment to a pipe that prevents the pipe from moving in


one or more directions.

rigid (solid) support

A support providing stiffness in at least one direction that is


comparable to the stiffness of the pipe.

scraper

A cylindrical, plug-like device equipped with blades, wire


brushes, and toothed rollers to remove accumulations from
pipelines.

single support

A support structure designed to carry only one pipe.

sleeper

A rigid type pipe support located at grade.


concrete block or structural steel.

stop

A device that permits rotation but prevents translational


movement in at least one direction along any desired axis. If
translation is prevented in both directions along the same
axis, the term "double-acting stop" is applied. In common
usage, a stop normally acts along the direction of the pipe
axis.

support

An attachment to a pipe that primarily supports the weight of


the pipe.

two-axis limit stop

A device that prevents transitional movement in one direction


along each of the two axes. A "two-axis double-acting limit
stop" prevents transitional movement in the plane of the axes
while allowing such movement normal to the plane.

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards

It may be a

80