Anda di halaman 1dari 44

S T D - A W S A5.23/A5.

23M-ENGL

1 909778 4 206550 9 6 6 8

Ob4

ANSIIAWS A5.2WA5.23M:1997
An American National Standard

Specification for
Low-Alloy Steel
Electrodes and
Fluxes for
Submerged Arc
Welding

--`,````,,``,,````,`,`,`,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Welding Society


Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=Defense Contract Mgmt Command/5935922100


Not for Resale, 09/15/2006 02:37:52 MDT

Key Words-

ANSIIAWS A5.23/A5.23M:1997

Low-alloy steel electrodes,submerged arc


flux, crushed
slags,
welding
electrodes,
filler metal specification, high-strength

steel, low-temperature steel, creepresisting steel, solid electrode,


composite electrode

An
American
National
Standard
Approved by
American National Standards Institute

September 25,1997

Specification for Low-Alloy


Steel Electrodes and Fluxes

for Submerged Arc Welding


Supersedes ANSI/AWS A5.23-90

Prepared by
AWS Committee on Filler Metals
Under the Direction of
AWS Technical Activities Committee
Approved by
AWS Board of Directors

Abstract

--`,````,,``,,````,`,`,`,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

This specification provides requirementsfor the classification of solid and composite low-alloy steel electrodes and
fluxes for submerged arcwelding. Electrode classification is based on chemical compositionof the electrode for solid
electrodes, and chemical compositionof the weld metal for composite electrodes. Flux classification is based on themechanical properties and deposit composition of weld metal produced with the flux and an electrode (solid or composite)
classified herein. Other requirementsinclude sizes, marking, manufacturing, and packaging. The form and usability of
the flux are also included.
The specification makes use of both U.S. Customary Units and the International System of Units (SI). Since these are
not equivalent, each systemmust be used independently ofthe other.

American Welding Soclety


550 N.W.LeJeune Road, Miami, Florida 33126
Copyright American Welding Society
Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=Defense Contract Mgmt Command/5935922100


Not for Resale, 09/15/2006 02:37:52 MDT

2777

07842b5 0509670 7 1 2

Statement on Use of AWS Standards


All standards (codes, specifications, recommended practices, methods, classifications, and guides) of the American
Welding Society are voluntary consensus standards that have been developed in accordance with the rules of the American National Standards Institute. When AWS standards are either incorporated in, or made part of, documents that are
included in federal or state laws and regulations, or the regulations of other governmental bodies, their provisions carry
the full legal authority of the statute. In such cases, any changes in those AWS standards must be approved by the
governmental body having statutory jurisdiction before they can become a part of those laws and regulations. In all
cases, these standards carry the full legal authority of the contract or other document that invokes the AWS standards.
Where this contractual relationship exists, changes in or deviations from requirements of an AWS standard must be by
agreement between the contracting parties.

International Standard Book Number: 0-87171-531-7


American Welding Society,550 N.W. LeJeune Road, Miami, FL 33126

O 1998by American Welding Society. All rights reserved


Printed in the United States of America

--`,````,,``,,````,`,`,`,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Note: The primary purpose of AWS is to serve and benefit its members. To this end, AWS provides a forum for the exchange, consideration, and discussion of ideas and proposals that are relevant to the welding industry and the consensus
of which forms the basis for these standards. By providing such a forum, AWS does not assume any duties to which a
user of these standards may be required to adhere. By publishing this standard, the American Welding Society does not
insure anyone using the information it contains against any liability arising from that use. Publication of a standard by
the American Welding Society does not carry with it any right to make, use, or sell any patented items. Users of the
information in this standard should make an independent, substantiating investigation of the validity of that information
for their particular use and the patent status of any item referred to herein.
With regard to technical inquiries made concerning AWS standards, oral opinions on AWS standards may be rendered.
However, such opinions represent only the personal opinions of theparticular individuals giving them. These individuals
do not speak on behalf of AWS, nor do these oral opinions constitute official or unofficial opinions or interpretations of
AWS. In addition, oral opinions are informal and should not be used as a substitute for an official interpretation.
This standard is subject to revision at any time by the AWS Committee on Filler Metals. It must be reviewed every five
years and if not revised, it must be either reapproved or withdrawn. Comments (recommendations, additions, or deletions) and any pertinent data that may be of use in improving this standard are requested and should be addressed to
AWS Headquarters. Such comments will receive careful consideration by the AWS Committee on Filler Metals and the
author of the comments will be informed of the Committees response to the comments. Guests are invited to attend all
meetings of the AWS Committee on Filler Metals to express their comments verbally. Procedures for appeal of an
adverse decision concerning all such comments are provided in the Rules of Operation of the Technical Activities
Committee. A copy of these Rules can be obtained from the American Welding Society, 550 N.W. LeJeune Road, Miami, FL 33126.

Photocopy Rights
Authorization to photocopy items for internal, personal, or educational classroom use only, or the internal, personal, or
educational classroom use only of specific clients, is granted by the American Welding Society (AWS) provided that
the appropriate fee is paid to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923;Tel. (508)
750-8400;online: http://www.copyright.com

Copyright American Welding Society


Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=Defense Contract Mgmt Command/5935922100


Not for Resale, 09/15/2006 02:37:52 MDT

Personnel
AWS Committee on Filler Metals
Elliott Company
Consultant
The Lincoln Electric Company
The American WeldingSociety
Electromanufacturas S.A.
Carpenter Technology Corporation
Consultant
Caterpillar, Incorporated
Consultant
Consultant
Inco Alloys International, Incorporated
The Lincoln Electric Company
Consultant
Consultant
Exxon Research and Engineering Company
Foster Wheeler EnergyCorporation
ESAB Welding andCutting Products
Haynes International, Incorporated
Alloy Ring Service
Hallstrom Consultants
Westinghouse
Techalloy Maryland, Incorporated
Concurrent Technologies Corporation
The Lincoln Electric Company
American Bureau of Shipping
Compressed Gas Industries
Consultant
Chicago Bridge and Iron
MAC Associates
Chrysler Corporation
Stoody Company
Select-Arc, Incorporated
Arnpco Metal, Incorporated
ABB Power Generation
Department of the Navy
Consultant
Wall Colmonoy Corporation
Consultant
The Lincoln Electric Company
Consultant
Consultant
Canadian Welding Bureau
Det Norske Veritas
Newport News Shipbuilding

R. A. LaFave, Chair

J. I! Hunt, 1st vice Chair


D. A. Fink, 2nd Kce Chair
H. Woodward, Secretary
*R. L. Bateman
R. S. Brown
J. Caprarola, J,:
A. Chatterjee
*L. J. Christensen
R. J. Christoffel
c. W cox
D. D.Crockett
+R. A . Daemen
D. A. DelSignore
H. W Ebert
J. G. Feldstein
S. E. Ferree
L. Flasche
C. E. Fuerstenau
G. Hallstrom, Jr.
J. A. Henning
R. B. Kadiyala
R J. Konkol
D. J. Kotecki

D. !l Ku
N.E. Larson
A. S. Lauremon
J. S. Lee
G. H. MacShane
M? A. Marttila
R. Menon
M. I: Merlo
A. R. Mertes
M. Morin

c.L. Null

J. Payne
R. L. Peaslee
E. W Pickering, J,:
M. A. Quintana
*H. E Reid
*S. D. Reynolds, Jr.
L. E Roberts
l? K. Salvesen
J. M. Sawhill, Jr.
*Advisor

iii
Copyright American Welding Society
Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

--`,````,,``,,````,`,`,`,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Licensee=Defense Contract Mgmt Command/5935922100


Not for Resale, 09/15/2006 02:37:52 MDT

A. E Seidler

Armco Steel Company


ESAB Welding andCutting Products
Editorial Consultant
ESAB Welding and Cutting Products
The Lincoln Electric Company (Australia)
Fisher Controls, Incorporated
Bechtel Corporation
Euroweld, Ltd.
R.D. Thomas and Company
J. W. Harris Company, Incorporated
Conarco, S . A.
Kobe Steel Limited-Welding Division
AlcoTec WireCompany
Mobil Technology Company
Ingalls Shipbuilding
Arcos Alloys
Consultant
Siemens Power Corporation
Stoody Deloro Stellite, Incorporated

W S. Severance
*W A. Shopp
M. S. Sierdzinski

R. G. Sim*
E. R. Stevens
*R. U! Straiton
R. A. Swain
R. D.Thomas, Jr.
K. I? Thornberry
*R. Timerman
*S.Tsutsumi
L. T. Vernam
G. vtanovich
T. R. Warren
H. D.Wehr
*E J. Winsor
K. G. Wold
J. B. C. Wu

AWS Subcommittee on Carbon and Low-AlloySteel


Electrodes and Fluxesfor Submerged Arc Welding

D. D. Crockett, Chair
H. Woodward,Secretary
G. C, Barnes
H. A. Beck
W D.Doty
H. W Ebert
D.Y Ku
G. A. Leclair
M. T. Merlo
D.W Meyer
M. D. Morin
D.M. Parker
E. W Pickering, JI:
E A. Rhoades
L. E Roberts
R. A. Swain
*R.D. Thomas,JI:
*R. Timerman
*S. Tsutsumi
*W L. Wilcox

The Lincoln Electric Company


The American Welding Society
Consultant
Harberts Products Incorporated
Doty and Associates
Exxon Research andEngineering Company
American Bureau of Shipping
Consultant
Select Arc, Incorporated
ESAB Welding andCutting Products
ABB Power Generation
MAOiWestinghouse
Consultant
Hobart Brothers Company
Canadian Welding Bureau
Euroweld, Limited
R. D. Thomas and Company
Conarco S.A.
Kobe Steel Limited-Welding Division
Consultant

*Advisor

iv
Copyright American Welding Society
Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=Defense Contract Mgmt Command/5935922100


Not for Resale, 09/15/2006 02:37:52 MDT

--`,````,,``,,````,`,`,`,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

AWS Committee on Filler Metals (Continued)

Foreword
(This Foreword is not a part of ANSIIAWS A5.23/A5.23M:1997, Specification for Low-AlloySteel Electrodes and
Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding,but is included for information purposes only.)
This is the third revision of the document originally issued in 1976. This standardis the first of the A523 specifications which is a combined specification providing for classification utilizinga system based upon U.S. Customary Units,
or utilizing a system based upon the International System of Units (SI). The measurements are not exact equivalents;
therefore, each system must be used independently of the other, without combining values in any way. In selecting
rational metric units, ANSIIAWS A1.1,Metric Procedure Guide forthe Welding Industry,is used wheresuitable. Tables
and Figures make use of both U.S. Customary and SI Units, which, with the applicationof the specified tolerances, provides for interchangeability of products in both U.S. Customary and SI Units. Paragraphs, Tables, and Figures which
carry the suffix letter U are applicable only to those products classified to the system based upon U.S. Customary
Units under the A5.23specification. Those which carry the suffix letterM are applicable only to thoseproducts classified to the system based upon the International System of Units (SI), under the A5.23Mspecification.

Document Development
ANSI/AWS A5.23-76

Specification for Bare Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding

ANSI/AWS A5.23-80

Specification for Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for Submerged

ANSUAWS A5.23-90

Specification for Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding

Arc Welding

Comments and suggestions for improvement of this standard are welcome. They should be addressed to the Secretary, AWS Committee on Filler Metals, American Welding Society,550 N.W. LeJeune Road, Miami, FL33126.
The welding terms used in this specification shall be interpreted in accordance with the definitions given in the latest
edition of ANSIIAWS A3.0, Standard Welding Terms and Definitions.
Official interpretations of any of the technical requirementsof this standard may be obtained by sending a request, in
writing, to the Managing Director, Technical Services Division, American Welding Society, 550 N.W. LeJeune Road,
Miami, FL 33126. Aformal reply will be issuedafter it has been reviewedby the appropriate personnelfollowing established procedures.

--`,````,,``,,````,`,`,`,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Welding Society


Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

V
Licensee=Defense Contract Mgmt Command/5935922100
Not for Resale, 09/15/2006 02:37:52 MDT

Table of Contents

Personnel ....................................................................................................................................................................
Foreword ...................................................................................................................................................................
List of Tables ..............................................................................................................................................................
List of Figures ............................................................................................................................................................
1.

scope ....................................................................................................................................................................

...
111

v
vii
..
v11

Part A-General Requirements


2. Normative References ..........................................................................................................................................
3. Classification ........................................................................................................................................................
4. Acceptance ...........................................................................................................................................................
5 Certification .........................................................................................................................................................
6. Units of Measure and Rounding-Off Procedure ..................................................................................................

1
2

9
9
9

Part B-Tests, Procedures, and Requirements


7. Summary of Tests .................................................................................................................................................
8. Retest ..................................................................................................................................................................
9. Weld Test Assemblies ........................................................................................................................................
10. Chemical Analysis .............................................................................................................................................
11. Radiographic Test...............................................................................................................................................
12. Tension Test .......................................................................................................................................................
13. Impact Test .........................................................................................................................................................
14. Diffusible Hydrogen Test ...................................................................................................................................

9
10
10
13
14
16
16
16

Part C-Manufacture,Identification, and Packaging

15 Method of Manufacture ..................................................................................................................................... 19


16. Electrode Requirements ..................................................................................................................................... 19
17. Flux Requirements ............................................................................................................................................. 22
Annex4uide toAWS Specification for Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes and Fluxesfor Submerged Arc Welding
A l . Introduction......................................................................................................................................................
A2. Classification System ......................................................................................................................................
A3. Acceptance .......................................................................................................................................................
A4 Certification .....................................................................................................................................................
A5 Ventilation During Welding .............................................................................................................................
A6 Welding Considerations ...................................................................................................................................
A7. Description and Intended Useof Electrodes ...................................................................................................
A8 General Safety Considerations ........................................................................................................................

.
.
.
.

23
23

25

26
26
26

30
31

AWS Filler Metal Specifications by Material and WeldingProcess .......................................................................... 35


AWS Filler Metal Specifcations and Related Documents ........................................................................................ 37

vi
Copyright American Welding Society
Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=Defense Contract Mgmt Command/5935922100


Not for Resale, 09/15/2006 02:37:52 MDT

--`,````,,``,,````,`,`,`,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Page No

--`,````,,``,,````,`,`,`,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

List of Tables
Page No.

Table
1
2
3

4
5

6U
6M
7u

7M
8
9u
9M
10
Al

Chemical Composition Requirements for Solid Electrodes ..........................................................................


Chemical Composition Requirements for Weld Metal ..................................................................................
Tests Required for Classification ...................................................................................................................
Base Metal for Test Assemblies ...................................................................................................................
Preheat, Interpass, and Postweld Heat Treatment Temperatures .................................................................
A5.23 Tension TestRequirements ...............................................................................................................
A5.23M Tension Test Requirements............................................................................................................
A5.23 Impact TestRequirements.................................................................................................................
A5.23M Impact Test Requirements .............................................................................................................
Diffusible Hydrogen Requirements .............................................................................................................
A523 Standard Electrode Sizes and Tolerances..........................................................................................
A5.23M Standard Electrode Sizes and Tolerances ......................................................................................
Standard Dimensions and Weights...............................................................................................................
Comparison of Electrode Designations........................................................................................................

5
7
9
14
15

18
18
19
19
20
20
20
21
26

List of Figures
Figure
1U
1M
2
3A
3B
4

No.

Page
A5.23 Classification System for U S. Customary Units ................................................................................
A5.23M Classification System for the International System of Units (SI) ...................................................
WeldPad for Chemical Analysis of Weld Metal .........................................................................................
Groove WeldTest Assembly ........................................................................................................................
Groove Weld Test Welding Parameters........................................................................................................
Radiographic Standards for Rounded Indications .......................................................................................

vii
Copyright American Welding Society
Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=Defense Contract Mgmt Command/5935922100


Not for Resale, 09/15/2006 02:37:52 MDT

3
4
11
12
13
17

Specification for Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes


and Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding

1. Scope

(1) ANSIJAWS Al.1, Metric Practice Guide for the


Welding Industry
(2) ANSIJAWS A4.3,Standard Methodsfor Determination of the Diffusible Hydrogen Contentof Martensitic, Bainitic, and Ferritic Steel Weld Metal Produced by
Arc Welding
(3) ANSIIAWS A5.01, Filler Metal Procurement
Guidelines
(4) ANSIIAWS A5.1, Specification for Carbon Steel
Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding
(5)ANSIIAWS B4.0, Standard Methoh forMechanical Testingof Welds

This specification prescribes requirements for the


classification of low-alloy steel electrodes (bothsolid
and composite) and fluxes for submerged arc welding.
This document is the first of the A5.23 specifications
which is a combined specification providing for classification utilizing a system based upon U.S. Customary
Units, or utilizing a system based upon the International
System of Units (SI). The measurements are not exact
equivalents; therefore, each system must be used independently of the other, without combining valuesin any
way. In selecting rational metric units, ANSIJAWS A1.1,
Metric Practice Guide for the Welding Industry, is used
where suitable. Tables andFigures make use of both U.S.
Customary Units and SI Units which, with the application of the specified tolerances, provides for interchangeability of products in both U.S. Customary and SI Units.
(1) Paragraphs, tables, and figures which carry the
suffix letter U are applicable only to those products
classified to the system based upon U.S. Customary
Units under the A5.23 specification.
(2) Paragraphs, tables, and figures which carry the
suffix letter M are applicable only to those products
classified to the system based upon the International System of Units (SI), under the A5.23M specification.
(3) Paragraphs, tables, and figures which do not have
either the suffix letter U or the suffix letter M are applicable to those productsclassified under either theU.S.
Customary Units System or the International System of
Units (SI).
--`,````,,``,,````,`,`,`,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

2.2 The following ASTM standards2 are referencedin


the mandatory sections of this document:
(1) ASTM A 36JA 36M, Specification for Carbon
Structural Steel
(2) ASTM A 203lA 203M, Specificationfor Pressure
Vessel Plates,Alloy Steel, Nickel
(3) ASTM A 204A 204M, Specificationfor Pressure
Vessel Plates,Alloy Steel, Molybdenum
(4) ASTM A 285lA 285M, Specificationfor Pressure
Vessel Plates, Carbon Steel, Low- and IntermediateTensile Strength
( 5 ) ASTM A 302JA 302M, Specificationfor Pressure
Vessel Plates, AlloySteel, Manganese-Molybdenum and
Manganese-Molybdenum-Nickel
(6) ASTM A 3871A 387M, Specificationfor Pressure
Vessel Plates, AlloySteel, Chromium-Molybdenum
(7) ASTM A 514lA 514M,Specification for HghYield-Strength, Quenched and Tempered Alloy Steel
Plate, Suitablefor Welding

Part A
General Requirements

1. AWS standards may be obtained


from the American Welding
Society, 550 N.W. LeJeune Road, Miami, FL 33126.
2. ASTM standardscanbe obtained from ASTM, 100 Barr
Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959.

2. Normative References
2.1 The following ANSUAWS standards are referenced
in the mandatory sections of this document:

1
Copyright American Welding Society
Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=Defense Contract Mgmt Command/5935922100


Not for Resale, 09/15/2006 02:37:52 MDT

(1) The mechanical properties of the weld metal obtained with the combination of a particular flux and a
particular classification of electrode, as specified in
Tables 6U and 7U
(2) The condition of heat treatment in which those
properties are obtained, as specified in 9.4 (and shown in
Figure lu)
(3) The chemical composition of the weld metal obtained with the combination of a particular flux and
a particular classification of electrode as specified in
Table 2
(4) The chemical composition of the electrode (for
solid electrodes) as specified in Table 1 or the weld metal
produced with a particular flux (for composite electrodes) as specified in Table 2

--`,````,,``,,````,`,`,`,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

(8) ASTM A 515lA 515M, Specification for Pressure


Vessel Plates, Carbon Steel, for Intermediate- and
Higher-TemperatureService
(9) ASTM A 5161A 516M, Specification for Pressure
Vessel Plates, CarbonSteel, for Moderate- and LowerTemperature Service
(10) ASTM A 517lA 517M, Specification for Pressure
Vessel Plates, Alloy Steel, High-Strength, Quenched and
Tempered
(11) ASTM A 5331A 533M, Specification for Pressure
Vessel Plates, Alloy Steel, Quenchedand Tempered,
Manganese-Molybdenum and Manganese-MolybdenumNickel
(12) ASTM A 537/A 537M, Specification for Pressure
Vessel Plates, Heat-Treated Carbon-Manganese-Silicon
Steel
(13) ASTM A 543fA 543M, Specification for Pressure
Vessel Plates, Alloy Steel, Quenched and Tempered
Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum
(14) ASTM A 572lA 572N, Specification for HighStrength Low-Alloy Columbium-Vanadium Structural
Steel
(15) ASTM A 588/A 588M,Specification forHighStrength Low-Alloy Structural Steel with 50 ksi
1345 MPa] Minimum yield Point to 4 in. [IO0 mm] Thick
(16) ASTM DS-56, SAE HS-1086, Metals and Alloys
in the Unified Numbering System
(17) ASTM E 29, Practice for Using Significant
Digits in Test Data to Determine Conformance with
Specifications
(18) ASTM E 142, Method for Controlling Quality of
Radiographic Testing
(19) ASTME 350, Test Methods for ChemicalAnalysis
of Carbon Steel, Low Alloy Steel, Silicon Electrical Steel,
Ingot Iron and Wrought Iron

3.1M The welding electrodes and fluxes covered by the


A5.23M specification utilize a classification system
based upon the International System of Units (SI), according to the following:
(1) The mechanical properties of the weld metal obtained with the combination of a particular flux and a
particular classification of electrode, as specified in Tables 6M and 7M
(2) The condition of heat treatment in which those
properties are obtained, as specified in 9.4 (and shown in
Figure 1M)
(3) The chemical composition of the weld metal obtained with the combination of a particular flux and
a particular classification of electrode as specified in
Table 2
(4) The chemical composition of the electrode (for
solid electrodes) as specified in Table 1 or the weld metal
produced with a particular flux (for composite electrodes) as specified in Table 2

2.3 The following IS0 standards3 are referenced in the


mandatory section of this document.
(1) IS0 864, Arc WeldingSolid and Tubular Cored

3.2 Solid electrodes classified under one classification


shall not be classified under any other classification in
this specification, Composite electrodes may be classified under more than one classification when used with
different fluxes. Fluxes may be classified under any
number of classifications, for weld metal in either or
both the as-welded and postweld heat-treated conditions,
using different electrode classifications. Flux-electrode
combinations may be classified under A 5 2 3 with U.S.
Customary Units, A5.23M using the International System of Units(SI), or both. Flux-electrode combinations
classified under both A5.23 and M.23M must meet all
requirements for classification under each system. The
classification systems are shown in Figures 1U and 1M.

Wires Which Deposit Carbon and Carbon Manganese


Steel-Dimensions of Wires, Spools, Rims and Coils.

3. Classification
3.1U The welding electrodes and fluxes covered by the
A5.23 specification utilize a classification system based
upon U.S. Customary Units and are classified according
to the following:
3. 1SO standardsmay be obtained from The American National
Standards Institute (ANSI), 11 West 42nd Street, 13th Floor,

3 3 The electrodes and fluxes classified under this specification are intended for submerged arc welding, but that

New York, NY 10036-8002

2
Copyright American Welding Society
Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=Defense Contract Mgmt Command/5935922100


Not for Resale, 09/15/2006 02:37:52 MDT

MANDATORY CLASSIFICATION DESIGNATORSa

Indicates a submerged arc welding flux.


Indicates that the welding flux being classified
is made solely from crushed slagor is a blend
of crushed slag with unused (virgin) flux. Omission of the
S indicates that theflux being
flux.
classified is unused (virgin)
Indicates
minimum
the tensile
strength
(in increments
10of
O00weld
metal
psi)
ofdeposited
with the flux and some specific classification of electrode under the welding conditions specified in Figure 3. h odigits are used for weld metal of 100
O00 psi tensile strength and higher.
is O00 to 100 O00 psi. When
For example, when the designatoris 8, the tensile requirement 80
the designatoris 11, the tensile requirement is110 O00 to 130 O00 psi (see Table6U).

--`,````,,``,,````,`,`,`,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Designates the condition of heat treatment in which the tests were conducted:A for aswelded and P for postweld heat treated. The time and temperature
of the PWHT are specified in 9.4 and Table5.
Indicates a temperature inF at or above which the impact strength the
of weld metal referred
to above meets or exceeds20 ft-lbf. %o digits areused for test temperatures of -100F or
lower (see Table7U).
Classification of the electrode used in producing the weld metal referred
to above. The letter
E in the first position indicates electrode. The letter C, when present
in the second position, indicates that the electrode is a composite electrode (refer to 2Table
for classifications).
Omission of the C indicates that the electrodeis a solid electrode (refer to Table1 for

classifications).
Indicates the chemical composition of the weld metal obtained with the flux and the electrode. One or more letters and/or digits areused (see Table2).

FSXXX-ECXXXX-XXXHX
OPTIONAL SUPPLEMENTAL DESIGNATORSb
Optional supplemental diffusible hydrogen designator(see Table 8).
An Ndesignator indicates conformanceto special requirements for nuclear applications.
The N is used only when footnote cto Table 1 or footnote e to Table2 applies (see Paragraph 13.4and Annex A2.1 for explanation).
An R designator indicates conformanceto reduced residual requirements for step cooling
applications. The R is used only when footnote gto Table 1 or Table2 applies.
Notes:
(a) The combination of these designators constitutes the flux-electrode classification,
(b) These designators are optional and do not constitute
a part of the flux-electrode classification.

Examples
F9PO-EB3-B3 is a complete designation for a flux-electrode combination.
It refers to a flux that will produce weld metal which,
in
the postweld heat treated condition, will have
a tensile strength of90 O00 to 110 O00 psi and Charpy V-notch impact strength of at
in this specification. The absence of an
least 20 ft4bf at 0F when produced with an EB3 electrode under the conditions called for
S in thesecond position indicates that the flux being classified
is a virgin flux. The composition of the weld metal willB3
be(see
Table 2).
F9A2-ECMl-Ml is a complete designation for a flux-electrode combination when the trade name of the composite electrode used
in classification tests is indicated as well [see 17.4.1(3)]. The designation refers to a virginflux that will produce weldmetal with
the ECMl electrode which,in the as-welded condition, will have a tensile strength of90O00 to 110 O00 psi and Charpy V-notch
this specification. The composition of the weld metal will be
energy of at least 20 ftdbf at -20F under the conditions calledin for
M l (see Table2).

Figure lUA5.23 Classification Systemfor U.S. Customary Units


3
Copyright American Welding Society
Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=Defense Contract Mgmt Command/5935922100


Not for Resale, 09/15/2006 02:37:52 MDT

S T D - A W S A5123/A5=23M-ENGL L997

= 0784265

0509679 9 4 T

&.23/A5.23M:l997

MANDATORY CLASSIFICATION DESIGNATORSa


Indicates a submerged arc welding flux.
Indicates that the weldingflux being classified is made solely from crushed slag
or is a blend
of crushed slag with unused (virgin)
flux. Omission of the S indicates that theflux being
classified is unused (virgin)flux.
Indicates the minimum tensile strength [in increments of 10 Megapascals (MPa)] of weld
metal deposited with theflux and some specific classification of electrode under the welding
conditions specifiedin Figure 3. For example, when this designator is55, the tensile requirement is 550 to 700 MPa (see Table 6M).
A for asDesignates the condition of heat treatment in which the tests were conducted:
welded and P for postweld heat treated. The time and temperature of the PWHT are specified in 9.4 and Table5.

Classification of the electrode used in producing the weld metal referredto above. The letter
E in the first position indicates electrode. The letter C, when present in the second
position, indicates that the electrode
is a composite electrode (refer
to Table 2 for classifications).
Omission of the C indicates that the electrode is a solid electrode (refer to Table 1 for
classifications).
flux and the elecIndicates the chemical composition of the weld metal obtained with the
trode. One or more letters and/or digits are used (see Table 2).

FSXXXX-ECXXXX-XXXHX
OPTIONAL SUPPLEMENTAL DESIGNATORS

--`,````,,``,,````,`,`,`,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Indicates a temperaturein Cat or above which the impact strength of the weld metal referred
TWO digits (10) are used for test temperatures of -100C
(See
to above meets or exceeds 27J.
Table 7M).

Optional supplemental diffusible hydrogen designator (see Table


8).
An N designator indicates conformance to special requirements for nuclear applications.
The N is used only when footnotec to Table 1 or footnote e to Table 2 applies (see Paragraph 13.4 and Annex A2.1 for explanation.)
An R designator indicates conformanceto reduced residual requirements for step cooling
applications. The R is used only when footnoteg to Table1or Table 2 applies.
Notes:
(a) The combinationof these designators constitutes the flux-electrode classification.
@) These designators are optional and do not constitute a part of the flux-electrode classification.

Examples
F62P2-EB3-B3is a complete designation for a flux-electrode combination.
It refers to aflux that.will produce weld metal which,
in
the postweld heat treated condition, will have a tensile strength of 620-760 MPa and Charpy V-notch impact strength of at least 275
at -20C when produced with an EB3 electrode under the conditions called forin this specification. The absence of an
S in the
second position indicates that the
flux being classifiedis a virgin flux. The composition of the weld metalbewill
B3 (seeTable 2).
F69A3-ECM2-M2 is a complete designation for a flux-electrode combination when the trade name of the composite electrode
used in classification tests is indicated as well [see
17.4.1 (3)]. The designation refers to a virgin flux that will produce weld metal
of
MPa and Charpy V-notch enwith the ECM2 electrode which,in the as-welded condition, will have a tensile strength 830
ergy of at least 273 at -30C under the conditions called for in this specification. The composition of the weld metal will be M2
(see Table 2).

Figure 1M-A5.23M Classification Systemfor the International Systemof Units (SI)

4
Copyright American Welding Society
Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=Defense Contract Mgmt Command/5935922100


Not for Resale, 09/15/2006 02:37:52 MDT

Table 1
Chemical Composition Requirementsfor Solid Electrodes
AWS

Percentab

Classifi-

UNS

cationC

NO.^

EL12'

KO1012

Weight
C

Mn

si

0.04-

0.250.030
0.0300.10

0.14

0.60

EM12K'

KO1113 0.050.030
0.030
0.100.800.35 1.25 0.15

EA1

K11222

0.05- 0.20
0.65-

0.025

0.025

Cr

Ni

Mo

Cue

Other

0.35

0.35

- 0.350.45-

- 0.35
0.45-

0.15
EA2

K11223

EA3

K11423

0.050.025
0.025
0.20
0.951.35
0.17
0.05-

0.65

1.65-

0.20

0.025

1.60-

0.50- 0.025
0.025

0.20
1.201.70

0.025

0.025

0.45-

- 0.35
0.40-

- 0.35
0.45-

0.35

0.17
EA3K

K21451

2.10

0.05-

0.15
K11424

EA4
EB1
0.75
EB2g

0.050.15

K11043
0.30

0.10

K11172

0.070.15

0.40-

0.451.00

W016
0.65

0.450.280.33

EB3g
3.00

K31115
0.30

0.05-

0.40-

0.15

0.80

0.70
EB6

S50480

0.10

0.10

EB9

S50482
0.010
0.30
1.25
0.071.10
0.13

ENil
0.30

K11040 0.750.12

ENil K

K11058

ENi2

0.025

0.025

0.40-

0.350.70

0.35
0.450.65

0.05-

0.025

1.000.025

.so

0.05- 2.250.025
0.025

0.05-

0.35
0.450.65

0.40-

1.75

0.30

0.60

EB6H
S501800.025
0.250.750.251.00
0.40
EB8

0.05-

0.55- 1.000.015
0.015

K121870.450.025
0.025
0.400.400.150.23
S50280

0.65

0.80

EB2H
0.75

EB5

0.025

0.90-

0.35

0.90-

0.30

0.35
0.450.70

0.35
0.450.65

0.35
0.801.20

1.00

0.80-

0.10

0.75-

0.35

0.35

0.65

0.025

0.025

0.50

4.506.50

0.025

0.50

4.806.00

0.30-

0.05- 8.000,025
0.025

0.65

0.50

10.50
0.010

0.05-

0.020
0.35
0.30
0.750.15
0.020

0.80-

0.40-

0.020

1.40

0.80

0.75-

0.05- 0.020
0.020

1.25

0.30

8.0010.00

0.30

0.65

1.20

1.25

K21010

0.12
0.12

0.020

1.25

2.102.90

(continued)

--`,````,,``,,````,`,`,`,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Welding Society


Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=Defense Contract Mgmt Command/5935922100


Not for Resale, 09/15/2006 02:37:52 MDT

~~

~~~~

Table 1 (Continued)

AWS

Percentqb

ClassificationC

UNS
Nod

Mn

si

ENi3

K31310

0.13

0.601.20

0.050.30

0.020
0.020

0.15

ENi4
2.10

K11485
0.30

0.12-

0.60-

0.10-

0.015
0.020

0.19

1.00

ENi5

K11240

0.12

1.201.60

0.05-

0.020
0.020

0.30

0.90-

0.15-

0.025

0.025

0.95- 0.35
0.250.55

0.025

0.025

0.400.400.80

EF1
0.35

IC11160

0.070.15

K21450

1.700.100.18

0.20

1.70
--`,````,,``,,````,`,`,`,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

EF2
2.40
2.40

Weight

EF3

K21485

0.100.18

1.70- 0.025
0.30

EF4

K12048

0.16"

OhO-

0.23

0.90

0.030
0.150.35

0.100.17

1.70-

0.20

K41370

EF5
2.20
EF6

EM2h

EM3h

EM4h

1.450.07K21135 0.10K10882

0.015

0.15

1.90

0.30

0.10

1.251.80

0.20- 0.30
0.010
0.015
0.60

1.80

0.60

1.40-

0.200.60

0.10

0.015

1.80

Cr

Mo

Cu'

3.103.80

0.35

1.60-

0.10-

0.35

0.100.751.25

0.35

0.30

0.015

1.400.10
U1015 0.20-

K21030

NiP

Other

0.35

0.65

0.025

0.70-

0.400.65

0.35

0.025

O.&
0.30
0.60

0.40-

0.15-

0.35

0.50

0.010

0.015

0.010

0.015 0.010
0.65

0.80

0.250.50

0.452.302.80

0.65

0.200.65
0.55

1.752.25

0.40-

0.35
0.25

0.55

0.60

1.40-

0.25-

2.10

0.55

1.902.60

0.250.65

0.25

2.00-

0.30-

0.25

Ti: 0.10
Zr: 0.10
Al: 0.10

Ti: 0.10
Zr:0.10
Al: 0.10

2.80

Ti: 0.10

Zr:0.10
Al: 0.10

EW

K11245

0.12

EG

0.35- 0.030
0.200.65
0.35

0.025

0.500.80

0.400.80

0.300.80

Not Specified

Notes:
a. The electtode shall be. analyzed for the specific elements for which values areshown in this 'i8ble. If the presenceo f other elements is indicated, in
the courseof this work, the amountof those elementsshall be. determined to ensure thattheir total (excluding iron) does not exceed 0.50 percent.
b. Single values are maximum.
c. The letter "N" when added as a suffix is an optional supplemental designatorindicating that the limits onthe phosphorus. vanadium, andcopper are
as follows:
P = 0.012% max. V = 0.05%max. Cu = 0.08% max.
See A2.1 for explanation and intended use.
d. SAWASTM Unified Numbering System for Metals and Alloys.
e. The copper limit includes any copper coating that may be. applied to the electrode.
f. The EL12 and EM12Kclassifications are identical to those same classifications in ANSI/AWS A5.17/A5.17M, Specificalionfor CarbonSteel Elecfrodes and Flues for SubmergedAre Welding. They are included in this specification because they are sometimes
used with an alloy flux to deposit
some of the weld metals designated in Table 2.
g. The letter "R" when added as a suffix is an optional supplemental designator indicating that the limits onsulfur, phosphorous. copper, arsenic, tin
and antimony are as follows:
S = 0.010%max. P = 0.010% max. Cu = 0.15%max. As = 0.009%max.Sn = 0.005%max.Sb = 0.0052 max.
See A7.1.2 for explanation and intended use.
h. The composition tanges of classificationswith the"EM" prefix are intendedto conform to the rangesfor similar electrodes in the military specifications.

6
Copyright American Welding Society
Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=Defense Contract Mgmt Command/5935922100


Not for Resale, 09/15/2006 02:37:52 MDT

~~

STD-AWS A5=23/A5=23I-ENGL 1337

0784265 0509bA2 434


A5.23/A5.23M:1997

Table 2
Chemical Composition Requirements for Weld Metal
(Both Flux-Solid Electrode and Flux-Composite Electrode Combinations)
UNS

Weld
DesignationdVeC Number

Mn

Si

Al

W17041
0.12

1O
.O

0.80

0.030
0.030

A2

W17042
0.12

1.40

0.80

0.030

0.030

Cr

Ni

Mo
Other

Cu

0.400.65

0.35

0.40-

0.35

0.400.65

0.35

0.65
A3

W10743
0.15

A4

W 17044

B1

W51040
0.12

B29

W52040
0.05-

O. 15

0.400.65

0.35

0.030
0.030

0.400.65

0.400.65

0.35

0.030
0.030

1.001.50

0.40-

0.35

2.10

0.80

0.030
0.030

1.60

0.80

0.030

1.60

0.80

1.20

0.80

0.030

0.15
B2H

W52240

0.10-

1.20

0.80

0.020
0.020

1.001s o

0.400.65

0.35 V 0.30

1.20

0.80

0.030
0.030

2.00-

0.90-

0.35

0.25

B39

W53040
0.050.15

2.50

B4

W53340
0.12

1.20

0.80

0.030

B5

W51340
0.18

1.20

0.80

0.030
0.030

B6

W50240
0.12

B6H

W50140

0.10-

0.030

W50440
0.12

1.20

1.752.25

0.400.65

0.35

0.400.65

0.90-

0.35

1.20

1.20

0.80

0.030
0.030

4.506.00

0.400.65

0.35

1.20

0.80

0.030
0.030

4.506.00

0.400.65

0.35

1.20

0.80

0.030
0.030

8.00-

0.80-

0.35

0.801.20

0.10

AI: 0.04

0.35 Ti+VtZr: 0.05

0.25
B8

0.65

10.00
B9

W50442
0.07-

1.25

0.13

0.150.30

0.010

0.010

8.00-

1.20

1.o0

9.50

Nil

W21040
0.12

1.60h

0.80

0.025

Ni2

W22040
0.12

1.60h

0.80

0.030
0.025

Ni3

W23040
0.12

1.60

0.80

0.025

Ni4

W21250
0.14

1.60

0.80

0.025

0.030

0.15

0.751.10

0.35

2.002.90

0.35

0.030

0.15

2.803.80

0.35

0.030

o. 10-

0.35

0.35

1.40-

2.10
Ni5

W21042
0.12

1.60

0.80

0.030
0.025

0.35

0.70-

0.10-

1.10

0.35

--`,````,,``,,````,`,`,`,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Welding Society


Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Nb: 0.03-0.10
N: 0.03-0.07
v 0.154.25

Licensee=Defense Contract Mgmt Command/5935922100


Not for Resale, 09/15/2006 02:37:52 MDT

Table 2 (Continued)
Weld
DesignationdSe

Percentqb,C
Number

Mn

si

F1

W21150

0.12

0.70-

0.80

UNS

Cr

0.030 0.150.030

Mo

Ni

Cu

Other

0.90- 0.35 0.55

1.70

1.50

F2

W20240

0.17

1.252.25

0.80

0.030

0.030

0.400.80

0.400.65

0.35

F3

W21140

0.17

1.252.25

O .80

0.030

0.030

0.701.10

0.400.65

0.35

F4

W20440

0.17

1.60

0.80

0.035

0.030

0.60

0.40-

0.25

0.35

2.W
2.80

0.300.80

0.50

1.50-

0.60

0.40

Ti+V+Zr: 0.03

0.80

F5

W22540

0.17

1.201.80

0.80

0.020 0.650.020

F6

W22640

O. 14

0.801.85

0.80

0.020

0.60-

0.80

W21240

0.10

0.65

2.25
0.030

0.030

0.15

1.60
M2
M3
M4
M5

M6

W21340
W22240
W22440
W21345

W21346

W20140

o.10
o. 10
0.10

0.12

0.12

o.12

1.25- 0.30 0.35

Ti+V+Zr: 0.03

2.00

0.901.80

0.80

0.901.80

0.80

1.302.25

0.80

1,602.50

0.50

1.602.50

0.50

0.50-

0.80

0.020 0.350.020

1.402.10

0.020

0.015

0.015

Ti+V+Zr: 0.03

0.80

0.30

Ti+V+Zr: 0.03

0.40

0.70

2.W
2.80

0.30-

1.40-

0.200.50

0.30

2.10

Ti: 0.03
v: 0.02
Zr: 0.02

0.701.o0

0.30

2.10

Ti: 0.03
v: 0.02
Zr: 0.02

0.30-

0.80

0.450.035
0.0300.400.70

0.30

0.202.60

0.015
1.40-0.400.015

1.60

Ti+V+Zr: 0.03

0.65

0.020
1.80-0.65
0.020
0.020

0.30

0.25-

0.75

0.80

Not Specified
~

~~

~~

~~

~~

~~

~~

Notes:
a. The weld metal shall be analyzed for the specific elements for which values are shown
in this Table. If the presence of other elements is indicated,
in the course of this work, the amount
of those elements shallbe determined to ensure that their total (excluding iron) does not exceed
0.50 percent.
b. Single values are maximum.
c. As a substitute for lheweld pad in Figure 2, the sample for chemical analysis may be taken from the reduced section of the fractured tension test
in the weld metal in the groove weld in Figure 3. In case of dispute,
specimen (see 12.1) or from a corresponding location (or any location above it)
the weld pad shall be the referee method.
d. The electrode designationfor composite electrodes is obtainedby placing an EC before the appropriate weld metal designation.
e. The letterNwhen added as a suffix is an optional supplemental designator indicating that thelimits on the phosphorus, vanadium, andcapper are as
follows:
P = 0.012%max. V = 0.05%max. Cu = 0.08% max.
See A2.1 for explanation and intended use.
f. SAWASTM Unified Numbering System for Metal and Alloys.
g. The letter R when added as a suffix is an optional supplemental designator indicating that the limits on sulfur, phosphorous, copper, arsenic,
tin
and antimony areas follows:
S = 0.010% max. P = 0.010%rnax. Cu 5 0.15% max. As = 0.005% max. Sn = 0.005% max. Sb = 0.005%max.
These reduced residual limits are necessary to meetX factor requirements for step cooling applications.
h. Manganese in N i l and Ni2 designated weld metal may be 1.80%maximum when c a h n is restricted to 0.1%

8
Copyright American Welding Society
Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=Defense Contract Mgmt Command/5935922100


Not for Resale, 09/15/2006 02:37:52 MDT

--`,````,,``,,````,`,`,`,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Ml

0.030

S T D - A W S A5-23/A5-23M-ENGL

07d4265 0509bd4 207

I1997

A5.23/A5.23M:1997

is not to prohibit their use with any other process for


which they are found suitable.

6.2 For the purpose of determining conformance with


this specification, an observed or calculated value shall
be rounded to the nearest 1000 psi for tensile and yield
strength for A5.23 [to the nearest 10 MPa for tensile and
yield strength for A5.23Ml and to the nearest unit in the
last right-hand place of figures used in expressing the
limiting values for other quantities in accordance with
the rounding-off method given in ASTM E 29, Practice
for Using Significant Digits in Test Data to Determine
Conformance with Specifications.

4. Acceptance
Acceptance of the electrodes and fluxes shall be in accordance with the provisions of ANSI/AWS A5.01,
Filler Metal Procurement Guidelines (see Annex A3).

5. Certification
By affixing the AWS specification and classification
designations to the packaging, or the classification to the
product, the manufacturer certifies that the product meets
the requirements of this specification (see Annex A4).

Part B

Tests, Procedures, and Requirements


7.Summary of Tests

6. Units of Measure and


Rounding-Off Procedure

The tests required for classification of solid electrodes, composite electrodes, and flux-electrode combinations are specified in Table 3.

6.1 This specification makes use of both U.S. Customary


Units and the International System of Units (SI). The
measurements are not exact equivalents; therefore, each
system must be used independently of the other without
combining in any way. The specification with the designation A523 uses U.S. Customary Units. The specification with the designation A5.23M uses SI Units. The
latter are shown in appropriate columns in the Tables or
Figures or are shown within brackets [ ] when used in the
text. Figures in parenthesis ( ), following the U.S. Customary Units, are calculated equivalent SI values for the
specified dimensions. Figures in brackets [ 1, following
U.S. Customary Units used in the text, are rational SI
Units.

7.1 Electrodes
7.1.1 Solid Electrodes.Chemical analysis of the electrode is the only test required for classification of a solid
electrode under this specification. The chemical analysis
of the rod stock from which the electrode is made may
also be used, provided the electrode manufacturing process does not alter the chemical composition.
7.1.2 Composite Electrodes. Chemical analysis of
weld metal produced with the composite electrode and a
particular flux is the only test required for classification
of a composite electrode under this specification.

Table 3
Tests Required for Classification
--`,````,,``,,````,`,`,`,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Analysis
AWS Classification

~~~~~

Chemical
Radiographic

Electrode
Test

All Solid Electrodes


Required
All
Composite
Electrodes
Not
Required
Required
Not
Required
Requireda
Required
Required
All Flux-Solid
Electrode
Not

Test
Weld Metal
Test

Test

Not Required

Not Required

Tension

Impact

Not Required Not Required


Not Required
Not
Required
Not
Required

Hydrogen
Not Required
b

Combinations
All Flux-Composite
Required
Required
Required
Electrode
Required
Not
Requireda

Combinations
Notes:
a. When the "Zn impact designator (no impact requirement-Tables 7 and 7M) is used, the Impact Test is not required.
b. Diffusible hydrogen test is required only when specified by the purchaser or when the manufacturer puts the diffusible hydrogen designator on the
label (see also A3 and A6.4 in the Annex).

9
Copyright American Welding Society
Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=Defense Contract Mgmt Command/5935922100


Not for Resale, 09/15/2006 02:37:52 MDT

A5.231A5.23M:1997

of composite electrode weld metal may be takenfrom the


groove weld in Figure 3A. Note c to Table 2 allows the
sample for chemical analysis in the case of a composite
electrode to be taken from the reduced section of the
fractured tension test specimen or from a corresponding
location (or any location above it) in the weld metal in
the groove weld in Figure 3A. In case of dispute, the
weld pad shall be the referee method.

7.2 Fluxes. The tests specified in Table 3 determine the


chemical composition, the mechanical properties, and
the soundness of the weld metal obtained with a particular flux-electrode combination. The base metalfor the
weld test assemblies, the welding and testing procedures
to be employed, and the results required are given in Sections 9 through 13.

7.3 Flux classification is based upon a 5/32-in. [4.0-mm]


electrode size as standard.If this size electrode is not
manufactured, the closest size shall be used for classification tests. See Note (d) of Figure 3B.

9.1.3 Classification of Flux-Electrode Combinations. One groove weld test assembly is required for
each classification of a flux-solid electrode combination
or a flux-composite electrode combination. This is the
groove weld in Figure 3A for mechanical properties and
soundness of the weld metal.
A second test assembly, the weld pad in Figure 2, is
required for chemical analysis of the weld metal. However, Note c to Table 2 allows the sample for chemical
analysis to be taken from the reducedsection of the fractured tension test specimen or from a corresponding
location (or any location above it) in the weld metal in
the groove weld in Figure 3A, thereby avoiding the need
to make the weld pad. In case of dispute, the weld pad
shall be the referee method.

8. Retest

--`,````,,``,,````,`,`,`,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

If the results of any test fail to meet the requirement,


that test shall be repeated twice. The results of both retests shall meet the requirement. Material, specimens, or
samples for retest may be taken from the original test assembly or sample or from one or two new testassemblies
or samples. For chemical analysis, retest need be only for
those specific elements that failed to meet the test requirement. If the results of one or both retests fail to meet
the requirement, the material under test shall be considered as not meeting the requirements of this specification
for that classification.
In the event that, during preparation or after completion of any test, it is clearly determined that prescribed or
proper procedures were not followed in preparing the
weld test assembly or test specimen(s) or in conducting
the test, the test shall be considered invalid, without
regard to whether the test was actually completed or
whether test results met, or failed to meet, the requirement. That test shall be repeated, following proper prescribed procedures. In this case, the requirement for
doubling the number oftest specimens does not apply.

9.2 Preparation. Preparation of each weld test assembly


shall be as prescribedin 9.3 and 9.4. The base metal for
each assembly shall be as required in Table 4 corresponding to the tests to be conducted and shall meet the
requirements of the appropriate ASTM specification
shown there, or an equivalent specification. Testing of
the assemblies shall be as prescribed in Sections 10
through 13.

9 3 Weld Pad. For composite electrodes or for any fluxelectrode combination, a weld pad shall be prepared as
specified in Figure 2, except when the alternative in 9.1.2
or 9.1.3 is selected. Base metal of any convenient size, of
the type specified in Table 4, shall be used as the base
metal for the weld pad. The surface of the base metal on
which the filler metal is deposited shall be clean. The pad
shall be welded in the flat position, three passes per
layer, four layers high, using the flux for which classification of the compositeelectrode or flux-electrode combination is intended. The preheat temperature shall be
not less than 60F [1SoC],and the interpass temperature
shall not exceed 325F [165"C]. The slag shall be removed after each pass. The pad may be quenched in
water between passes but shall be dry before the start of
each pass. Testing of this assembly shall be as specified
in Section 10, Chemical Analysis.

9. Weld Test Assemblies


9.1 Requirements for Classification
9.1.1 Classification of Solid Electrodes. No weld
test assembly is required for classification of solid

electrodes.

9.1.2 Classification of Composite Electrodes. The


chemical analysis of weld metal produced with the
composite electrode and a particular flux is required for
classification of a composite electrode under this specification. The weld test assembly, shown in Figure 2, is
used to meet this requirement for the classification of
composite electrodes. Figure 2 is the weld pad test assembly for chemical analysis of weld metal. As an alternative to the weld pad, the sample for chemical analysis

9.4 Groove Weld for Mechanical Properties and


Soundness. For classification of a flux-electrode combination, a test assembly shall be prepared and welded as
specified in Figure 3A, using base metal of theappropri-

10
Copyright American Welding Society
Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=Defense Contract Mgmt Command/5935922100


Not for Resale, 09/15/2006 02:37:52 MDT

13784265 13509bBb O B T

STD-AWS

Notes:
a. Width and thickness of the base metal plate maybe any dimension suitable for the electrode diameter and current inuse.
b. Weld beads shall be depositedwithout oscillation. The welding conditions shall
be in accordancewith the manufactured recommendations.
c. The first and last2 in. [50 mm] of the weld length shall be discarded. The top surface shall be removed, and chemical analysis
samples shall be taken from the underlying metal
of the fourth layer of the weld pad.

Figure %Weld Pad for Chemical Analysis of Weld Metal

ate type specified in Table


4, and the preheat and interpass
temperature specified in Table 5. Prior to welding, the assembly may be preset so that the welded joint will be sufficiently flat to facilitate removal of the test specimens.
As an alternative, restraint or a combination of restraint
and presetting may be used to keep the welded joint
within S degrees of plane, A welded test assembly that is
more than 5 degrees out of plane shall be discarded.
Straightening of the test assembly is prohibited. Testing
of this assembly shall be as specified in Sections 10
through 13, with the assembly in either the as-welded or
the postweld heat-treated condition, according
to the classification of the weld metal (see Figure1U or Figure 1M).
When the tests are to be conducted in each condition
(as-welded and postweld heat treated), two such assemblies, or one single assembly of sufficient length to provide the specimens required for both conditions, shall be

prepared. In the latter case, the single assembly shall be


cut transverse to the weld into two pieces; one of the
pieces shall be tested in the as-welded condition, and the
other piece shall be heat treated prior to testing.
Any test assembly to be heat treated shall be heat
treated at the temperature specified in Table 5 for 1 hour
(-0, +15 minutes). The furnace shall be at a temperature
not higher than 600F [315"C] when the test assembly is
placed in it. The heating rate, from that pointto the specified holding temperature in Table 5 shall not exceed
400F per hour [22OoCper hour]. When the one-hour
holding time has been completed, the assembly shall be
allowed to cool in the furnace to a temperature below
600F [31SC] at a rate not exceeding 350F per hour
[195"Cper hour]. The assembly may be removed from
the furnace at any temperature below600F [315"C] and
allowed to cool in still air to room temperature.
--`,````,,``,,````,`,`,`,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

11
Copyright American Welding Society
Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=Defense Contract Mgmt Command/5935922100


Not for Resale, 09/15/2006 02:37:52 MDT

5" MAXIMUM

ALLOWABLE DISTORTION

II

POINT AT WHICH
TEMPERATURE IS
MEASURED

II

--`,````,,``,,````,`,`,`,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

II
I I

I l

II

WE1.D

G
L
' IMPACT
L ALL-WELD-METAL
SPECIMENS
TENSION
SPECIMEN

(A) JOINT CONFIGURATION AND LOCATION OF TEST SPECIMENS

/
"

/-

SEE FOOTNOTE"a" OF TABLE4 1


(B)
LOCATION
SPECIMENS
TENSION
TEST

OF IMPACT
(C)
LOCATION

OF ALL-WELDMETAL
TEST SPECIMEN
(D)

in.LETER

BUTERED GROOVE

DIMENSIONS
~~~

L
(min)
T
(min) W

D
B
R
(min) Z

(min)
F

12
1 2 1/16
5
31a 2 1/32
9.5
2
112 2 1/16
1

Length
Thickness
Width
Center
Specimen
Backup Width (min)
Root Opening
Discard
Backup Thickness:
buttering
Without
(min)
Weh buttering
(min)
ThicknessButtering

Figure 3A-Groove

112
310

I /a

Weld Test Assembly

12
Copyright American Welding Society
Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=Defense Contract Mgmt Command/5935922100


Not for Resale, 09/15/2006 02:37:52 MDT

305
25 2 1.5
127
f 1.o
50
13 f 1.5

25
13
9.5
3.2

S T D - A W S A5.23/A5.23M-ENGL

-~

0784265 0509688 952

L937

A5.23lA5.23M:1997

Weldina Conditions for Solid Electrodesa.b~c


Electrode Sized

nt mmlsec
mm

Welding
ipm
Voltage Current
in. in.
(Volts)
(Amperes)'
mme
1/16

5/64
3/32

7/64
118
4.05132
3/16

7/32
114

1.6
2.0
2.4
2.5
2.8
3.0
3.2
4.8
5.0
5.6

6.0
6.4

Arc

Electrode Extensiong Travel Speed


(21)

250 to 35026
300to 400
350 to450
350 to 450
400to 500
400 to 500
425 to 525
475 to 575
525 to 625
550 to 650
575 to 675
625 to 725
700 to 800

to 29
26 to 29
27 to 30
27 to 30
27 to 30
27 to 30
27 to 30
27 to 30
27 to 30
27 to 30
28 to 31
28 to 31
28 to 32

1I2 to 314
1I2 to 314
314 to 1-114
314 to 1-114
314 to 1-114
1 to 1-112
1 to 1-112
1 to 1-112
1 to 1-112
1 to 1-112
1-114 to 1-314
1-114 to 1-314
1-112 to 2

13tO 19
13 to 19
19 to 32
19 to 32
19 to 32
25 to 38
25 to 38
25 to 38
25 to 38
25 to 38
32 to44
32 to 44
38 to 50

12
13
14
14
14
15
15
16
17
17
18
19
20

(20.5)
Temp.'
Temp.'
Typeh

5.0
5.5
6.0
6.0

5
'
6'5
7.0

7.0
7.0
7.5
8.0
8.5

A.C. or
Refer
D.C.
either
Table
polarity

to
5

Refer to
Table 5

Notes:
a. Values specified in inches or ipm applyto A5.23. Values specifiedin mm or mmlsec. applyto A5.23M.
b. These welding conditions are intended for machine or automatic welding with straight progression (no weaving). Welding shall be
performed in the flat position. The first layer shall be produced
in either 1 or 2 passes. All other layers shallbe producedin 2 or 3
passes per layer except the last, which shall be produced
in 3 or 4 passes. The completed weld be
shallat least flush with the surface
of the test plate.
c. Welding conditions for composite electrodes shall be as agreed between purchaser and supplier.
d. Classification is based on the propertiesof weld metal with 5/32 in. (4.0 mm] electrodes
or the closest size manufactured,if 5/32 in.
[4.0 mm] is not manufactured. The conditions given above
for sizes other than 5/32 in. [4.0 mm] are to be used when classification
is
FillerA5.01,
Metal Procurement Guidelines(unless
based on those sizes, or when they are required for lot acceptance testing under
other conditions are specified by the purchaser).
e. 4.8 mm, 5.6 mm and 6.4 mm are not includedas standard sizesin IS0 864:1988.
f. Lower currents may be used for the first layer.
g. The electrode extensionis the contact tube-to-work distance. When an electrode manufacturer recommends a contact tube-to-work
distance outside the range shown, that recommendation shall be followed
k 114 in. [6.5 mm].
as the referee current.
h. In case of dispute, DCEP (direct current electrode positive) shall be used
i. The welding of any pass may begin only when the assemblyis within the interpass temperature range. The point
of temperature
measurement shall be at the mid-length of the test assembly, approximately 1 in. (25 mm] from the weld centerline.

Figure 3B"Groove Weld Test Welding Parameters

the coating shall be removedif its presence affects the results of the analysis for other elements. Rod stock may
be analyzed prior to coating for thoseelements not added
in the coating. In this case, the analysis of the elements
in the electrode coating must be made on the finished
electrode.

9.5 Diffusible Hydrogen. In those cases in which an op-

tional supplemental diffusible hydrogen designator is to


be added to the flux-electrode classification designation,
four diffusible hydrogen test assemblies shall be prepared, welded, and tested as specified in Section 14, Diffusible Hydrogen Test.

10.2 Composite electrodes and all flux-electrode combinations shall be analyzed in the form of weld metal. The
sample for analysis shall be taken from weld metal obtained with the electrode and the flux with which it is
classified. The sample shall come from the weld pad in
Figure 2, from the reduced section of the fractured tension test specimen (see 12.1)or from a correspondinglocation (or any location above it) in the weld metal in the
groove weld in Figure 3A. In case of dispute, the weld
pad shall be the referee method.
The top surface of the pad described in 9.3 and shown
in Figure 2 shall be removed and discarded, anda sample
for analysis shall be obtained from the underlying metal

10. Chemical Analysis


10.1 For solid electrodes, a sample of the electrode shall
be prepared for chemical analysis. The rod stock from
which the electrode is made may also be used for chemical analysis, provided the electrode manufacturing process does not alter the chemical composition. Solid
electrodes, when analyzed for elements that are present
in a coating (copper flashing, for example), shall be analyzed without removing the coating. When the electrode
is analyzed for elements other than those in the coating,

13
Copyright American Welding Society
Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

--`,````,,``,,````,`,`,`,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Licensee=Defense Contract Mgmt Command/5935922100


Not for Resale, 09/15/2006 02:37:52 MDT

Table 4
Base Metalfor Test Assemblies
Designation
Metal
Weld

Base
Number"
UNS
Metal

BaseASTM
Standard%b
Metal

Al, A2, A3, A4


B2 and B2H
B3
B4
B5
B6 and B6H
B8
B9
Nil
Ni2
Ni3
Ni4 and Ni5

A 204 Grade A
A 387 Grade11
A 387 Grade 22
A 387 Grade 22
A 387 Grade11
A 387 Grade
5
A 387 Grade 9
A 387 Grade 91
A 516 Grade60,65, or 70, A 537 Class
1or 2
A 537Class 1or 2, or A203 Grade A or B
A 203 GradeD or E
A 537 Class1 or 2, or A 203 Grade A Bor

F1 and F4

A 537Class 1 or 2, or A 533 (any type


of grade K12437, K12521, K12539, K12529,or K12554
in these specifications)

F2 and F3

A 302 GradeC or D,or A 533 TypeB,C, or D

K12039, K12054, K12539, K12529, K12554

F5 and F6

A 514or A 517 (any type or grade in these


specifications)

K11511, K11576, K11625, K11630, K11646,


K11683, K11856, K21604,or K21650

Ml, M2, M3, M4, M5, M6

A 514 orA 517 (any type or grade in these


specifications), or A 543 Type BCor

K11511, K11576, K11625, K11630, K11646,


K11683, K11856, K21604, K21650,or K42339

A 572 or 588
A (any type or grade in these
specifications)

K02303, KO2304,KO2305, K02306, K11430,


K12040, K12043, or K11538

K11820
K11789
K21590
U1590
K11789
S.50200

s50400

s50460
K02100, K02403, K02700,or K12437
K12437, K21703, or K22103
K31718 or W2018
K12437. K21703, or K22103

Notes:
a. For any weld metal classification in this specification,ASTM A 36, A 285 Grade C,A 515 Grade70,or A 516 Grade70 may be used. In that case,
the groove faces and the contacting face of the backing shall be buttered, as shown in Figure 3, using a flux-electrodecombination of the same weld
metal composition as that specified for the combination being tested, or using an electrode of the specified composition classified in another AWS
low-alloy steel filler metal specification. Alternately, forthe indicated weld metal classification,the corresponding base metals may be used for
weld test assemblies without buttering. In case of dispute, buttered A 36 steel shall be the referencematerial.
b. Chemically equivalent steels in other U.S. customary grades or in any metric grades, whose properties are expressed in SI Units, may also be used.
c. As classified in ASTM DS-56, SAE HS-1086,Metals andAlloysin the UnifiedNumbering System.
d. For the "G" classification in this specification, ASTM A 36, A 285 Grade C, A 515 Grade 70, or A 516 Grade 70 may be used; however, the groove
faces and the contacting face of the backing shall be buttered, as shown in Figure 3, using either the flux-electrode combination being classified or
using an electrode of matching composition classified in another AWS low-alloy steel filler metal specification.

of the fourth layerof the weld pad by any appropriate


mechanical means. The sampleshall be free of slag.
The alternatives to the weld pad outlined above and in
9.1.2and 9.1.3 shall beprepared for analysis by any appropriate mechanical means.

11. Radiographic Test


11.1The groove weld described in 9.4 and shown in Figure 3A shall be radiographed to evaluate the soundness
of the weld metal. In preparation for radiography, the
backing shall beremoved and both surfaces of the weld
shall be machined or ground smooth and flush with
the
original surfaces of the basemetal. Both surfaces of the
test assembly, in the area of the weld, shall be smooth
enough to avoid difficulty ininterpreting the radiograph.

103 The sampleshall be analyzed by accepted analytical


methods. The referee method shall be the procedure in
the latest edition of ASTME 350, Test Methods for
Chemical Analysis of Carbon Steel, Low Alloy Steel, Silicon Electrical Steel, Ingot Iron and Wrought Iron.

11.2 The weld shall be radiographed in accordance with


ASTM E 142, Method for Controlling Quality of Radiographic Testing. The quality level of inspection shall be
2-2T.

10.4 The results of the analysis shall meet the requirements of Table 1 or 2, as applicable, for the classification
of electrode or flux-electrode combination under test.

14
Copyright American Welding Society
Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

--`,````,,``,,````,`,`,`,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Licensee=Defense Contract Mgmt Command/5935922100


Not for Resale, 09/15/2006 02:37:52 MDT

~~

STDmAWS A5-23/A5.23M-ENGL

L997

= 0784265 0507670 500

A5.23/A5.23M:1997

Table 5
Preheat, Interpass, and Postweld Heat Treatment Temperaturesa
~~

~~~

Preheat
and
Interpass

300
300
300
300
300
300
300

Al
A2
A3
--`,````,,``,,````,`,`,`,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

A4
B1
B2
B2H
B3
B4
B5
B6
B6H
B8
B9

400

400
300
400
400
400

400
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300

Nil

Ni2
Ni3
Ni4

Ni5
F1
F2
F3
F4d

F5d
F6d
Mld

M2d
M3
M4d
M5d
M6*
Wd

specified

~~

~~

Temperatureb

~~

~~~~~

~~

Postweld
Heat
Treatment
TemperatureC

"C ? 15

"F225

"C2 15

150
150
150
150
150
150
150
205
205
150
205
205
205
205
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150

620
620

150
150
150
150

1150
1150
1150
1150
1150
1275
1275
1275
1275
1150
1375
1375
1375
1375
1150
1150
1150
1150
1150
1150
1150
1150
1050
1050
1050
1125
1125

150

1125

150
150

1125
1125

150

1125

150

1125

150

620

620
620
690
690
6W
690

620
745
745
745
745
620
620
620
620
620

620
620
620
565
565
565
605
605
605
605
605
605
605

not

Notes:
a. These temperatures are specified for electrodes and fluxes tested and classified under this specification and are not necessarily for production use.
The specific requirements for production welding shall
be determined by the user. They may or may not differ from those c a l l e d for here. (Seealso
A6.3.)
b. The preheat and interpass temperatures listed here shallbe used for the test assemblies regardless of whether the electrode-flux combination
is classified in the as-welded or postweld heat treated condition. They are required for purposes of uniformityand may or may not be indicative of those
is required there. (See also
that might be satisfactory for fabrication of any particular weldment. The fabricator shall determine for himself what
A6.3.)

c. Weld metal specimens for flux-electrode combinations classified


in the postweld heat treated condition shallbe heat treated for one hour at the temperature shown for that classification.
d. These classifications are normallyused in the as-welded condition.

Copyright American Welding Society


Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=Defense Contract Mgmt Command/5935922100


Not for Resale, 09/15/2006 02:37:52 MDT

S T D - A W S ASm23/A5-23M-ENGL

3997

0784265 0509693 447 D

A5.231&.23M:1997

13.1 For those classifications for which impact testing is


specified in Table 3, five Charpy V-notch impact specimens, as specified in the Fracture Toughness Testing of
Welds section of ANSI/AWS B4.0, shall be machined
from the test assembly shown in Figure 3A.
The Charpy V-notch specimens shall have the
notched surface and the surface to be struck parallel
within 0.002 in. [0.05mm]. The other two surfaces shall
be square with the notched or struck surface within f10
minutes of a degree. The notch shall be smoothly cut by
mechanical means andshall be square with the longitudinal edge of the specimen withinone degree.
The geometry of the notch shall be measured on at
least one specimen in a set of five specimens. Measurement shall be done at minimum 50 times magnification
on either a shadowgraph or a metallograph. Thecorrect
location of the notch shall be verified by etching before
or after machining.
For flux-electrode combinations classified in the
postweld heat-treated condition, the weld metal shall be
heat treated as shown in Table 5 before final machining
of the specimens.

113.1 A rounded indication is an indication (on the


radiograph) whose length is no more than 3 times its
width. Rounded indications may be circular, or irregular
in shape, and they may have tails. The size of a rounded
indication is the largest dimension of the indication, including any tail that may be present.
113.2 Indications whose largest dimension does not
exceed 1/64in. [0.4mm] shall be disregarded. Test assemblies with indications larger than the large indications permitted in the radiographic standards donot meet
the requirements of this specification.

13.2 The five specimens shall be tested in accordance


with the fracture toughness test section of ANSI/AWS
B4.0.The test temperature shall be as specified in Table
7U or Table 7M, as applicable, for the classification
under test.

12. Tension Test

13.3U In evaluating the test results, the lowest and the


highest values obtainedshall be disregarded. Two of the
remaining three values shall equal, or exceed, the specified 20 ftalbf energy level. One of the three may be lower,
but not lower than 15 ft-lbf, and the average of the three
shall not be less than the required 20 ft4bf energy level.

12.1 One all-weld-metal standard round tensile specimen, as specified in the Tension Tests section of ANSI/
AWS B4.0,Standard Methods for Mechanical Testing of
Welds, shall be machined from the groove weld described in 9.4and shown in Figure 3A. The tensile specimen shall have a nominal diameter of 0.500 in [12.5mm]
and a nominal gage length to diameter ratio of 4:l.
For flux-electrode combinations classified in the
postweld heat-treated condition, the weld metal shall be
heat-treated as shown in Table 5 before final machining
of the specimen.

133M In evaluating the test results, the lowest and the


highest values obtainedshall be disregarded. Two of the
remaining three values shall equal, or exceed, the specified 275 energy level. Oneof the three may be lower, but
not lower than 20J,and the average of the three shall not
be less than the required 275 energy level.
13.4 For classifications with the "N" (nuclear) designation, three additional specimens shall be prepared. These
specimens shall be tested at room temperature. Two of
the three shall equal or exceed 75 ft-lbf [lo2 J], and the
third shall be not lower than 70 ftelbf [95 J]. The average
of the three shall equal or exceed 75 ft4bf [lo2 J].

12.2 After machining, but before testing, the specimen


for all flux-electrode classifications, except those classified in the postweld heat-treated condition, may be aged
at temperatures up to 220F [lOS"C] for up to 48 hours,
then allowed to cool to room temperature. Refer to A6.5
for a discussion on the purpose of aging. The specimen
shall be tested in the manner described in the tension test
section of ANSI/AWS B4.0, Standard Methods for Mechanical Testing of Welds.

14. Diffusible Hydrogen Test

123 The results of the tension testshall meet the requirements specified in Table 6U or Table 6M,as applicable.

14.1 For each flux-electrode combination to be identified


by a diffusible hydrogen designator, that combination

16
Copyright American Welding Society
Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=Defense Contract Mgmt Command/5935922100


Not for Resale, 09/15/2006 02:37:52 MDT

--`,````,,``,,````,`,`,`,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

13. Impact Test

113 The soundness of the weld metal meets the requirements ofthis specification if the radiograph shows:
(1) No cracks, no incomplete fusion, and no incomplete penetration
(2) No slag inclusions longer than 5/16in. [8 mm] or
no groups of slag inclusions in line that have an aggregate length greater than 1 in. [25mm] in a 12 in. r300
mm] length, except when the distance between the successive inclusions exceeds 6 times the length of the longest inclusion in the group
(3) No rounded indications in excess of those permitted by the radiographic standardsin Figure 4
I n evaluating the radiograph, 1 in. [25 mm] of
the weld on each end of the test assembly shall be
disregarded.

STDmAWS A5=23/A5.23M-ENGL

L997

111 0 7 8 4 2 6 5 0509692 3 8 3
A5.23/A5.23M:1997

e
o

(A) ASSORTED ROUNDED INDICATIONS


SIZE PERMllTED IS 1/64 in. [0.4 mm] TO 1/16 in.[1.6 mm]
NUMBER PERMllTED INANY 6 in. [150 mm]OF WELD = 18,
WITH THE FOLLOWING RESTRICTIONS:
LARGE: 3/64in. [1.2 mm] TO 1/16 in.[1.6 mm] = 3 PERMITTED.
MEDIUM: 1/32 in.[0.8 mm] TO3/64 in. [1.2 mm] = 5 PERMITTED.
SMALL: 1/64 in. [0.4 mm] TO 1/32 in. [OB mm] = 10 PERMITTED.

O
O

O
O

(B)LARGE

ROUNDED INDICATIONS

SIZE PERMllTED IS3/64in. [I .2 mm]TO 1/16 in.[I .6 mm]


NUMBER PERMllTED IN ANY 6 in.[ I50 mm] OF WELD = 8.
e

SIZE PERMITED IS 1/32 in. [0.8mm] TO 3/64 in. [1.2mm]


NUMBER PERMITTEDIN ANY 6 in. [150 mm]OF WELD = 15.
e

e
e

o
e

o
a

~~

~~

~~

(D) SMALL ROUNDED INDICATIONS

SIZE PERMllTED IS 1/64 in. [0.4 mm] TO 1/32 in. [0.8 mm]
NUMBER PERMllTED INANY 6 in.[I50mm] OF WELD = 30.
Notes:
a. The chart whichis most representative of the size of the rounded indications
in the radiograph of the test assembly shall be used for
determination of conformance with this specification. Rounded indications smaller than
1/64 in. [0.4 mm] shall be disregarded. The
largest dimension of the indication (including any istail)
the sizeof the indication.
b. These radiographic requirements are for test welds made
in the laboratory specificallyfor classification purposes. They are more
to the Grade 1 standards of ANSllAWS A5.1,
restrictive than those usually encountered
in general fabrication. They are equivalent
Specification for Carbon Steel Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding.

Figure &Radiographic Standards for Rounded Indications


17
Copyright American Welding Society
Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=Defense Contract Mgmt Command/5935922100


Not for Resale, 09/15/2006 02:37:52 MDT

--`,````,,``,,````,`,`,`,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

S T D - A W S A5.23/A5.23M-ENGL

0784265 0509693 Z I T

1997

A5.231A5.23M:1997

Table 6U
A5.23 Tension Test Requirements
Strength'
Yield
Strength
Tensile

Elongation'

F7XX-EXX-XX
F8XX-EXX-XX
F9XX-EXX-XX
FlOXX-EXX-XX
FllXX-EXX-XX
F12XX-EXX-XX

70 000-95 O00
80 000-100 O00
90 m l 1 0 O00

22
20
17
16
15'
14'

58 O00
68 O00
78 O00
88 O00

100 000-120o00
110 000-130 O00
120 000-140 O00

98 O00
108 O00
~~

~~

Notes:
a. The letter"S" will appear after the"F" as part of the classification designation when theflux being classified isa crushed slag or a blend of crushed
is
slag with unused (virgin) flux. The letter"C" will appear after the "E"as part of the classification designation when theelectrode being classified
a composite electrode. The letter"X" used in various places in the classifications in this table stands for, respectively, the condition
of heat treatelectrode, and the chemical compositionof the weld metal.See Figure 1 U for acomment, the toughnessof the weld metal, the classification of the
plete explanation of the classification designators.
b. Minimum Requirements. Yield strength at 0.2 percent offset and elongation in 2 in. gage length.
c. Elongation may be reduced by one percentage point for FllXX-EXX-XX, F1 IXX-ECXX-XX, F12XX-ECXX-XX, and F12XX-EXX-XX weld
metals in the upper 25 percent of their tensile strength range.

Table 6M
A5.23M Tension Test Requirements
Flux-Electrode
Classificationa
F48XX-EXX-XX
FSSXX-EXX-XX
F62XX-EXX-XX
F69XX-EXX-XX
F76XX-EXX-XX
F83XX-EXX-XX

Tensile Strength
(MW

Yield Strengthb
(MW

Elongationb

480-660
550-700
620-760
690430
760-900

400

830-970

740

22
20
17
16
15'
14c

470
540

610
680

(W

Notes:
a. The letter"S" will appear after the "F"as part of the classification designation when theflux being classified isa crushed slag ora blend of crushed
slag with unused (virgin) flux. The letter"C" will appear after the "E"as part of the classification designation when the
electrode being classified
is
a composite electrode.The letter "X" used in various places in the classifications in this table stands for, respectively, the condition of'heat treatof the electrode, and the chemical composition of the weld metal. See Figure
1 M for a comment, the toughness of the weld metal, the classification
plete explanation of the classification designators.
b. Minimum Requirements. Yield strength at 0.2 percent offset and elongation in 51 mm gage length.
c. Elongation may be reduced by one percentage point for F76XX-EXX-XX, F76XX-ECXX-XX, F83XX-EXX-XX, and F83XX-ECXX-XX weld
metals in the upper 25 percent of their tensile strength range.

shall be tested in the as-manufactured condition according to one of the methods given in ANSIIAWS A4.3,
Standard Methods for Determination of the Diflusible
Hydrogen Content of Martensitic, Bainitic, and Ferritic
Steel Weld Metal Produced by Arc Welding.The welding
procedure shown in Figure 3B for the Groove Weld Test
shall be used for the diffusible hydrogen test. The travel
speed, however, may be increased up to a maximum of
28 in/min [12 mm/s]. This adjustment in travel speed is
permitted in order to establish a weld bead width that is
appropriate for the specimen. The electrode, flux, or
both, may be baked to restore the moisture content be-

fore testing to the as-manufactured condition. When this


is done, the baking time and temperature shall be noted
on the test report. The electrode manufacturer, flux manufacturer, or both, should be consulted for their recommendation regarding the time and temperature for
restoring their products to the as-manufactured condition. The diffusible hydrogen designator may be added to
the classification designation according to the average
test value as compared to the requirements of Table 8.
14.2 For purposes of certifying compliance with diffusible hydrogen requirements, the reference atmospheric

18
Copyright American Welding Society
Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=Defense Contract Mgmt Command/5935922100


Not for Resale, 09/15/2006 02:37:52 MDT

--`,````,,``,,````,`,`,`,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

(%I

Classificationa
Flux-Electrode

Table 7M
A5.23M Impact Test Requirementsa#

Table 7U
A5.23 Impact Test Requirementsa*
Temperature
Digit

Maximum Test

Maximum TestMinimumAverage
F
Energy
Level

Temperature
Digit

Minimum Average

Energy Level

-20
-40

-so

6
8
10

-60

20 ft-lbf

-80
-100
-150

15

O
-20
-30
-40

5
6
7
10

-60
-70
-100

No impact requirements

O
2
3
4

-so

27 Joules

No impact requirements

~~

Notes:
a. Based on the results of the impacttests of the weld metal, the manufacturer shall insert in the classification the appropriate digitfrom
Table 7U,as indicated in Figure 1U.
b. Weld metal from a specific flux-electrode combination that meets
impact requirements ata given temperature also meets the requirements atal higher temperaturesin this table(Le., weld metal meeting
4,
the requirements for digit5 also meets the requirements for digits
2, O, and 2).
c. Weld metals with the N suffix shall also have a Charpy V-notch
energy level of at least75 tl.lbf at room temperature (see 13.4).

Notes:
a. Based on the results of the impacttests of the weld metal, the manufacturer shall insert in the classification the appropriatedigit from
Table 7M,as indicated in Figure 1M.
b. Weld metal from a specific flux-electrode combination that meets
impact requirements at a given temperature also meets the requirements at al higher temperaturesin this table (Le., weld metal meeting
the requirements for digit5 also meets the requirements for digits4,
3,2, O, and Z).
c. Weld metals with the N suffix shall also have a Charpy V-notch
energy level of at least 102 Joules atroom temperature (see 13.4).

condition shall be an absolute humidity of 10 grains of


moisture per pound [1.5 grams of moisture perkg] of dry
air at the time of welding. The actual atmospheric conditions shall be reported alongwith the average diffusible
hydrogen value for the test according to ANSI/AWS
A4.3.

15.1 Crushed Slags. Slag formed during the welding


process that is subsequently crushed for use as a welding
flux is defined as crushed slag. Crushed slag and blends
of crushed slag with unused(virgin) flux may be classified as a welding flux under this specification. The letter
S shall be used as a mandatory classification designator as shown in Figures 1U and 1M when the flux being
classified is a crushed slagor is a blend of crushed slag
with virgin flux.(See A6.1.5 in the Annex.)

1 4 3 When the absolute humidity equals or exceeds the


reference condition at the time of preparation of the test
assembly, the test shall be acceptable as demonstrating
compliance with the requirements of this specification,
provided that the actual test results satisfy the diffusible
hydrogen requirements for a givendesignator, as specified in Table8.

16. Electrode Requirements


14.1 Standard Sizes.Standard sizes for electrodes in the
different packageforms (coils with support, coils without
support, and drums) are shown in Table 9U or Table 9M,
as applicable.

Part C
Manu facture,
Identification,

and Packaging

16.2 Finish and Uniformity


16.2.1 The electrode shall have a smooth finish which
is free from slivers, depressions, scratches, scale, seams,
laps (exclusive of the longitudinal joint in composite
electrodes), and foreign matter that would adversely affect the welding characteristics, the operation of the
welding equipment, or the properties of the weld metal.

15. Method of Manufacture


The electrodes and fluxes classified according to this
specification may be manufactured by any method that
will produce material that meets the requirements of this
specification.

19
Copyright American Welding Society
Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=Defense Contract Mgmt Command/5935922100


Not for Resale, 09/15/2006 02:37:52 MDT

--`,````,,``,,````,`,`,`,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Table 8
Diffusible Hydrogen Requirementsa
AWS Flux-Electrode
Combination Classification

Optional Supplemental

Diffusible Hydrogen Designatorb

Average Diffusible Hydrogen,


MaximumC (rnV100g DepositedMetal)

H16
H8
H4
H2

All
All
All

All

16.0
8.0
4.0
2.0

Notes:
a. Diffusible hydrogen test is required only when specified by the purchaser or when the manufacturer puts the diffusible hydrogen designator on the
label (see also SectionA3 and A6.4 in the Annex).
1U and 1M).
b. This designator is added to the endof the complete flux-electrode classification system (see Figures
c. Flux-electrode combinations meeting requirements for
an H2 designator also meet the requirementsfor H4,H8, and H16.
Flux-electrode combinations meeting requirements for
an H4 designator also meet the requirements forH8 and H16.
Flux-electrode combinations meeting the requirements
for an H8 designator alsomeet the requirements forH16.

--`,````,,``,,````,`,`,`,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Table 9M
A5.23M Standard Electrode
Sizes and Tolerancesa

Table 9U
A5.23 Standard Electrode
Sizes and Tolerancesa

Tolerance (* mm)

Tolerance (in.)

Diameter
(in.)

Solid (E)

1/16 or 0.062
20.003
50.002
0.078
5/64or
3/32 or 0.094

1.6
2.0
2.4

~0.003

1/8 or 0.125
5/32 or 0.156
3/16 or 0.188
7/32 or 0.219
114 or 0.250

2.5
2.8

20.004

3.0
3.2
4.0
4.8

+o.m

(E)

Diameter
(mm)
Solid

Composite (EC)

*0.005

5.0

Composite (EC)

20.04

+0.04, -0.05

20.006

tO.06,-0.08

5.6
6.0
6.4

Notes:
a. Other sizes and tolerances may be supplied as agreed between purchaser and supplier.

Notes:
a. Other sizes and tolerances may be supplied as agreed between purchaser and supplier.

16.2.2 Each continuous length of electrode shall


be from a single heat or lot of material. Welds, when
present, shall have been made so as not to interfere with
the uniform, uninterrupted feeding of the electrode on
automatic and semiautomatic equipment.

as a coating for any classification except one that carries


the designator, N, (nuclear). Coating of Nelectrodes
with copper or copper-bearing material is prohibited.

16.23 Core ingredients in composite electrodes shall


be distributed with sufficient uniformity throughout the
length of the electrode, so as not to adversely affect the
performance of the electrode o r the properties of the
weld metal.

163 Standard PackageForms


163.1 Standard package forms are coils with support,
coils without support, and drums. Standard package dimensions and weights for each form are given in Table
10. Package forms, sizes, and weights other than these
shall be as agreed upon between purchaser and supplier.

16.2.4 A suitable protective coating may be applied to


any electrode in this specification. Copper may be used

20
Copyright American Welding Society
Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=Defense Contract Mgmt Command/5935922100


Not for Resale, 09/15/2006 02:37:52 MDT

Table 10
Standard Dimensions and Weightsatb
Net Weight
Electrode Sizec

Coils
without
Supportl

1/16-1/4

Inside Diameter
of Liner

of Coild

1 1.6-6.4 I

Width of Coil, Outside Diameter


Max.
of Coil, Max.

As agreed
between
purchaser
and
supplier
As agreed between purchaser and supplier

Notes:

a. Values specified in in. or Ibn apply to A5.23. Values specified in mm or kg apply to A5.23M.
a. Other dimensions and weights may be supplied as agreed between purchaser and supplier.
b. The range is inclusive.
c. Net weights shall not vary more than 210 percent.

16.3.2 The liners in coils with support shall be designed and constructed to prevent distortion of the coil
during normal handling and use and shall be clean and
dry enough tomaintain the cleanliness of the electrode.

interrupted manner on automatic and semiautomatic


equipment.

16.3.3 Drums shall be designed and constructed to


prevent distortion of the electrode during normal handling anduse and shall beclean and dry enough to maintain the cleanliness of the electrode.

16.5.1 The product information and the precautionary


information required in 16.7 for marking each package
shall appear also on each coil and drum.

16.5 Electrode Identification

16.5.2 Coils without support shall have a tag containing this information securely attachedto the inside end of
the coil.

16.4 Winding Requirements


16.4.1The electrode shall be wound so that kinks,
waves, sharp bends, or wedging are not encountered,
leaving the electrode freeto unwind without restriction.
The outside end of the electrode(the end with which
welding is to begin) shall be identified so it can be
readily located and shall be fastened to avoid unwinding.

16.53 Coils with support shall have the information


securely affixed in a prominentlocation on the support.
16.5.4 Drums shall have the information securely affixed in a prominent location on the side of the drum.

16.6 Packaging. Electrodes shall be suitably packaged

16.4.2 The cast and helix of the electrode in coils and


drums shallbe such that the electrode will feed in an un-

to ensure against damage during shipment and storage

under normal conditions.

21
Copyright American Welding Society
Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=Defense Contract Mgmt Command/5935922100


Not for Resale, 09/15/2006 02:37:52 MDT

--`,````,,``,,````,`,`,`,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

d. The diameter of the liner shall e agreed between purchaser and supplier.

17. Flux Requirements

16.7.1 The following product information(as a minimum) shall be legibly marked so as to be visible from the
outside of each unit package:
(1) AWS specification and classification (year of issue
may be excluded)
(2) Suppliers name and tradedesignation
(3) In the case of a composite electrode, the trade designation of the flux (or fluxes) with which its weld metal
composition meetsthe requirements of Table 2
(4) Size and net weight
(5) Lot, control, or heat number

17.1 Form and Particle Size. Flux shall be granular in


form and shall be capable of flowing freely through the
flux feeding tubes, valves, and nozzles of standard submerged arc welding equipment.Particle size is not specified here, but, whenit is addressed, it shall be a matter of
agreement between the purchaser and the supplier.
17.2 Usability. The flux shall permit the production of
uniform, well-shaped beads that merge smoothly with
each other and the base metal. Undercut, if any, shall not
be so deep or so widespread that a subsequent weld pass
will not remove it.

16.7.2 The following precautionary information(as a


minimum) shall be prominently displayed in legible print
on all packages of welding electrodes, including individual unit packages enclosed withina larger package.

173 Packaging
17.3.1 Flux shall be suitably packaged to ensure
against damage during shipment.
17.3.2 Flux, in its original unopened container, shall
withstand storage under normal conditions for at least six
months without damageto its welding characteristics or
the properties of the weld. Heating of the flux to assure
dryness may be necessary when the very best properties
(of which the materials are capable) are required. For
specific recommendations, consult the manufacturer.

WARNING:
PROTECT yourself and others. Read and understandthis
information.
FUMES and GASES can be hazardousto your health.
ARC RAYS can injure eyes and bum skin.

ELECTRIC SHOCKcan KILL.

17.4 Marking of Packages

Before use, read and understand the manufacturers


instructions, Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs),
and your employers safety practices.

17.4.1 The following product information (as a mini-

mum) shall be legibly marked so as to be visible from the


outside of each unit package.

Keep your headout of the fumes.

(1) AWS specification and classification (year of issue


may be excluded).
(2) Suppliers name and trade designation (in the case
of crushed slags, thecrusher, not the original producer of
the flux, is the supplier. See also Annex A6.1.S).
(3) The trade designation of each compositeelectrode
with which the flux manufacturer has classified the flux,
if applicable.
(4) Net weight.
( 5 ) Lot, control, or heat number.
(6) Particle size, if more than one particle size of flux
of that trade designation is produced.

Use enough ventilation, exhaust at the arc, or both,


to keep fumes and gases away from your breathing
zone and the general area.
Wear correct eye, ear, and body protection.
Do not touch live electrical parts.
See American National Standard ANSI/ASC 249.1,
Safety in Welding, Cutting, and Allied Processes, published by the American Welding Society,550 N.W. LeJeune Road, Miami, FL,33126; and OSHA Safety and
Health Standards,29 CFR 2910, available from the U.S.
Government PrintingOffi, Washington, DC 20402.

17.4.2 All packages of flux shall be marked as required in 16.7.2for the electrodes.

DO NOT REMOVE THIS INFORMATION

22
Copyright American Welding Society
Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=Defense Contract Mgmt Command/5935922100


Not for Resale, 09/15/2006 02:37:52 MDT

--`,````,,``,,````,`,`,`,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

16.7 Marking of Packages

Annex
Guide to AWS Specification for Low-Alloy Steel
Electrodes and Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding
--`,````,,``,,````,`,`,`,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

(This Annex is not a part of ANSIfAWS A5.23fA5.23M:1997, Specification for Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes and Fluxes
for Submerged Arc Welding, but is included for information purposes only).

the core material that are also present as oxides, fluorides, etc. of those same elements. Therefore, the chemical analysis of a compositeelectrode may not be directly
comparable to an analysis made on a solid electrode. For
this reason, the user is referred to weld metal composition (Table 2) with a particular flux, rather than to electrode composition.
The letter N when added as a suffix is an optional
supplemental designator indicating that the electrode is
intended for certain very special welds in nuclear applications. These welds are found in the core belt region of
the reactor vessel. This region is subject to intense neutron radiation, and it is necessary, therefore, that the
phosphorus, vanadium, and copper contents of this weld
metal be limited in order to resist neutron radiation-induced embrittlement. It is also necessary that the weld
metal have a high upper-shelf energy level in order to
withstand some embrittlement, yet remain serviceable
over the years. These electrodes are not required elsewhere; however, they could be used anywhere that weld
metal with an exceptionally high upper-shelf energy
level is required.

Al. Introduction
The purpose of this guide is to correlate the electrode
and flux classifications with their intended applications
so the specification can be used effectively. Reference to
appropriate base metal specifications is made whenever
that can be done and when it would be helpful. Such references are intended only as examples rather than complete listings of the base metalsfor which each electrode
and flux combination is suitable.

A2.Classification System
A2.1 Classification of Electrodes. The system for identifying the electrode classificationsin this specification follows the standard pattern used in other AWS filler metal
specifications. The letter E (or ECfor composite electrodes) at the beginning of each classification designation
stands for electrode. The remainder of the designation indicates the chemical compositionof the electrode or,in the
case of composite electrodes, the chemical composition
of
the weld metal obtained with a particular flux. See Figure
1U or Figure lM, as applicable.
As examples, consider the following: EL12, EM12K,
EB3, EM3, and ECB3. The prefix E designates an
electrode, as in other specifications. The EB3 and EM3
electrodes are solid electrodes whose compositions are
shown as electrode compositions in Table 1. The letter
C in ECB3 indicates that the electrode is a composite
electrode. Such electrodes are classified by the composition of the weld metal produced witha specific flux. The
composition of composite electrodes is not used because
the composite electrode may include metallic elements in

A2.2 G Classification and the Use of Not Specified and Not Required

A2.2.1 This specification includes filler metals classified as EG or ECG. The G indicates that the filler
metal is of a general classification. It is general because not all of the particular requirements specified for
each of the other classifications are specified for this
classification.
The intent, in establishing this classification, is to provide a means by which filler metals that differ in one
23

Copyright American Welding Society


Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=Defense Contract Mgmt Command/5935922100


Not for Resale, 09/15/2006 02:37:52 MDT

STDmAWS A5.23/A5.23M-ENGL

L997
07842b5
0509b97
738

A5.23/A5.23M:1997

(2) A request to establish a new filler metal classification must be a written request, and it needs to provide
sufficient detail to permit the Committee on Filler Metals
or the Subcommittee to determine whether anew classification or the modification of an existing classification
is more appropriate, and whether either is necessary to
satisfy the need. The request needs to state the variables
and their limits, for such a classification or modification.
The request should contain someindication of the time
by which completion of the new classification or modification is needed.
(3) The request should be sent to the Secretary, Committee on Filler Metals, at AWS Headquarters. Upon receipt of the request, the Secretary will do the following:
(a) Assign an identifying number to the request.
This number will include the date the request was
received.
(b) Confirm receipt of the request and give the
identification number to the person who made the
request.
(c) Send a copy of the request to the Chair of the
Committee on Filler Metals, and the particular Subcommittee involved.
(d) File the original request.
(e) Add the request to the log of outstanding
requests.
(4) All necessary action on each request will be completed as soon as possible. If more than 12 months lapse,
the Secretary shall inform the requestor of the status of
the request, with copies tothe Chair of the Committee
and the Subcommittee. Requests still outstanding after
18 months shall beconsidered not to have been answered
in a timelymanner and the Secretary shall report these
to the Chair of the Committee on Filler Metals for action.
( 5 ) The Secretary shall include a copy of the log of all
requests pending and those completedduring the preceding year with the agenda for each Committee on Filler
Metals meeting. Any other publication of requests that
have been completed will be at the option of the American Welding Society, as deemed appropriate.

respect or another (chemical composition,for example)


from all other classifications (meaning that the composition of the filler metal - in the case of the example does not meet the composition specified for any of the
classifications in the specification) can still be classified
according to the specification. The purpose is to allow a
useful filler Tetal - one that otherwise would have to
await a revislon of the specification - to be classified
immediately, under the existing specification. This
means, then, that two filler metals - each bearing the
same G classification - may be quite different in
some certain respect (chemical composition, again, for
example).

--`,````,,``,,````,`,`,`,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

A2.2.2 The point of difference (although not necessarily the amount of the difference) referred to above will
be readily apparent from the use of the words notspecified and not required in the specification. The use of
these words is as follows:
Not Specified is used in those areas of the specification that refer to the results of some particular test. It
indicates that the requirements for that test are notspecified for that particular classification.
Not Required is used in those areas of the specification that refer to the test that normally is requiredto be
conducted to classify a filler metal. It indicates that the
test is not required because the requirements (results)
for the test have not been specified for that particular
classification.
Restating the case, when a requirement is not specified, it is not necessary toconduct the corresponding test
in order to classify a filler metal to that classification.
When a purchaser wants the information provided by
that test, in order to consider a particular product of that
classification for a certain application, the purchaser will
have to arrange for that information with the supplier of
that product. The purchaser will also have to establish
with that supplier just what the testing procedure and the
acceptance requirements are to be for that test. The purchaser may want to incorporate that information (via
ANSIIAWS A5.01, Filler Metal Procurement Guidelines) in the purchase order.

A2.3 Classification of Fluxes. Fluxes are classified on


the basis of the mechanical properties and the chemical
composition of the weld metal they produce with some
certain classification of electrode, under the specific test
conditions called for in Part B of this specification.

A2.23 Request for Filler Metal Classification


(1) When a filler metal cannot be classified according
to some classification other than a G classification, the
manufacturer may request that a classification be established for that filler metal. The manufacturer may do
this by following the procedure given here. When the
manufacturer elects to use the G classification, the
Committee on Filler Metals recommends that manufacturer still request that a classification be established for
that filler metal, as long as the filler metal is of commercial significance.

A23.1U As examples of A5.23 U.S. Customary Unit


classifications, consider the following:
F7PO-EL12-Al
FS8A6-EF6-F6
FlOPZ-ECB3-B3
F9A2-ECMl-Ml

24
Copyright American Welding Society
Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=Defense Contract Mgmt Command/5935922100


Not for Resale, 09/15/2006 02:37:52 MDT

S T D - A U S A5*23/A5-23M-ENGL 1997

= 0784265 0509700
~

28T
A5.23JA5.23M:1997

The prefix F designates anunused (virgin) flux.The


prefix FS designates a flux that is made solely from
crushed slag or is a blend of crushed slag with virgin
flux. This is followed by one or twodigits representing
the minimum tensile strength required of the weld metal
in 10 O00 psi increments.
When the letter A follows the strength designator, it
indicates that the weld metal was tested (and is classified) in the as-welded condition. When the letter P follows the strength designator, it indicates that the weld
metal was tested (and is classified) after the postweld
heat treatment called for in the specification. The digit(s)
that follows the A or P will be anumber or the letter Z.
This digit(s) refers to the impact strength of the weld
metal. Specifically, it designates, on the Fahrenheit scale,
a temperatureat (and above) which the weld metal meets
or exceeds the required 20 ft. Ibf Charpy V-notch impact
strength (except for the letter Z, which indicates that no
impact requirement is specified -see Table 7U).4
These mechanical property designations are followed
by the designation of the electrode used in classifying the
flux (see Table 1). The suffix included after the first hyphen (EL12, ENi3, ECB3, or ECM1) refers to the electrode classification (solid electrodes from Table 1 or
composite electrodes from Table 2) with which the flux
will produce weld metal that meets the specified mechanical properties when tested as called for in the specification. The suffix after the second hyphen refers to the
weld metal composition (Table 2) without regard to
whether the electrode was solid or composite.

be a number or the letter Z. This digit refers to the impact strength of the weld metal. Specifically, it designates, on the Celsius scale, a temperature at (and above)
which the weld metal meets,or exceeds, the required 275
Charpy V-notch impact strength (except for the letter
Z which indicates that no impact requirement is specified-see Table 7M).
These mechanical property designations are followed
by the designation of theelectrode used in classifying the
flux (see Tables 1 and 2). The suffix (EB3, ECM2, etc.)
included after the first hyphen refers to the electrode
classification (solid electrodes from Table1 or composite
electrodes from Table 2) with which the flux will produce weld metal that meets the specified mechanical
properties when tested as called for in the specification.
The suffix after the second hyphen refers to the weld
metal composition (Table 2) without regard to whether
the electrode was solid or composite.
A2.3.2 It should be noted that flux of any specific
trade designation may have many classifications. The
number is limited only by the number of different electrode classifications and the condition of heat treatment
(as-welded and postweld heat treated) with which the
flux can meet the classification requirements. The marking of the flux package lists at least one, and may list all,
classifications to which the flux conforms. It should also
be noted that the specific usability (or operating) characteristics of various fluxes of the same classification may
differ in one respect or another.
A233 Solid electrodes having the same classification
are interchangeable when used witha specific flux; composite electrodes may not be.

A23.1M As examples of A5.23M, International System of Units (SI) classifications, consider the following:

tional system for designating welding filler metals is


under development by the International Institute of
Welding (IIW) for use in future specifications to be issued by the International Standards Organization (ISO).
Table A l shows the proposed designations for steel filler
metals. In that system, the initial S designates a solid
wire or rod followed by a four-digit number. Composite
wires are designated with an initial T.

The prefix F designates a virgin flux. The prefix


FS designates a flux that is made solely from crushed
slag or is a blend of crushed slag withvirgin flux. This
is followed by two digits representing the minimum tensile strength required of the weld metal in 10 O00 MPa
increments.
When the letter A or P follows the strength designator, it indicates, as it does in the A5.23 classification
system, the weld metal was tested (and is classified) in
either the as-welded (A) or postweld heat-treated (P)
condition. The digit(s) that follows the A or P will

A3.Acceptance
Acceptance of all welding materials classified under
this specification is in accordance with ANSUAWS
A5.01,Filler Metal Procurement Guidelines, as the specification states. Any testing a purchaser requires of the
supplier, for material shipped in accordance with this
specification, should be clearly stated in the purchase
order in accordance with ANSIJAWS A5.01.
In the absence of any such statement in the purchase
order, the supplier may ship the material with whatever
testing the supplier normally conducts on material of

4. Note that except for digit4,the same designatorfor impact

strength in Tables 7U and 7M signify different temperatures.


For example, 6 in Table 7U signifies a maximum test temperature of -6OF, whereas the same designatorin Table 7M signifies a maximum test temperature of -6OC, equivalent to -76F.

25
Copyright American Welding Society
Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=Defense Contract Mgmt Command/5935922100


Not for Resale, 09/15/2006 02:37:52 MDT

--`,````,,``,,````,`,`,`,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

A2.4 International Designation System. An interna-

F62P2-EB3-B3
FS55AZ-EF4-F4
F76A3-ECM2-M2

S T D - A W S As=23/A5.23H-ENGL 1 9 9 7

07842b5 0509303 L l b

A5.23lA5.23M :I
997

fication using the same formulation. Certification is


not to be construed to mean that tests of any kind were
necessarily conducted on samples of the specific material
shipped. Tests on such material may or may not have
been made. The basis for the certification required by the
specification is the classification test of representative
material cited above, and the Manufacturers Quality
Assurance Program in ANSIIAWS A5.01.

Table A l
Comparison of Electrode Designations

EL12
EM12K
EA1
EA2

S200

EA3
EA3K
EA4
EB1
EB2
EB2H
EB3
EB5
EB6
EB6H
EB8
EB9
ENil
ENilK
ENi2
ENi3

S3

ENW
ENiS
EF1
EF2
EF3
EF4
EF5
EF6
EM2
EM3
EM4
EW

IS0 Designation
SlOOo

Sm10
S1000-Al
S2000-A2
s4020-A3

AS. Ventilation During Welding

S3000

s1100-Bo5
S 1000-B2

A5.1The following are five major factors which govern


the quantity of fumes to which welders and welding operators are exposed during welding:
(1) Dimensions of the space in which welding is done
(with special regard to the height of the ceiling)
(2) Number of welders and welding operators working in that space
(3) Rate of evolution of fumes, gases, or dust according to the materials and processes involved
(4) The proximity of the welders or welding operators
to the fumes as the fumes issue from the welding zone,
and to the gases and dust in the space in which the welders or welding operators are working
(5) The ventilation provided to the space in which the
welding is done

1-B9
S2000-Nl
S2010-N1

S2000-N3
S2002-NM2

A5.2 American National Standard ANSI/ASC 249.1,


Safety in Welding, Cutting, and Allied Processes (published by the American Welding Society), discusses the
ventilation that is required during welding and should be
referred to for details. Attention is particularly drawn to
the section of that document on ventilation.

Based on IIW Doc. XII-D-197-97

A6. Welding Considerations

that classification, as specified in Schedule F, Table 1, of


the ANSUAWS A5.01. Testing in accordance with any
other schedule in that Table shall be specifically required
by the purchase order. In such cases, acceptance of the
material shipped shall be in accordance with those
requirements.

A6.15pe of Fluxes. Submerged arc welding fluxes are


granular, fusible mineral compounds of various proportions manufactured by any of several different methods.
In addition, some fluxes may contain intimately mixed
metallic ingredients to deoxidize the weld pool or add
alloy elements, or both. Any flux is likely to produce
weld metal of somewhat different composition from that
of the electrode used with it due to chemical reactions in
the arc and sometimes to the presence of metallic ingredients in the flux. A change in arc voltage duringwelding will change the quantity of flux interacting with a
given quantity of electrode and may, therefore, change
the composition of the weld metal. This latter change
provides a means of describing fluxes as neutral, active, or alloy.

A4. Certification
The act of placing the AWS specification and classification designations on the packaging enclosing the product or the classification on the product itself, constitutes
the suppliers (manufacturers) certification that the product meets all of the requirements of the specification.
The only testing requirement implicit in this certification is that the manufacturer has actually conducted the
tests required by the specification on material that is representative of that being shipped, and that the material
met the requirements of the specification. Representative
material, in this case, is any production run of that classi-

A6.1.1 Neutral Fluxes. Neutral fluxes are defined as


those which will not produce any significant change in
the weld metal manganese and silicon content as a result
26

Copyright American Welding Society


Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=Defense Contract Mgmt Command/5935922100


Not for Resale, 09/15/2006 02:37:52 MDT

--`,````,,``,,````,`,`,`,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

AWS
Classification
Proposed

0784265 0509702 052 W


A5.23JA5.23M:1997

--`,````,,``,,````,`,`,`,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

of a large change in the arc voltage, and thus, the arc


length.
The primary use for neutral fluxes is in multipass
welding, especially when the base plate exceeds 1 in.
[25 mm] in thickness.
The following considerations concerning neutral
fluxes should be noted:
(1) Since neutral fluxes contain little or no deoxidizers, they rely on the electrode to provide deoxidation.
Single-pass welds with insufficient deoxidation on
heavily oxidized basemetal may be prone to porosity or
longitudinal centerline cracking, or both.
(2) While neutral fluxes do maintain the composition
of the weld metal even when thevoltage is changed, it is
not always true that the composition of the weld metal
deposit is the same as the composition of the electrode
used. Some neutral fluxes break down in the heat of the
arc and release oxygen, resulting in a lower carbon value
in the weld metal than the carbon
content of the electrode
itself. Some neutral fluxes contain manganese silicate,
which can decompose in the heat of the arc to add some
manganese and silicon to the weld metal even though no
metallic manganese or silicon was added to these particular fluxes. These changes in composition from the
electrode used to the weld metal obtained are fairly consistent even when there are large changes in voltage.
(3) Even when a neutral flux is used to maintain the
weld metal compositionthrough a range ofwelding voltages, weld properties such as strength level and impact
properties can change becauseof changes in other welding parameters such as depth of fusion, heat input, and
number of passes.
(4) While a flux may be neutral with respect to manganese and silicon, it may not be neutral with respect to
active alloy elements, most notably chromium. Some,
but not all, neutral fluxes tend to reduce the chromium
content of the weld metalas compared to that of the electrode. An electrode of somewhat higher chromium content than the intended weld metal may be necessary in
such cases. Note that the EB3 chromium range for solid
electrodes in Table 1 is higher than the corresponding
weld metal chromium range in Table2.

silicon increases the strength and hardness of the weld


metal but may lower the impact properties. For this reason, voltage may need to be more tightly controlled for
multipass welding with active fluxes than when using
neutral fluxes.
(2) Some fluxes are more active than others. This
means they offer more resistance tooxides in single-pass
welds thana flux which is less active, but maypose more
problems in multipass welding.

A6.1.3 Alloy Fluxes. Alloy fluxes are those which


can be used with carbon steel electrodes to make alloy
weld metal. The alloys for the weld metal are added as
ingredients in the flux. As with active fluxes, where the
recovery of manganese and silicon is affected significantly by arc voltage, so with alloy fluxes, the recovery
of alloy elements from the flux is affected significantly
by the arc voltage. With alloy fluxes, the manufacturers
recommendations shouldbe closely followed if desired
alloy weld metal compositions are to be obtained. The
use as a welding flux of crushed slags generated from
alloy fluxes is not recommended.

A6.1.4 Wall Neutrality Number. The Wall Neutrality Number is a convenient relative measure of flux neutrality. The Wall Neutrality Number addresses carbon
steel weld metals with regardto their manganese and silicon content. It does not address alloy fluxes. For a fluxelectrode combination to be considered neutral, it should
have a Wall Neutrality Number of 35 or less. The lower
the Wall Neutrality Number, the more neutralis the flux.
Determination of the Wall Neutrality Number (N) can
be done in accordance with the following:
(1) A weld pad of the type shown in Figure
2 is
welded with theflux-electrode combination being tested.
The welding parameters shall be as specified in Figure
3B for the weld test plate for the diameter electrode
being used.
(2) A second weld padis welded using thesame parameters, except that the arc voltage is increased by 8 volts.
(3) The top surface of each ofthe weld pads is ground
or machined smooth to clean metal. Samples sufficient
for analysis are removed by machining. Weld metal is
analyzed only from the top (fourth) layer of the weld
pad. The samplesare analyzed separately for silicon and
manganese.
(4) The Wall Neutrality Number depends on the total
change in silicon, regardless of whether it increases or
decreases, and the total change in manganese, regardless
of whether it increases or decreases. The Wall Neutrality
Number is the absolute value (ignoring positive or negative signs) and is calculated as follows:

A6.1.2 Active Fluxes. Active fluxes are those which


contain small amounts of manganese, silicon, or both.
These deoxidizers are added tothe flux to provide improved resistance to porosity and weld cracking caused
by contaminants on or in the base metal.
The primary use for active fluxes is to make singlepass welds, especially on oxidized baseplate.
The following considerations concerning active
fluxes should be noted:
(1) Since active fluxes docontain some deoxidizers,
the manganese and silicon in the weld metal will vary
with changes in arc voltage. An increase in manganese or

N = 100 (IA%Sil+ IA%Mnl)

27
Copyright American Welding Society
Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=Defense Contract Mgmt Command/5935922100


Not for Resale, 09/15/2006 02:37:52 MDT

~~

S T D o A W S A5-23/A5.23M-ENGL

1997

0 7 8 4 2 b 5 0 5 0 9 7 0 3 T99

A5.23/A!5.23M:1997

A6.2 Choice of Electrodes. In choosing an electrode


classification for submerged arc welding of a low-alloy
steel, it is important to consider the manganese, silicon,
and alloy content in the electrode; the effect of the flux
on recovery of manganese,silicon, and alloy elements in
the weld metal; whether the weld is to be single pass or
multipass, and the mechanical properties expected of the
weld metal.
A certain minimum weld-metal manganese contentis
necessary to avoid longitudinal centerline cracking. This
minimum depends upon restraint of the joint, upon welding procedure and resulting bead shape, and upon the
weld-metal composition. In the event that longitudinal
centerline cracking is encountered, especially with a
low-manganese electrode (see Table 1) and neutral flux,
a change to a higher manganese electrode, a change to a
more active flux, or both, may eliminate the problem.
Certain fluxes, generally considered to be neutral,
tend to remove carbon and manganese to a limited extent
and to replace these elements with silicon. With such
fluxes, a silicon-killed electrode is often not necessary
though it may be used. Other fluxes add nosilicon and
may therefore require the use ofa silicon-killed electrode
for proper wetting and freedom from porosity. The flux
manufacturer should be consulted for electrode recommendations suitable for a givenflux,
In welding single-pass fillet welds, especially on scaly
base metal, it is important that the flux, electrode, or
both, provide sufficient deoxidation to avoid unacceptable porosity. Silicon is a more powerful deoxidizer than
manganese. In such applications, use of a silicon-killed
electrode or of an active flux, or both, may be essential.
Again, manufacturers recommendations should be
consulted.
Table 4 lists numerous weld metal classifications and
corresponding base metalsthat are suitable for use with
these weld metals for preparing the weld test assembly
for classification of a flux-electrode combination. This
gives some indication of electrodes suitable for joining
these base metals. However,the entries in Table 4 should
not be considered as recommendationsfor joining these
base metals. Likewise, the absence of a correspondence
in Table 4 between a weld metal classification and a base
metal should not be considered a recommendation
against using a particular weld metal to join a particular
base metal. The steel producer,the electrode producer,
and the flux producer may all be able to make appropriate recommendations and should beconsulted.
Composite electrodes are generally designed for a
specific flux. The flux identification is required (16,7.1)
to be marked on the electrode package. Before using a
composite electrode with a flux not indicated on the electrode package markings, the electrode producer should
be contacted for recommendations. A composite elec-

where A% Si is the difference in silicon content of the


two pads and A% Mn is the corresponding difference in
manganese content.

A6.1.5 Crushed Slags. Slag formed during the welding process that is subsequently crushed for use as a
welding flux is defined as crushedslag. This is different
from a recycled flux which was never fused into a slag
and can often be collected from a clean surface and reused without crushing. Crushed slag and blends of
crushed slagwith virgin flux may be classified as awelding flux under this specification, but shall not be considered to be the same asvirgin flux.
Although it is possible to crush and reuse submerged
arc slag as a welding
flux, the crushed slag, regardless of
any addition of virgin flux to it, is a new and chemically
different flux. This is because the slag formed during
submerged arc welding doesnot have the same chemical
composition or welding characteristics as the virgin flux.
Its composition is affected by the composition of the
original flux, chemical reactions which occur due to the
welding arc, the base metal and electrode compositions,
and the welding parameters.
Blends of crushed slagwith the original brand of virgin flux from which it was generated cannot be assumed
to conform to the classification of either component,
even when both the crushed slag and virgin flux conform
to the same classification (except for theS designator).
It shall be the responsibility of the crusher or fabricator
partner, who performsthe blending, to verify that any intended blend of crushed slag with the original brand of
virgin flux is in full conformance with the classification
requirements of this specification.
As with any flux product, the manufacturer (crusher)
shall follow a detailed processing procedure with controlled input material, preparation, crushing and blending
which will ensure that a standardquality of output welding flux product is attained that meets the requirement
for the classification designator.

A6.1.5.1 Closed-Loop, CrushedSlags. Slag generated by a fabricator from a specific brand of flux under
controlled welding conditions and crushed for subsequent reuse by the same fabricator is defined as closedloop, crushed slag.
Closed-loop, crushed slagsor blends of closed loop
crushed slag with the original brand of virgin fluxensure
better control of input material by virtue of the inherent
partnering of the fabricator with the crusher, In some instances, these partners may be one and the same. If
blending of slag with virgin flux is done, changes in the
original brand of virgin flux or in the blending ratio can
affect the quality of the final product.
--`,````,,``,,````,`,`,`,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Welding Society


Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

28
Licensee=Defense Contract Mgmt Command/5935922100
Not for Resale, 09/15/2006 02:37:52 MDT

trode might be chosen for higher melting rate and less


depth of fusion at a given current level than would be obtained under the same conditionswith a solid electrode.

A6.3 Mechanical Properties of Submerged Arc


Welds. Tables 6U and 7U (for the U S . Customary Unit
Classification System) and Tables 6M and 7M (for the
International System of Units Classification System) of
this specification list the mechanical properties required
of weld metal from flux-electrode classifications (the
electrodes are classified in Tables 1 and 2). The mechanical properties are determined from specimens prepared
according to the procedure called for in the specification.
That procedure minimizes dilution from the base metal
and thereby more accurately reflects the properties of
the undiluted weld metal from each flux-electrode
combination.
In use, the electrodes and fluxes are handled separately, and either of them may be changed without
changing the other. For this reason, a classification system with standardized test methods is necessary to relate
the electrodes and fluxes to the properties of the weld
metal they produce. Chemical reactions between the
molten portion of the electrode and the flux, and dilution
by the base metal all affect the composition of the weld
metal. Submerged arc welds are not always made with
the multipass procedure required in the specification.
They frequently are made in a single pass, at least within
certain limits on the thickness of the base metal. When a
high level of notch toughness is required, multipass
welds may be necessary.
The specific mechanical propertiesof a weld are a
function of its chemical composition, cooling rate, and
postweld heat treatment(PWHT). High amperage, singlepass welds have greater depthof fusion and hence, greater
dilution by the base metal than lower current, multipass
welds. Moreover, large, single-pass welds solidify and
cool more slowly than the smaller weld beads of a multipass weld. Furthermore, the succeeding passes
of a multipass weld subject the weld metal produced in previous
passes to a variety of temperature and cooling cycles that
alter the metallurgical structure of different portions of
those beads. For this reason, the properties of a singlepass weld may be somewhat different from those of a
multipass weld made with thesame electrode and flux.
The weld metal properties in this specification are determined either in the as-welded condition or after a
PWHT (one hour at the temperature called for in Table
5), or both. Most of the weld metals are suitable for service in either condition, but the specification cannot
cover all of the conditions that such weld metals may encounter in fabrication and service. For this reason, the
classifications in this specification require that the weld

29
Copyright American Welding Society
Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

metals be produced and tested under certain specific


conditions.
Procedures employed in practice may require voltage,
amperage, typeof current, and travel speeds that are considerably different from those required in this specification. In addition, differences encountered in electrode
size, electrode composition, electrode extension, joint
configuration, preheat temperature, interpass temperature, and PWHT can have a significant effect on the
properties of the joint. Within a given electrode classification, the electrode composition can vary sufficiently to
produce variations in the mechanical properties of the
weld deposit in both the as-welded and postweld heat
treated conditions.
PWHT times in excess of the 1 hour used for classification purposes in this specification (conventionally 20
to 30 hours for verythick sections) may have a major influence on the strength and toughness of the weld metal.
Both can be substantially reduced. The user needs to be
aware of this and of the fact that the mechanical properties of low-alloy steel weld metal produced with other
procedures may differ from the properties required by
Tables 6U and 7U or Tables 6M and 7M of thisspecification, as applicable.

A6.4 Diffusible Hydrogen. The submerged arc welding


process can be used to provide low-hydrogen weld deposits when care is taken to maintain the flux and electrode in a dry condition. In submerged arc welding with
low-alloy steel electrodes and fluxes classified in this
specification, weld metal or heat-affected zone cracking
associated with diffusible hydrogen tends to become
more of a problem with increasing weld-metal strength,
increasing heat-affected zone hardness, increasing diffusible hydrogen content, decreasing preheat and interpass temperature, and decreasing time at or above the
interpass temperature duringand after welding. The detection of hydrogen cracking may be delayed for several
hours after cooling dueto the time required for the crack
to grow to a size which can be detected by routine inspection methods. It may appear as transverse weld
cracks, longitudinal centerline cracks (especially in root
beads), and toe or underbead cracks in the heat-affected
zone.
Since the available diffusible hydrogen level strongly
influences the tendency towards hydrogen-induced
cracking, it may be desirable to measure the diffusible
hydrogen content resulting from a particular
fluxelectrode combination. Accordingly,the use of optional
supplemental designators for diffusible hydrogen is introduced to indicate the maximum average value obtained under a clearly defined test condition in ANSI/
AWS A4.3, Standard Methods for Determination of the
Diffusible Hydrogen Content of Martensitic, Bainitic,
and Ferritic Steel Weld Metal Produced by Arc Welding.

--`,````,,``,,````,`,`,`,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Licensee=Defense Contract Mgmt Command/5935922100


Not for Resale, 09/15/2006 02:37:52 MDT

0784265 0509705 8bL

The user of this information is cautioned that actual


fabrication conditions may result in different diffusible
hydrogen values from those indicated by the designator.
The use of a reference atmospheric condition during
welding is necessitated because the arc always is imperfectly shielded. Moisture from the air, distinct from that
in the electrode or flux, can enter the arcand subsequently the weld pool, contributing to the resulting observed diffusible hydrogen. This effect can be minimized
by maintaining asuitable depth of flux cover (normally 1
to 1-1/2 in. [25 to 38 mm]) in front of the electrode during welding.
Nevertheless, some air will mix with the flux cover
and add its moisture to the other sources of diffusible
hydrogen.
It is possible for this extra diffusible hydrogen to significantly affect the outcome of a diffusible hydrogen
test. For this reason, it is appropriate to specify a reference atmospheric condition. The reference atmospheric
condition of 10 grains of moisture per pound [L5 grams
of moisture per kilogram] of dry air is equivalent to
10 percent relative humidity at 68F [20C].

properties at various service temperatures. It is usually


desirable for weld metal to match thechemical composition and the mechanical properties of the base metal as
closely as possible. In fact, many of the electrodes classified to this specification have been developed for specific base-metal grades orclasses. If an optimum match
is not possible, engineering judgmenttogether with weld
testing may be required to select the most suitable
electrodes.
Table 2 provides detailed weld-metal chemical composition requirements. Tables 6U, 6M, 7U and 7M list
the mechanical properties of the weld metal in the aswelded condition or in the postweld heat-treated condition when the weldment is subjected to the PWHT requirements in Table 5 . It should be noted that changes in
welding variables or heat treatment can be expected to
affect the mechanicalproperties. However, except for the
effects of dilution, the chemical composition canbe expected to remain reasonably unchanged.
The electrode classification identifies the chemical
composition of the electrode. The following paragraphs
highlight the differences between these electrodes and
electrode groups and indicate typical applications.

A6.5 Aging of Tensile Specimens. Weld metals may


contain significant quantities of hydrogen for some time
after they have been made. Most of this hydrogen gradually escapes over time. This may take several weeks at
room temperature or several hours at elevated temperatures. As a result of this eventual change in hydrogen
level, ductility of the weld metal increases toward its inherent value, while yield, tensile, and impact strengths
remain relatively unchanged. This specification permits
the aging of the tensile specimens at temperatures up to
220F [l0SoC] for up to 48 hours before subjecting them
to tension testing. The purpose of this treatment is to facilitate removal of hydrogen from the test specimen in
in testing.
order to minimize discrepancies
Aging treatments aresometimes usedfor low-hydrogen electrode deposits, especially when testing highstrength deposits. Note that aging may involve holding
test specimens at room temperature for several days or
holding at a higher temperaturefor a shorter period of
time. Consequently, users are cautioned to employ adequate preheat and interpass temperatures to avoid the
deleterious effects of hydrogen in production welds.
--`,````,,``,,````,`,`,`,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

A7.1.1 EA1, EA2, EA3, EA3K, and EA4 (C-Mo


Steel) Electrodes. These electrodes are similarto the
medium manganese and high-manganese carbon steel
electrodes classified in ANSIIAWS A5.171A5.17M except that 1/2% molybdenum is added. This addition increases the strength of the weld metal, especially at
elevated temperatures, and provides some increase in
corrosion resistance. Typical applications include the
welding of C-Mo steel base metals suchas ASTM A 204
plate and A 335-Pl pipe. Electrodes of this type are particularly useful in developing impact strength on singlepass welds such as are used in the manufacture of line
Pipe.

A7.1.2 EB2, EB2H, EB3, EB5, EB6, EB6H, EBS,


and EB9 (Cr-Mo Steel) Electrodes.These low-hydrogen electrodes produce weld metal thatcontains between
112% and 9% chromium and between 112% to 1% molybdenum. They are designed to produce weld metal for
high-temperature service.
The letter R when added as a suffix tothe EB2 or
EB3 designation is an optional supplemental designator
indicating that the electrode will meet the reduced residual limits necessary to meet X factor requirements for
step coolingapplications.

A7. DescriptionandIntendedUse of
Electrodes

A7.1.2.1 EB9 Electrode. EB9 is a 9%Cr-1% Mo


electrode modified with niobium (columbium) and vanadium designed to provide improved creep strength,
toughness, fatigue life, and oxidation and corrosion resistance at elevated temperatures. Due to the higher elevated temperature properties of this alloy, components

A7.1 Chemical Composition. The chemical composition of the weld metal produced is often the primary
consideration for electrode selection. Together with appropriate heat treatments, each composition can achieve
a wide range of corrosion resistance and mechanical

30
Copyright American Welding Society
Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=Defense Contract Mgmt Command/5935922100


Not for Resale, 09/15/2006 02:37:52 MDT

STD-AWS

078YZb5 050770b7T8
A5.23/A5.23M:1997

A7.1.7 EW (Weathering Steel) Electrode. Thiselectrode has been designed to produce weld metal that
matches the corrosion resistance and the coloring of the
ASTM weathering-type structural steels. These special
properties are achieved by the addition of about 1/2%
copper to the weld metal.To meet strength, ductility, and
notch toughness in the weld metal, some chromium and
nickel additions are also made. This electrode is used to
weld the typical weathering steel, such as ASTM A 242
and A 588.

that are now fabricated from stainless and ferritic steels


may be fabricated from a single alloy, eliminating problems associated with dissimilar welds.
In addition to the classification requirements in this
specification, either impact toughness or high-temperature creep strength properties should be determined. Due
to the influence of variouslevels of carbon and niobium,
specific values and testing must be agreed to by the purchaser and supplier.
A7.1.3 ENil, ENilK, ENi2, and ENi3 (Ni Steel)
Electrodes. Theseelectrodes have been designed to produce weld metal with increased strength without being
hardenable or with increased notch toughness at temperatures as low as -100F (-73C) or lower. They have been
specified with nickel contents which fall into three nominal levels of 1%Ni,2-1/2% Ni and 3-1/2% Ni.
With carbon levels of up to 0.12%, strength increases
and weld deposits can meet 80 O00 psi minimum tensilestrength requirements. However, with lower levels of
carbon, low-temperature toughness improves to match
the base-metal properties of nickel steels, such as ASTM
A 203 Gr. E, ASTM A 352 LC3 and LC4 classifications.
Many low-alloy steels require PWHT to stress relieve
the weld or temper the weld metal and heat-affected
zone
to achieve increased ductility. It is often acceptable to exceed the PWHT holding temperatures shownin Table 5.
However, for many applications, nickel steel weld metal
can be used without PWHT. If PWHT is to be specified
for a nickel steel weldment, the holding temperature
should not exceed the maximum temperature given in
Table 5 for the classification considered since nickel
steels can beembrittled at higher temperatures.

A7.1.8 EG (General Low-Alloy Steel) Electrodes.


These electrodes are described in A2.2. These electrode
classifications may be either modifications of other discrete classifications or totally new classifications. Purchaser and user should obtain from the supplier the
description and intended use for any EG electrode.

AS. General Safety Considerations


A8.1 Burn Protection. Molten metal, sparks, slag, and
hot work surfaces are produced by welding, cutting, and
allied processes. These can cause burns if precautionary
measures are not used. Workers should wear protective
clothing made of fire-resistant material. Pant cuffs, open
pockets, or other places onclothing that can catch and retain molten metal or sparks shouldnot be worn. High-top
shoes or leather leggings and fire-resistant gloves should
be worn. Pant legs should be worn over the outside of
high-top shoes. Helmets or hand shields that provide protection for theface, neck, and ears, and a covering to protect the head should be used.In addition, appropriate eye
protection should be used.
When welding overhead or in confined spaces, ear
plugs to prevent weld spatter from entering the ear canal
should be worn in combination with goggles or equivalent to give added eye protection. Clothing should be
kept free of grease and oil. Combustible materials should
not be carried in pockets. If any combustible substance
has been spilled onclothing, a change to clean, fire-resistant clothing should be made before working with open
arcs or flame. Aprons, cape-sleeves, leggings, and shoulder covers with bibs designed for welding service should
be used. Where welding or cutting of unusually thick
base metal is involved, sheet metal shields should be
used for extra protection.
Mechanization of highly hazardous processesor jobs
should be considered. Other personnel in the work area
should be protected by the use of noncombustible
screens or by the use of appropriate protection as described in the previous paragraph. Before leaving a work
area, hot workpieces should be marked toalert other persons of this hazard. No attempt should be made to repair
or disconnect electrical equipment when it is under load.

A7.1.4 ENi4, ENi5, E F l , EF2, and EF3 (Ni-Mo


Steel) Electrodes. These electrodes contain between
1/2% and 2%nickel and between 1/4%and 1/2% molybdenum. They are typically used for the welding of highstrength, low-alloy or microalloyed structural steels
where a combination of strength and good notch toughness is required.
A7.1.5 EF4, EF5, and EF6 (Cr-Ni-Mo Steel) Electrodes. These electrodes use a combination of Cr, Ni,
and Mo to develop the strength levels and notch toughness required for a number of high-strength, low-alloy or
microalloyed structural steels.
A7.1.6 EM2, EM3, and EM4(High-Strength, LowAlloy Steel) Electrodes. These electrodes may contain a
combination of Cr, Ni, Mo, Ti, Zr and AI. They are intended to produce high-strength deposits meeting 100
O00 psi, 110 O 0 0 psi or 120 O00 psi minimum tensile requirements to weld steels such as HY80 and HY100.
They are most typically used for weldments not subject
to PWHT.

31
Copyright American Welding Society
Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

--`,````,,``,,````,`,`,`,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Licensee=Defense Contract Mgmt Command/5935922100


Not for Resale, 09/15/2006 02:37:52 MDT

S T D - A U S A5*23/A5=23M-ENGL L997

07842bS 0509707 634

A5.23/A5.23M:1997

condition. Improper or worn electrical connections may


create conditions that could cause electrical shock or
short circuits. Worn, damaged, or bare cables should not
be used. Open-circuit voltage should be avoided. When
several welders are working with arcs of different polarities, or when a number of alternating current machines
are being used, the open-circuit voltages can be additive.
The added voltages increase the severity of the shock
hazard.
In case of electric shock, the power should be turned
off. If the rescuer must resort to pulling the victim from
the live contact, nonconducting materials should be used.
If the victim is not breathing, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) should be administered as soon as contact
with the electrical source is broken. A physician should
be called and CPR continued until breathing has been restored, or until a physician has arrived. Electrical burns
are treated as thermal burns; that is, clean, cold (iced)
compresses should be applied. Contamination should be
avoided; the area should be covered with a clean, dry
dressing; and the patient should be transported to medical assistance. Recognized safety standards such as
ANSIIASC 249.1, Safety in Welding, Cutting, andAllied
Processes, and the National Electrical Code and NFPA
No. 70, available from National Fire Protection Association, 1 Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02269, should be
followed.

Disconnection under load produces arcing of the contacts


and may cause burns or shock, or both. (Note: Burns can
be caused by touching hot equipment such as electrode
holders, tips, and nozzles. Therefore, insulated gloves
should be worn when these items are handled, unless
an adequate cooling period has been allowedbefore
touching.)
The following sources arefor more detailed information on personal protection:
(1) American National Standards Institute. ANSI 241,
Personal Protection-Protective Footwear, American
National Standard for, New York: American National
Standards Institute?
(2) ANSIIASC 249.1, Safety in Welding, Cutting, and
Allied Processes, Miami, Fla.: American Welding
Society.
(3) ANSIIASC 287.1,Practice for Occupational and
Educational Eye and Face Protection. New York: American National Standards Institute.
(4) Occupational Safety and Health Administration.
Code of Federal Regulations, Title 29 Labor, Chapter
XVII, Part 1910. Washington, D.C.: U. S . Government
Printing Office?

A8.2 Electrical Hazards. Electric shock can kill. However, it can be avoided. Live electrical parts should not
be touched. The manufacturers instructions and recommended safe practices should be read and understood.
Faulty installation, improper grounding, and incorrect
operation and maintenance of electrical equipment are all
sources of danger.
All electrical equipment and the workpieces should be
grounded. The workpiece lead is not a ground lead. It is
used only to complete the welding circuit. A separate connection is required to ground the workpiece. The workpiece should not be mistaken for a ground connection.
The correct cable size should be used, since sustained
overloading will cause cable failure and result in possible
electrical shock or fire hazard. All electrical connections
should be tight, clean, and dry. Poor connections can
overheat and even melt. Further, they can produce dangerous arcs and sparks. Water, grease, or dirt should not
be allowed to accumulate on plugs, sockets, or electrical
units. Moisture can conduct electricity. To prevent shock,
the work area, equipment, and clothing should be kept
dry at all times. Welders should wear dry gloves and rubber-soled shoes, or stand on a dry board or insulated platform. Cables and connections should be kept in good

A83 Fumes and Gases. Many welding, cutting, and allied processes produce fumes and gases which may be
harmful to health. Fumes are solid particles which originate from welding filler metals and fluxes, the base
metal, and any coatings present on the base metal. Gases
are produced during the welding process or may be produced by the effects of process radiation on the surrounding environment. Management personnel and welders
alike should be aware of the effects of these fumes and
gases. The amount and composition of these fumes and
gases depend upon the composition of the filler metal
and base metal, welding process, current level, arc
length, and other factors.
The possible effects of overexposure range from irritation of eyes, skin, and respiratory system to more severe complications. Effects may occur immediately or at
some later time. Fumes can cause symptoms such as nausea, headaches, dizziness, and metal fume fever. The
possibility of more serious health effects exists when especially toxic materials are involved. In confined spaces,
the shielding gases and fumes might displace breathing
air and cause asphyxiation.
Ones head should always be kept out of the fumes.
Sufficient ventilation, exhaust at the arc, or both, should
be used to keep fumes and gases from your breathing
zone and the general area.

5. ANSI documents are available from the American National


Standards Institute, 11 West 42nd Street, 13th Floor, New York,

NY10036-8002.
6. OSHA documentsareavailablefrom
Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402.

U.S. Government

32
Copyright American Welding Society
Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

--`,````,,``,,````,`,`,`,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Licensee=Defense Contract Mgmt Command/5935922100


Not for Resale, 09/15/2006 02:37:52 MDT

STD-AWS A5.23/A5*23M-ENGLL77707842b50509708570

A5.23/A5.23M:1997

In some cases, natural air movement will provide


enough ventilation. Where ventilation may be questionable, air sampling shouldbe used to determine if corrective measures shouldbe applied.

(1) One should not look at welding arcs except


through welding filter plates which meet the requirements of ANSIIASC 287.1, Practice forOccupational
and Educational Eye and Face Protection, published by
American National Standards Institute, 11 West 42nd
Street, 13th Floor, New York, NY 10036-8002. It should
be noted that transparent welding curtains are not intended as welding filter plates, but rather,are intended to
protect passersby from incidentalexposure.
(2) Exposed skin should be protected with adequate
gloves and clothing as specified in ANSIIASC 249.1,
Safety in Welding, Cutting, and Allied Processes, published by American Welding Society, 550 N.W. LeJeune
Road, Miami, FL 33126.
(3) Reflections from welding arcs should be avoided,
and all personnel should be protected from intense reflections. (Note: Paintsusing pigments of substantially
zinc oxide or titanium dioxide have a lower reflectance
for ultraviolet radiation.)
(4) Screens, curtains, or adequate distance from
aisles, walkways, etc. should be used to avoid exposing
passersby to welding operations.
( 5 ) Safety glasses with UV-protective side shields
have been shown to provide some beneficial protection
from ultraviolet radiation producedby welding arcs.

(1) The permissible exposure limits required by


OSHA can be found in Code of Federal Regulations,
Title 29, Chapter XVII Part 1910. The OSHA General
Industry Standards are available from the Superintendent
of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402.
(2) The recommended threshold limit values for these
fumes and gases may be found in Threshold Limit Values
for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents in the
Workroom Environment, published by the American
Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists
(ACGIH), 1330 Kemper Meadow Drive, Cincinnati, OH
45240.

(3) Theresults of an AWS-funded study are available


in a report entitled, Fumes and Gases in the Welding Environment, available from the American Welding Society, 550 N.W. LeJeune Road, Miami, FL 33126.

A8.4 Radiation. Welding, cutting, and allied operations


may produce radiant energy (radiation) harmful to
health. One should become acquainted withthe effects of
this radiant energy. Radiant energy may be ionizing
(such as x-rays), or nonionizing (such as ultraviolet, visible light, or infrared). Radiation can produce a variety of
effects such as skin burns and eye damage, dependingon
the radiant energys wavelength and intensity, if excessive exposure occurs.

A8.4.1 Ionizing Radiation. Ionizing radiation is produced by the electron beam welding process. It is ordinarily controlled within acceptance limits by use of
suitable shielding enclosing the welding area.

A8.4.4 The following include nonionizing radiation


information sources:
(1) American National Standards Institute. ANSI/
ASC 2136.1, Safe Use of Lasers, New York, N.Y.:
American National Standards Institute.
(2) -. ANSIIASC 287.1, Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Protection. New
York, N.Y.: American National Standards Institute.
(3) -. ANSIIASC 249.1, Safety in Welding, Cutting, and Allied Processes. (published by AWS) Miami,
Fla.: American Welding Society
(4)Hinrichs, J. F. Project Committee on RadiationSummary Report. WeldingJournal, January 1978.
( 5 ) Moss, C. E. Optical Radiation Transmission
Levels through Transparent Welding Curtains. Welding
Journal, March 1979.
(6) Moss, C. E., and Murray, W. E. Optical Radiation
Levels Produced in Gas Welding, Torch Brazing, and
Oxygen Cutting. Welding Journal, September 1979.

A8.4.2 Nonionizing Radiation. The intensity and


wavelengths of nonionizing radiant energy produced depend on many factors, such as the process, welding parameters, electrode and base-metal composition, fluxes,
and a n y coating or plating on the base metal. Some processes, such as resistance welding and cold-pressure
welding ordinarily produce negligible quantities of radiant energy. With the exception of submergedarc welding
when used properly, most arc welding and cutting processes, laser beam welding andtorch welding, cutting,
brazing, or soldering can producequantities of nonionizing radiation such that precautionary measures are
necessary.
Protection from possible harmful effects caused by
nonionizing radiant energy from weldinginclude the following measures:

33
Copyright American Welding Society
Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=Defense Contract Mgmt Command/5935922100


Not for Resale, 09/15/2006 02:37:52 MDT

--`,````,,``,,````,`,`,`,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

A8.4.3 Ionizing radiation informationsources include:


(1) ANSIIAWS F2.1-78, Recommended Safe Practices for Electron Beam Welding and Cutting, available
from the American Welding Society, 550 N.W. LeJeune
Road, Miami, FL 33126.
(2) Manufacturers product information literature.

(7) Marshall, W. J., Sliney, D.H., et al.


Optical Radiation Levels Produced by Air-Carbon Arc Cutting Processes, Welding Journal,
March 1980.
(8) National Technical Information Service. Nonionizing radiation protection special study No. 42-0053-77,
Evaluation of the Potential Hazards from Actinic Ultraviolet Radiation Generated by Electric Welding and

Cutting Arcs. Springfield, Va.: National Technical Information Service. ADA-033768.


(9) Nonionizing radiation protection special study No.
42-0312-77, Evaluation of the Potential Retina Hazards
from Optical Radiation Generated by Electrical Welding
and Cutting Arcs. Springfield, Va.: National Technical
Information Service, ADA-043023.

--`,````,,``,,````,`,`,`,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

34
Copyright American Welding Society
Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=Defense Contract Mgmt Command/5935922100


Not for Resale, 09/15/2006 02:37:52 MDT

STDmAWS A5.23/A5.23fl-ENGL

1777

= 07842b5

35
--`,````,,``,,````,`,`,`,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Welding Society


Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=Defense Contract Mgmt Command/5935922100


Not for Resale, 09/15/2006 02:37:52 MDT

0 5 0 9 7 3 0 329
A5.23/A5.23M:1997

S T D o A W S A5m23/A5-23M-ENGL

I07842b5 05097LL Ob5

L997

A5.23lA5.23M :1997

AWS Filler Metal Specificationsand Related Documents


AWS Designation

Title

Comparison
Metal
Filler
FMC
Charts
A4.2M/A4.2 Standard Procedures for Calibrating Magnetic Instruments to Measure the Delta Ferrite Content of Austenitic and
Duplex Austenitic-Ferritic Stainless Steel Weld Metal
A4.3StandardMethodsforDeterminationoftheDiffusibleHydrogenContentofMartensitic,Bainitic,andFerritic
Steel Weld Metal Produced bv Arc Welding
Procurement
Metal
A5.01
Filler Guidelines
~

~~

~~

Specification for Carbon Steel Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding

A5.1
~~

~~

~~

~~~

A5.2
Specification
for
Carbon
and
Low-Alloy
Steel
Rods

~~

for Oxyfuel
Gas
Welding

A5.3
Specification
for
Aluminum
and
Aluminum
Alloy
Electrodes
for
Shielded
Metal
Arc
Welding
A5.4
Specification
for
Stainless
Steel
Welding
Electrodes
for
Shielded
Metal
Arc
Welding
A5.5
Specification
for
Low-Alloy
Steel
Electrodes
for
Shielded
Metal
Arc
Welding
A5.6
Specification
for
Covered
Copper
and
Copper
Alloy
Arc
Welding
Electrodes

A5.7

Specification
for
Copper
and
Copper
Alloy
Bare
Welding
Rods
and
Electrodes

A5.8

Specification
for
Filler
Metals
for
Brazing
and
Braze
Welding
Specification
for
Bare
Stainless
Steel
Welding
Electrodes
and
Rods

A5.9

SpecificationforBareAluminumandAluminumAlloy
WeldingElectrodes
and Rods
A5.11/A5.11M Specification for Nickel and Nickel-Alloy Welding Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding
A5.1UA5.12M Specification for Tungsten and Tungsten Alloy Electrodes for Arc Welding and Cutting
A5.10

~_____

~~

~~

~~

~~~

~~

~~

~~

A5.13
Specification
for
Solid
Surfacing
Welding
Rods
and
Electrodes
A5.14/A5.14MSpecificationforNickelandNickel-AlloyBareWeldingElectrodesandRods
Specification
for
Welding
Electrodes
and
Rods

A5.15

for Cast
Iron

A5.16
Specification
for
Titanium
and
Titanium
Alloy
Welding
Electrodes
and
Rods
A5.17/A5.17M Specification
for Carbon Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding
A5.18SpecificationforCarbonSteelElectrodesand

Rods for
GasShieldedArcWelding

Specification
for
Magnesium
Alloy
Welding
Electrodes
and
Rods
A5.20
Specification
for
Carbon
Steel
Electrodes
for
Flux
Cored
Arc
Welding
A5.19
--`,````,,``,,````,`,`,`,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

A5.21
Soecification
for
Comwsite
Surfacine
Welding
Rods
and
Electrodes
Specification for StainlessSteelElectrodesforFluxCoredArcWeldingandStainlessSteelFluxCoredRodsfor
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
A5.23/A5.23M Specification for Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding
A5.22

Specification for Zirconium


and
Zirconium
Alloy
Welding
Electrodes
and
Rods
~A5.25/A5.25M Specification for Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for Electroslag Welding
A5.26/A5.26MSpecificationforCarbonandLow-AlloySteelElectrodes
for ElectrogasWelding

A5.24

~~

~~

~~~

~~~

~~

SpecificationforLow-AlloySteelElectrodesandRodsforGasShieldedArcWelding

A5.28

A5.29
Specification

for Low-Alloy
Steel
Electrodes
for
Flux
Cored
Arc
Welding

Specification
Consumable
for Inserts
Specification for Fluxes for Brazing and Braze Welding

A5.30

~~

A5.31
~~

~~~

"

A5.32/A5.32MSpecificationforWeldingShieldingGases
For ordering information, contact the AWS Order Department7 American Welding Society, 550 N.W. LeJeune Road,
Miami, FL 33126. Telephones: (800) 334-9353, (305) 443-9353, ext. 280; FAX (305) 443-7559.

37
Copyright American Welding Society
Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=Defense Contract Mgmt Command/5935922100


Not for Resale, 09/15/2006 02:37:52 MDT