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NATIONALBANKFORAGRICULTUREANDRURALDEVELOPMENT

NabardBankOfficersExam2010EnglishLanguageSolvedPaper

Directions(Q.115)Readthefollowingpassagecarefullyandanswerthequestionsgiven
belowit.CertainWords/phraseshavebeenprintedinboldtohelpyoulocatethemwhile
answeringsomeofthequestions.

Organicfarmingiseitherreallyexpensiveorreallycheap,dependingonwhereyouliveand
whether or not you are certified. Not only are the natural pesticides and fertilizers
increasingly marketed by agribusiness as costly as or costlier than their chemical
counterparts,butprovingyouareanorganicfarmerrequirescertification,whichistime
consuming and expensive. In the USA, converting to organic agriculture is a huge
undertakingforcommercialfarmers,whohavereliedonchemicalfertilizersandpesticides
formanydecades,butinIndia,theconversionisnolessarduousandfarmoreironic.

Indias farmers are still mostly practising organic methods, passed down for millennia.
Organic fertilizer and natural pest control are the only tools available to most of these
farmers,whohavealwayslackedthefinancialresourcestoexplorechemicalsolutions.But
these farmers,whoseproduce is as organic as they come, cannot afford topay the fees
requiredtogainofficialcertification.

Astheinternationalcommunityadoptsstandardsfororganicagriculture,thechallengesfaced
byfarmersintheUSAversusfarmersinIndiainordertoadaptareverydifferentindeed.The
dangeristhatthewellintentionedglobalmovetowardsorganicstandardswillmakesmall
organicfarmersincountrieslikeIndia,whohaveneverdoneanythingbutorganicfarming,
nolongerabletoselltheircrops.

In response to the $ 26 billion global market for organic foods, the Indian Central
GovernmentsetupaNationalInstituteofOrganicFarminginOctober2003.Thepurposeof
thisinstituteistoformulaterules,regulationsandcertificationoforganicfarmproductsin
conformitywithinternationalstandards.Theinstitutehasitsofficesacrossthecountryand
hasappointedcertifyingagenciesfororganicfarmproductsforthedomesticmarket.The

certifyingagenciesareaccountableforconfirmingthatanyproductsoldwiththenewIndia
Organiclogoisinaccordancewithinternationalcriteria,andlaunchmajorawarenessand
marketingcampaignsinIndiaandabroad.

Organicfarminghasbeenidentifiedasamajorthrustareaofthe10thplanofthecentral
government.1billionrupeeshavebeenallocatedtotheaforementionedNationalInstituteof
OrganicFarmingaloneforthe10thfiveyearplan.Despitethis,mostofIndiasorganicfarms
arenotofficiallyconsideredorganic.MostofIndiasfarmsareorganicbydefault.The
ironyanddifficultyofthenewgovernmentalpushfororganicagricultureisthat65%ofthe
countrys cropped area is organic by default, according to a study. By this somewhat
degrading term they mean that small farmers, located mostly in the Eastern and North
Easternregionsofthecountry,havenochoiceexcepttofarmwithoutchemicalfertilizersor
pesticides.Thoughthisistrueinmanycases,itisalsotruethatasignificantnumberofthem
havechosentofarmorganically,astheirforefathershavedoneforthousandsofyears.Many
have seen for themselves the effects of chemical farmingsoil erosion and loss of soil
nutrients,loss ofnutritioninfoodandhumandiseases resultingfromthechemicalsthat
inevitablyseepintothewatertable,allthereasonsfortheurgentdemandfororganicfoods
andfarming.

Indiacurrentlyhasonly1,426certifiedorganicfarms.Thisstatisticaldiscrepancyrevealsthat
the weak link in the organic/economic chain is certification. Under current government
policy,ittakesfouryearsforafarmtobecertifiedasorganic.Thecostofpreparingthe
reportisaflatfeeofRs.5,000andthecertificateitselfcostsanotherRs.5,000.Whilethese
costsarebearableforthenewindustrialorganicgreenhouses,theyareequaltoormorethan
anentireyearsincomefortheaveragesmallfarmer,ifthecostsoftravelandinspectionare
included.

IntheUnitedStates,anorganicfarmplanororganichandlingplanmustbesubmittedtoa
USDAaccreditedprivateorstatecertificationprogram.Theplanmustexplainallcurrent
growingandhandlingmethods,andanymaterialsthatwillbeusedinthepresentandany
futureplansmustbeincludedaswell.Recordsforthelastfiveyearsmustbepresented.Land
must be chemical free for three years prior to harvest, so a conventional farmer cannot
receivetheorganiclabelforthetransitionalyears.Thiswillgenerallymeanadecreasein
incomecropsmaybelessplentifulthanwithconventionalfertilizersandpesticidesandyet
thehigherpricefororganicproductswontyetbepossible.Manyfarmerscannotaffordthe
transition,eveniftheywantto.

Onesolutiontothesmallfarmersdilemmaofhowtobothcertifyandsurviveisthatof
communitycertification.Incommunitycertification,communities,onanonprofitbasis,take
chargeofthecertificationprocessthemselves.Theyevaluatethefarmerscommitmenttothe

stewardshipofthesoilandexaminefrommanyangleswhetherthefoodisbeinggrowninan
environmentally sensitive way or not, rather than technical standards. While community
certificationmaybeaviablesolutiononthelocallevel,itisouropinionthat,intheglobal
marketplace,lessthanexacttechnicalstandardswillneverbeenoughfortodaysconsumer
andintodayslargelypoisonedenvironment,itshouldn'tbe,either.Furthermore,suchsoft
guidelinescaneasilybackfireonthefarmersthemselves,asasystemnotbasedonfactsmust
bebydefinitionsubjecttolocalpolitics,bribery,favoritism,etc.

Indiamustfindawaytokeepthestrictinternationalorganicstandardsintactifitwantsto
competeintheinternationalmarketfororganicfoods,butisthereawaytodoitwithout
leaving small farmers out in the cold ? One obvious solution is for the government to
subsidizethesecertificationfeesenoughtomakeitaviableoptionforordinaryfarmers,not
justforneoorganicfactoryfarmsandgreenhouses.Banksalsocouldprovideamorelevel
playingfieldforsmallfarmers.Currently,almostallbankloansareforpurecropfarmers.
While many of these bigbusiness farmers use harmful chemicals and processes, small
farmersfertilizingtheirsoilwithrecycledorganicwastesareusuallyineligibleforinsurance,
muchlessstatesubsidies.

1.WhatroledoestheNationalInstituteofOrganicFarminghavetoplayintheorganic
farmingarea?
(A)TosetstandardsfortheimportofmaterialrequiredfororganicfarmingwithinIndia
(B)ToensurethatIndianfarmproductsconformtotheinternationalstandardfororganic
foods
(C)Tosuggestmethodstofarmersforproducingthebestorganicproducts
(D)ToimportthebestorganicfoodsfrominternationalcountriesandharvesttheminIndia
(E)TosetupagenciesinternationallyforthemarketingofIndianorganicproduce
Ans:(C)

2.Whichofthefollowingispossiblythemostappropriatetitleforthepassage?
(A)AgribusinessinIndia
(B)OrganicFarminginIndiaAnIrony
(C)InorganicFarmingAHealthHazard
(D)SmallandMarginalFarmers
(E)OrganicFarminginIndiaandtheUS
Ans:(B)

3.Why,accordingtotheauthor,isthetermorganicbydefaultdegrading?
(A)TheIndianfarmersareadoptingincorrectmethodsoforganicfarming,therebyrendering
thecropuseless
(B)Asthecropcultivatedoutoforganicfarmingisrejectedbymostinternationalagencies

(C)AsallthefarmersinIndiadonothaveanyaccesstochemicalfertilizersandpesticidesto
carryoutinorganicfarming
(D)AstheGovt.hasissuedadirectivetofarmersinIndiatocarryoutorganicfarmingalone
(E)AsitmeansthatthefarmersinIndiacannotaffordtouseanythingbutorganicmethodsof
farming
Ans:(C)

4. Which of the following are reasons for the increasing demand for organic foods and
organicfarming?
1.Consumptionofinorganicfoodhasgivenrisetoillnesses.
2.Excessiveuseofpesticideshascausedsoilerosion.
3.Therehasbeenalossinsoilnutrientvalueofsoilduetochemicalfarming.
(A)Only2
(B)Only1and2
(C)Only3
(D)Only2and3
(E)All1,2and3aretrue
Ans:(D)

5.Whyaccordingtotheauthor,willtheideaofcommunitycertificationnotwork?
(A)Astheremaynotbeenoughpeopleinthecommunitytoworkonanonprofitbasis
(B)Asthefarmersmaynotbeforthcominginprovidinginformationabouttheircultivation
practicesandthusleadtothefailureofthissystem
(C)Asthecertificationgrantedthroughthisschemewillnotbeauthenticatall
(D)Ascertificationsoughtinthismannermaygiverisetovestedinterestsandalsonotmeet
thestringentcriterialaiddownglobally
(E)Noneofthese
Ans:(E)

6.Whichofthefollowingistrueinthecontextofthepassage?
1.TheIndianGovt.isnotinfavourofacquiringcertificationtomeetglobalstandards.
2.Theprocessofcertificationisquitetimeconsumingandexpensive.
3.Thefarmerdoesnotearnmuchduringthethreefouryearsthatittakestogetcertification.
(A)Only1and3
(B)Only2
(C)Only2and3
(D)Only1and2
(E)All1,2and3
Ans:(B)

7.What,accordingtotheauthor,isamajorproblemwithOrganicFarminginIndia?
(A)DespitetheirorganicnaturemostfarmsinIndiaarenotperceivedasorganicbecauseof
merepaperwork
(B)TheGovt.hasnotpaidattentiontoorganicfarminginIndiatherebypromotinginorganic
farmingtoagreatextent
(C)OnlyrecycledorganicwasteisavailabletoIndianfarmersforthepurposeoforganic
farming
(D)Indian farmers are accustomed to the usage ofchemicals andtheir farms have now
startedlosingtheirfertility
(E)LargenumberoffarmersinIndiaisaversetotheideaoforganicfarmingasitisnot
profitable
Ans:(D)

8.Whichofthefollowing,accordingtotheauthor,arefactorsthatcanhelpinacquiring
organicfarmingcertificationinIndia?
1.Providingmorebankloanstosmallfarmers.
2.Reducingthequantumofloansbeingprovidedtopurecropfarmers.
3.Loweringthecostofcertification.
(A)Only1
(B)Only3
(C)Only1and3
(D)Only2and3
(E)All1,2and3
Ans:(B)

Directions(Q.912)Choosetheword/groupofwordswhichismostsimilarinmeaningto
theword/groupofwordsprintedinboldasusedinthepassage.

9.ARDUOUS:
(A)Pleasurable
(B)Different
(C)Difficult
(D)Hazardous
(E)Threatening
Ans:(C)

10.FORMULATE:

(A)Regularize
(B)Contemplate
(C)Apply
(D)Frame
(E)Mix
Ans:(D)

11.DEGRADING:
(A)Corrupting
(B)Minimizing
(C)Lowering
(D)Demeaning
(E)Worrying
Ans:(C)

12.TRANSITIONAL:
(A)Extreme
(B)Intermediate
(C)Revolutionary
(D)Base
(E)Changed
Ans:(B)

Directions(Q.1315)Choosetheword/groupofwordswhichismostoppositeinmeaning
totheword/groupofwordsprintedinboldasusedinthepassage.

13.VIABLE:
(A)Impossible
(B)Negative
(C)Deadly
(D)Practical
(E)Rudimentary
Ans:(A)

14.INEVITABLY:
(A)Avoidably
(B)Mostly
(C)Certainly

(D)Expectedly
(E)Predictably
Ans:(A)

15.ACCORDANCE:
(A)Division
(B)Quarrel
(C)Tune
(D)Enmity
(E)Conflict
Ans:(E)

Directions(Q. 1620) Which of the phrases (A), (B), (C) and (D) given below each
sentence should replace the word/phrase printed in bold in the sentence to make it
grammaticallycorrect?Ifthesentenceiscorrectasitisgivenandnocorrectionisrequired,
mark(E)astheanswer.

16.SinceRiyadidnotwanttobedisturbedwhilestudying,sheleftthephoneoffhooks.
(A)offthehook
(B)offhooking
(C)forthehook
(D)ofhook
(E)Nocorrectionrequired
Ans:(A)

17.SinceShilpawasoverburdenedwithwork,Deepadecidedtogaveherhand.
(A)givinghands
(B)giveherahand
(C)givingherhandful
(D)gaveherhands
(E)Nocorrectionrequired
Ans:(B)

18.Despitehavingpassedoutfromschoolovertenyearsback,mostschoolmateshaskeep
touchwitheachother.
(A)arekepttouched
(B)iskeepingtouch
(C)keeptouched

(D)hadkeptintouch
(E)Nocorrectionrequired
Ans:(C)

19.Sheelahaswellawarenessofthefactthatheractionswouldhaveterriblerepercussions.
(A)waswellawareof
(B)hasawarefor
(C)isawareto
(D)isinawarenesswith
(E)Nocorrectionrequired
Ans:(A)

20.Shashitriedashardhewouldtowintheracebutfailedtodoso.
(A)ashardlysohecould
(B)ashardashecould
(C)hardlysoas
(D)sohardthatcould
(E)Nocorrectionrequired
Ans:(B)

Directions(Q.2125)Ineachofthefollowingquestionsfourwordsaregivenofwhichtwo
wordsaremostnearlythesameoroppositeinmeaning.Findthetwowordswhicharemost
nearly the same or opposite in meaning and indicate the number of the correct letter
combination,bydarkeningtheappropriateovalinyouranswersheet.

21.(1)Disciple
(2)Student
(3)Academy
(4)Martyr
(A)13
(B)34
(C)23
(D)24
(E)12
Ans:(E)

22.(1)Magnetic
(2)Cherished

(3)Valued
(4)Forlorn
(A)34
(B)12
(C)24
(D)23
(E)14
Ans:(D)

23.(1)Ordinary
(2)Vague
(3)Custom
(4)Exceptional
(A)12
(B)23
(C)34
(D)14
(E)24
Ans:(D)

24.(1)Damaged
(2)Hurried
(3)Condemned
(4)Measured
(A)12
(B)34
(C)24
(D)23
(E)14
Ans:(C)

25.(1)Remote
(2)Troubled
(3)Secluded
(4)Apparent
(A)23
(B)14
(C)24
(D)34
(E)13
Ans:(E)

Directions(Q.2630)Rearrangethefollowingsixsentences(1),(2),(3),(4),(5)and(6)in
thepropersequencetoformameaningfulparagraph;thenanswerthequestionsgivenbelow
them.
(1)Alegalframeworkis,thus,nowavailableforpromotingenergyefficiencyinallsectorsof
theeconomy.
(2) The increasing preference for commercial energy has led to a sharp increase in the
demandforelectricityandfossilfuels.
(3)Thereisstillaconsiderablepotentialforrepairingsuchdamageandreducingenergy
consumptionbyadoptingenergyefficiencymeasuresatvarioussectorsofourcountry.
(4)ThisframeworkisnothingbuttheEnergyConservationAct,2001,thesuccessofwhich
greatlydependsonthepeoplewhotaketheleadinsupportingthisprogramme.
(5)Thisuseoffossilfuelshasresultedinemissionofahugequantityofcarbondioxide
causingseriousenvironmentaldamage.
(6)Theseadoptedmeasureswillnotonlyreducetheneedtocreatenewcapacityrequiring
highinvestment,butalsoresultinsubstantialenvironmentalbenefits.

26.WhichofthefollowingshouldbetheFIRSTsentenceafterrearrangement?
(A)1
(B)2
(C)3
(D)4
(E)5
Ans:(B)

27.WhichofthefollowingshouldbetheFOURTHsentenceafterrearrangement?
(A)5
(B)6
(C)1
(D)4
(E)2
Ans:(B)

28.WhichofthefollowingshouldbetheSECONDsentenceafterrearrangement?
(A)2
(B)3
(C)4
(D)5
(E)6
Ans:(D)

29.WhichofthefollowingshouldbetheLAST(SIXTH)sentenceafterrearrangement?
(A)1
(B)2
(C)3
(D)4
(E)5
Ans:(D)

30.WhichofthefollowingshouldbetheFIFTHsentenceafterrearrangement?
(A)1
(B)2
(C)3
(D)4
(E)5
Ans:(A)

Directions(3140)Readeachsentencetofindoutwhetherthereisanygrammaticalerror
oridiomaticerrorinit.Theerror,ifany,willbeinonepartofthesentence.Thenumberof
thatpartistheanswer.Ifthereisnoerror,theansweris(E).(Ignoreerrorsofpunctuation,if
any).

31.Morethanhalfthefoodproducts(A)/targetedatbabiesandtoddlershave(B)/ahigh
sugarcontentandare(C)/excessivesweet.(D)Noerror(E)
Ans:(D)

32. The foreign company has so far declined to (A) / directly comment on the Indian
companysmove,(B)/whichanalystsissayisasignthecompanywantingto(C)/fightfor
itspresenceinthemarket.(D)Noerror(E)
Ans:(C)

33. After forty years of trying to (A) / understand why asbestos causes cancer (B) /
researchershavenowfinally(C)/unravelledthemystery.(D)Noerror(E)
Ans:(C)

34.Apropertydealerwas(A)/shootdeadbyfourunidentifiedjacketcladmen(B)/while
takingamorningwalk(C)/inapark.(D)Noerror(E)
Ans:(B)

35.TheauditionsforIndiasfirstever(A)/realitybasedpopbandhunt,is(B)/goingonin
fullswing,(C)/withnumerousentriescamein.(D)Noerror(E)
Ans:(D)

36.Tocurbingthespreadofviolence,(A)/authoritiesbroughtundercurfew(B)/moreareas
intheState,where(C)/threeyouthswerekilled.(D)Noerror(E)
Ans:(A)

37.Demandfordieselcars,whichhas(A)/beenontheriseforthelastfewyears,(B)/may
dipasthegovernmentisincreasingtheprice(C)/ofthefuel,bringingitclosertothatof
petrol.(D)Noerror(E)
Ans:(C)

38.Notonlywastheactressoverthemoon(A)/aswinninganaward,butwas(B)/also
deeplytouchedbythesupport(C)/shegotfromtheindustry.(D)Noerror(E)
Ans:(B)

39.Theprotestorswentonarampaging(A)/andsetablazethreeshops(B)/resultingin
injuriestothirtypeople(C)/includingwomenandchildren.(D)Noerror(E)
Ans:(A)

40.Hecticschedulescan(A)/takeatollonanybodyand(B)/thesolutionstothisis(C)/a
quickholidaytosomeexoticlocation.(D)Noerror(E)
Ans:(C)

Directions(Q.4150)Inthefollowingpassagethereareblanks,eachofwhichhasbeen
numbered.Thesenumbersareprintedbelowthepassageandagainsteach,fivewordsare
suggested,oneofwhichfitstheblankappropriately.Findouttheappropriatewordineach
case.

Indiahasbecome,inpurchasingpowerparityterms,thefourthlargesteconomyintheworld.
Indiaseconomic(41)since1980hasbeenamongthe(42)rapid.AlthoughIndia
manageditsoneincipientcrisisintheearly1990s,itavoidedthecatastrophiclosses(43)
.Whilemany(44)thatexposingIndiaseconomytoglobalcompetitionwouldreveal
Indiaseconomic(45),ithasratherrevealedstrengthsandoftenunexpectedstrengthsin
newareasnoplannerwouldhave(46)of.Indiaisincreasinglytakingits(47)onthe
globalstageandininternationalforumsasa21stcenturysuperpower.Thegenerationsof
politiciansandpolicymakerswhohavebeen(48)ofleadingIndiato
whereitistodaycanbejustifiably(49)ofthetransformation.Butachievementscreate
new(50),twoofwhichareimprovingservicedelivery,particulartytothepoor,through
greateraccountabilityandexpandingthebenefitsofrapidgrowthacrosssectors,regionsand
people.

41.(A)decline
(B)policy
(C)crisis
(D)treaty
(E)growth
Ans:(E)

42.(A)several
(B)very
(C)most
(D)much
(E)so
Ans:(C)

43.(A)end
(B)deterioration
(C)thus
(D)together
(E)elsewhere
Ans:(C)

44.(A)asked
(B)feared
(C)think

(D)spoke
(E)believe
Ans:(B)

45.(A)growth
(B)space
(C)gain
(D)weakness
(E)void
Ans:(D)

46.(A)questioned
(B)dreamed
(C)arranged
(D)plan
(E)wanted
Ans:(B)

47.(A)matter
(B)place
(C)life
(D)generation
(E)mark
Ans:(B)

48.(A)part
(B)issues
(C)humans
(D)figment
(E)thought
Ans:(A)

49.(A)worried
(B)angry
(C)honoured
(D)distinguished
(E)proud
Ans:(E)

50.(A)impossibilities
(B)evaluations
(C)challenges
(D)comparisons
(E)dangers
Ans:(C)