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WORKBOOK
Detailed Explanations of

Try Yourself Questions


Civil Engineering
Structural Analysis

ILD and Rolling Loads

T1 : Solution
Figure (ii) shows in I.L.D. for the bending moment of C.
Height of the I.L.D. at C =

a (l a )
l

3 4 12
=
units
7
7

Max. +ve B.M. at C.


For the maximum positive (sagging) moment to occur at the section C, the loads should be place as shown
in figure (iii).

Max. +ve B.M. at C.


= 200

12
+ 80 1.37 kNm
7

= +452.46 kNm
Max. ve B.M. at C.
For this condition the loads should be placed as shown in figure (iv)

Max. ve B.M. at C.

12

+ 80 1.26 kNm
= 200
7

= 443.66 kNm

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3m

3 m 12

4m

2m

1.26

12
7

(I)

1.37

D
Mc

E (ii)
6
7

200 80
A

B
0.8
m
Position of loads for max positive BM at C

E (iii)

200 80
D

0.8
m

E (iv)

C
A

Position of loads for max negative BM at C

T2 : Solution
The reactions Va, Vb and the reacting moment Ma for the positions of the unit load on the RHS of C and LHS
of C are shown in figure.
When the unit load is on RHS of C distant x from C.
For this position of the unit load.
For B.M. at C to be zero,
Vb 4 1x = 0
x
4

Vb =

Va = 1
Ma =

x
4

x
10 1(6 + x)
4

3
x6
2
When the unit load is on LHS of C distant x from C.
For this position of the unit load.
Vb = 0, Va = 1 and Ma = 1(6 + x)
Influence line diagram for Vb
When the unit load is on RHS of C distant x from C,

Ma =

Vb = l

x
4

When x = 0, Va = 1, When x = 4, Va = 0
When the unit load is on LHS of C, Va = 1

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Civil Engineering Structural Analysis

Influence line diagram of Ma


When the unit load is on RHS of C distant x from C,

Ma =

x
10 1(6 + x)
4

Ma =

3
x6
2

When x = 0, Ma = 6 and When x = 4 m, Ma = 0


When the unit load is on LHS of C distant x from C
Ma = 1(6 x)
When x = 0, Ma = 6 and When x = 6, Ma = 0
Influence line diagram for shear force at D
When the unit load is on RHS of C distant x from C,

Sd = 1

x
4

When x = 0, Sd = +1 and When x = 4 m, Sd = 0


When the unit load is on LHS of C distant x from C and less than 2 m, Sd = +1
When the unit load is on LHS of D, Sd = 0
Influence line for bending moment Md at D
When the unit load is on RHS of C distant x from C

Md =

x
x
6 1(2 + x) = 2
4
2

When x = 0, Md = 2 and When x = 4 m, Md = 0


When the unit load is between C and D and distant x from C
Md = 1(2 x)
When x = 0, Md = 2 and When x = 2 m, Md = 0
When the unit load is on LHS of D, Md = 0
Maximum reaction at B due to live load
See I.L.D. for Vb
For maximum value of Vb the live load should cover atleast the part CB
Vb(max) = Rate of loading area of ILD covered by the live load
= 20

1
4 1 = 40 kN
2

Maximum reaction at A due to live load


See I.L.D. for Va
For maximum value of Va, the live load should cover the whole beam.
Va(max) = Rate of loading area of ILD covered by the live load

= 20 6 1 + 4 1
2

= 40 kN
Maximum Bending Moment Ma at A due to live load
See I.L.D. for Ma
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For maximum value of Ma, the live load should cover the whole beam.
Ma(max) = Rate of loading area of ILD covered by the live load
= 20

1
10 6 = 600 kNm
2

Maximum Shear Force Sd at D due to live load


See I.L.D. for Sd
For maximum value of Sd, the live load should cover at least the part DB
Sd(max) = Rate of loading area of ILD covered by the live load

= 20 2 1 + 4 1 = +80 kN
2

Maximum Bending Moment Md and D due to live load


See I.L.D. for Md
For maximum value of Md the live load should cover at least the part DB
Md(max) = Rate of loading area of ILD covered by the live load
= 20

1
6 2 = +120 kNm
2
1

Vb

Ma

1
Va

+
D

6
Sd

1
A
D

Md

C
C

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Arches

T1 : Solution
10t

C
D
yd

5m

VA

VB
8m

24 m

Let H be the horizontal reaction. Taking moments about A, we get


VB 24 = 10x

VB =

10 x 5 x
=
24 12

VA = 10

5 x 120 5 x
=
12
12

Taking moments about C, the crown, we get

or

5x
12 = H 5
12
H = x
Let 10 t is acting on the left side of point D.
Taking moments about D, the point 8 m from the left support
120 5 x
8 Hy 10 (8 x) = 0
12

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...(1)
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But

yd =

or

yd =

4y c
l

x (l x ) =

45
8 16
24 24

40
m
9

Substituting these values in equation (1), we get


120 5 x
40
8x
10 (8 x) = 0
12
9

6(120 5x) 40x 90 (8 x) = 0

720 30x 40x 720 + 90x = 0

x = 0
Now, assuming 10 t is acting on the right side of point D.
120 5 x
40
8x
10 (x 8) = 0
12
9

6(120 5x) 40x 90 (x 8) = 0

720 30x 40x + 720 90x = 0

x = 9
i.e. load of 10t must be located at a distance of 9 m from the support.
B.M. under the load
M = Hy VA 9

H = 9t, y =

VA =

45
9 15 = 4.69 m
24 24

120 5 9
= 6.25 t
12

M = 9 4.69 6.25 9 = 14.04 t-m

T2 : Solution
A two hinged parabolic arch carrying a central concentrated load of 100 kN is as shown in figure.
Now, from equation of equilibrium Fy =0

VA + VB = 100 kN

Fx = 0

HA = HB

...(i)
...(ii)

MB = 0
VA 100 100 50 = 0

VA = 50 kN

100 kN

From equation (i)

VB=50 kN

As, we know that, the two hinged arch is a indeterminate


structure with one degree of indeterminacy.
So to find the horizontal reaction, we have to use
compatability equation.
Now take HA = H as redundant.

By compatability equation
Copyright

y
HA

h= 20 m

VA

l = 100 m

HB

VB

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Civil Engineering Structural Analysis

U
H

= AB = 0

Equation of parabolic arch is


y =

y =

4h
x (l x )
l2
4 20

(100)2

x (100 x ) = 0.008x(100x)

= 0.8x 0.008x2
dy
dx

tan =

4h
(l 2x )
l2

4 20
(100 2x )
(100)2

= 0.008 2(50x) = 0.016(50 x)


Bending moment at section x-x
Mx = VAx Hy = 50x Hy
Mx
= y
H
M2x dS
U =
2EI

U
H

50
M S
2
=
0 M H EI
50

dS

(50x Hy )( y) EI
0

50

0 =

50xy
0

50

H =

dS
dS
+ H y 2
EI
EI

dS

50xy EI
0

50

y
0

dS
EI

50

H =

50

(0.8x 0.008x )

2 2

50

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dx

50x (0.8x 0.008x ) EI

50

0 (0.64x

0 (40x

dx
EI

0.4x3 dx

+ 6.4 10 5 x 4 0.0128x 3 dx

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50

x3
x4
40 3 0.4 4

50

x3
x4
5 x
0.64 3 + 6.4 10 5 0.0128 4

1041666.67
= 97.656 kN
10666.67

T3 : Solution
Let Va and Vb be the vertical reactions at the supports A and B. Let H be the horizontal thrust at each
support.
Val1 = Hh1 + Wa

Va = H

h1 Wa
+
l1
l1

Taking moments about C of the forces on the right side of C,


Vbl2 = Hh2

Vb = H

h2
l2

Adding equations (1) and (2),


h h Wa
Va + Vb = H 1 + 2 +
l1 l2 l1

Va + Vb = W

But

h h Wa
H 1+ 2+
l1 l2 l1

= W;

h h
a W (l1 a )
H 1 + 2 = W 1 =
l1
l1 l2
l1

H =

W (l1 a )
h h
l1 1 + 2
l1 l2

W l2 (l1 a )
W (l1 a )
;=
h1l1
h1l2 + h2l1
h1
l2

T4 : Solution
M

H
VA

Copyright

yc
B

L/4

L/2

L/4

H
x
VB

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10

Civil Engineering Structural Analysis


Equation of parabolic arch is
y =

4y c
x (L x )
L2

...(i)

and horizontal reaction


H =

Mydx
y dx

...(ii)

Numerator
=

Mydx =

3L/ 4

Mydx =

L/4

4y c 3L / 4
M Lx x 2 dx
L2
L/4

3L/ 4

4yc L 2 x3
M x
=
3 L/ 4
L2
2

11
4y c 9 3 27 3 L3 L3
My cL
=
M L
L

32
192
32
64
L2
24

Denominator
L

2
L
16y 2c L 2
2
4yc

2
y
dx
x (L x ) dx
=
= 2 x (L x ) dx =

4
L

0
0
0 L
L

16y 2c L 2 2
16y 2c 2 x 3 x 5
x4
4
3
+

x
L
x
2Lx
dx
L
2L
+

=
=
(
)

L4 0
4 0
L4 3 5
=

16y 2c L5 L5 L5
16 2
Lyc
+ =
4
30
L 3 5 2

Putting values in eq. (ii), we get


55 M
11
30 1
H = My cL
=
and V = 0
24
16 y 2cL
64 y c

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Methods of Structure Analysis

T1 : Solution
Consider BC as half of the symmetrically loaded span, the figure reduces to,
80 kN
15 kN/m

80 kN

1.5 m

1.5 m

15 kN/m
A

C
4m

2m

2m

4m

Fixed end moments:


2
MFAB = 15 4 = 20 kN-m
12
2
MFBA = + 15 4 = + 20 kN-m
12

Considering the beam BCB of span 4 m,


80 0.5 3.52 80 3.5 0.52
MFBC =
+
= 35 kN-m
42
42

80 kN

0.5 m

MFBC

Copyright

1.5 m

C
MFCB

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Civil Engineering Structural Analysis

12

MFCB = [80 0.5 35] = 5 kN-m


Beam AB

MAB = MFAB +

4 EI
2 EI
6 EI
+

4 A
4 B
4 AB

= 20 + 0 +
= 20 +

EI B
0
2

EI B
2

2 EI
4 EI
6 EI
A +
B

4
4
4 AB
= + 20 + 0 + EI B 0
= 20 + EI B

MBA = MFBA +

Beam BC (Ignore deflection c, c = 10)

MBC = MFBC +
= 35 +

EI

2 B

MCB = MFCB
= 5

EI

2 B

EI

2 B

EI

2 B

Equilibrium equation:

MBA + MBC = 0

(20+EI B)+( 35 +

EI
)
2 B

= 0

3
EI B = 15
2
EI B = 10 kN-m

MAB = 20 +

10
= 15 kN-m
2

MBA = 20 + 10 = 30 kN-m

MBC = 35 +

10
= 30 kN-m
2

MCB = 5 10/2 = 10 kN-m

15 kN/m
A

B
4m
30 kN/m

15 kN/m

RA

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RB

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13

RB1 (4) + 15 = 15 (4) (2) + 30 RB1 = 33.75 kN


RA= 15 4 RB1 = 26.25 kN

80 kN

10 kN/m
1.5 m

2m
30 kN/m
RB2

RB2 = 80 kN
( Support C cannot given any reaction)
RB = RB1 + RB2 = 33.75 + 80 =113.75 kN

Assuming

and

+
A

SFD

33.75 kN
30 kNm

15 kNm

B
10 kNm

BMD

Alternate solution by moment distribution method

Beam

KAB : KBC =

4 EI EI 2 1
2
1
:
= : i.e.
and
4
2
2 2
3
3

AB

BA

BC

2/3

1/3

D.F.

CB

C.O.

1/2

F.E.M.

20

20

35

+ 10

+5

15 kNm

+ 30 kNm

30 kNm

10 kNm

Bal.

T2 : Solution
A

A
L

Copyright

C
L

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Civil Engineering Structural Analysis

14

From slope deflection equation


Assuming

and

MAB =
MBA =
MBC =
MCB =

2EI
(2A + B )
L
2EI
(A + 2B )
L
2EI
(2B + 0)
L
2EI
(B )
L

At joint B,
MBA + MBC = 0
or
or

2EI
( A + 2B + 2B ) = 0
L
4B + A = 0
A
0.004
=
radians
4
4
= 0.001 radians
= 0.001 radian (anticlockwise)

or

B =

2 25000
(2 0.004 0.001)
5
= 70 kNm

MAB =

50000
(0.004 0.002)
5
= 20 kNm
= 10000(2 0.001) = 20 kNm
= 10000 0.001 = 10 kNm

MBA =
MBC
MCB

10

70
A
20

20

70 kNm

10 kNm

20 kNm

BMD

Taking bottom face as reference face.

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15

T3 : Solution
P
L/2

L/2

Deflected
shape

PR

Let force generated in the spring be R. Complementary strain energy (U*) is given by,
L

U* =

R 2 1 M 2d x
+
2k 2 0 EI

From the theorem of least work,


dU *
= 0
dR
L

R
M dM
+
dx = 0
k 0 EI dR

(i )

(ii )

Here the term (i) denotes elongation in the elastic prop and term (ii) denotes deflection of beam end C
corresponding to direction of reaction

R x

L
M =

R x P x 2

Now,

0< x<

< x<L
2

x 0 < x < 2
dM
=
dR
x L < x < L

L
2

x0

= x 0< x<L

R
M dM
+
dx = 0
k 0 EI dR

L
[R P ( x L /2)]
R L / 2 Rx
+
x dx + x
x dx = 0
k 0 EI
EI
0

R
R
+
k 3E I

Copyright

L3 R 1 7L3 P 1 3L3 PL 1 3L2





+

+
=0
8 E I 3 8 E I 3 8 2E I 2 4

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Civil Engineering Structural Analysis

16

R RL3 7RL3 7PL3 3PL2


+
+

+
=0
k 24 EI 24 EI 24 EI 16 EI

R RL3 5PL3
+

=0
k 3 EI 48 EI
k =

Given

RL3
3 EI

5PL3
48 EI

1 1
R +
3

5P
48

RL3

EI

EI
L3

R =

when

R =

P
16 3 +
P
4

5
P
=

P
16 + 3
4
4 + 12 = 5
= 12

R
5P
16

kL
= EI

T4 : Solution
The structure is statically indeterminate to one. Taking H as redundant and assuming end B to be ON roller
support, H is given by,
y

H =

AE
L
L

...(i)
x

where

Now,

1 d
2 0 d x

...(ii)

M0 x
d2
=
EI
d x2
M0 x
d
+ C1
=
EI
dx

At

At

L =

=
x = 0, = 0
x = L, = 0

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M0 x 2
+ c1x + c2
2 EI

C2 = 0
C1 =

M0L
2 EI

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M0L2 x
x
1
2 EI L L
Maximum deflection will occur at mid-span i.e. at x = L/2

max =

17

...(iii)

M0L2
(Downwards)
8 EI

...(iv)

M L2 1
2x
d
= 0 1
2 EI L
L
dx

M0L 2 x
1
2 EI
L

...(v)

Substituting (v) in (ii),


1 M 0L
L =
2 2 EI

2L

4 x2 4 x
1
+
L2 L d x
0

M02L2
4 3 2 2
M02L2 4L

L
(
L
)
(
L
)
=
2 L
L+

L
3
8( EI )2 3L2

8( EI )2

M02L2 4
1+ 2
8( EI )2 3

M02L2
24( EI )2

...(vi)
2 3

EA M0 L
H =
L 24( EI )2

Substituting (iv) in (i),


T5 : Solution
(i)

Analysing the given frame using moment distribution method.


Distribution factors
Joint Member Relative Stiffness Total R.S. DF
B

BA
BC
CB

CD
CE

Copyright

I 8I
=
5 40
I 5I
=
8 40
I 2I
=
8 16
3 I 2I
=
4 6 16
3 I 3I
=
4 4 16

13 I
40

7I
16

8
13
5
13
2
7
2
7
3
7

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18
(ii)

Civil Engineering Structural Analysis


Fixed end moments
M AB =
MBA =

50 2 32
= 36kNm
52

MBC =
MCB =

B
8 5
13 13

A
24

+36

80

15 82
= 80kNm
12

15 82
= 80 kNm
12

MCD =
MDC =

50 3 2 2
= 24 kNm
52

15 62
= 45kNm
12

15 62
= 45kNm
12
C
2 2
7 7
+80

D
45

C
3
7

45
45

22.5
24

+36
27.08

13.54
0.549
0.372
9.54

(iii)

+80 67.5
3.57 3.57

1.785
0.687

8.46
2.417 2.417

1.2085
0.744
0.464

0.3435
0.098 0.098

1.098

80
+16.92

64.922 64.922

82.71

73.58

5.36
0
3.626
0.1472

0
0

0
0

9.13

Bending moment diagram


Taking top face of the beam as reference face and outer face of the columns as reference face.
Taking simply supported span AB
50 3 2
Maximum moment under the load =
= 60 kNm (sagging)
5
64.922 9.54
Fixed moment under the load = 9.54 +
3 = 42.76925 kNm (hogging)

Resultant moment under the load = 60 42.7692 = 17.2308 kNm (sagging)


Taking simply supported span BC
Maximum moment =

15 82
= 120 kNm (sagging)
8

82.71 64.922
Fixed moment at centre = 64.922 +
4 = 73.816 (hogging)
8

Resultant moment at the centre of span BC = 120 73.816 = 46.184 kNm (sagging)
Taking simply supported span CD
Maximum moment = 67.5 kNm (sagging)
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Fixed moment at the centre = 73.58

19

73.58
= 36.79 kNm (hogging)
2

Resultant moment at the centre of span CD = 67.5 36.79 = 30.71 kNm (sagging)
46.184 kNm
64.922 kNm

82.71 kNm
73.58 kNm
30.71 kNm

64.922 kNm
C

9.13 kNm

17.2308 kNm
E
A
9.54 kNm

Bending Moment Diagram

T6 : Solution
There are no external loads acting on the portal frame except the sway force of 100 kN from left to right. So
only the sway analysis will be carried out.
Distribution Factors:
Joint Member Relative Stiffness Total Relative Stiffness Distribution Factor
I
I
=
4 4
4
1 I
I =
3
4 3
4
1 I
I =
3
4 3
5
1 I
I =
4
5 4

BA
B
BC
CB
C
CD

100 kN

7I
12

C
B

3
7
4
7
4
7
3
7

7I
12

100 kN

B B1
C

C1

C2

4m
A

D
4m

3m

D
3m

4m

Let the frame ABCD deflect to the position AB1 C1 D due to the sway force.
Let,
CC1 =

Copyright

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Civil Engineering Structural Analysis

20

In CC1C2,

cos =

CC2
CC1
4

BB1 = CC2 = cos =


C1C2 = sin =

MFAB =

MFBC

6EI BB1
l2

5 =M
FBA
16

6EI
=

4
4
3
6E I C1C2 6E I
24
3
3
5 =M
E
=
=
=
FBC
2
80
16
l

MFCD = MFDC =

5I
4 = 6EI = 24EI
25
20
80

6E

Ratio of fixed end moments for AB, BA, BC, CB, CD and DC

24EI
24EI 24EI 24EI
24EI
24EI
:
::
:
::
:
80
80
80
80
80
80

50 : 50 :: 50 : 50 :: 50 : 50
B
3
7

A
Col.(a)

50

50

C
4
7

3
7

4
7

50

50

50

D
50

Since the joints are balanced so there is no need to further distribution.


25 kN

25 kN

B
B

50 kNm
50 kNm
A

43.75 kN

50 kNm

25 kN
25 kN

4m

25 kN

50 kNm

25 kN

50 kNm
25 kN

25 kN

25 kN

Vertical reaction at D =

43.75 kN
25 kN

50 + 50
MBC + MCB
= 25 kN
=
4
LBC

( )

50 50
= 25 kN ( ) = 25 kN ( )
4

Horizontal reaction at A =

MAB + MBA
L AB

Horizontal reaction at D =

MCD + MDC VD 3
50 50 25 3
=
4
4

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50 kNm

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Workbook

21

= 43.75() = 43.75 kN ()
Let the sway force S be acting from left to right and then
HA + HD + S = 0
25 43.75 + S = 0

S = 68.75 kN ()
For a sway force of 68.75 kN, the sway moment are as per Col. (a)
For the actual sway force of 100 kN, the corresponding sway moments will be
100
Col. (a) moments
68.75
A
col. (a)

B
50

Actual sway moments


100 col. (a) 72.72
68.75
36.36 kN
36.36 kN
72.72 kNm

36.36 kN C

50

72.72 72.72

72.72 kNm

B
63.64 kN

50 50

72.72

63.64 kN

72.72 kNm
36.36

D
50

50

72.72 72.72

36.36 kN
C

63.64 kN

72.72 kNm

72.72 kNm
63.64 kN

36.36 kN

72.72 kNm
36.36 kN
36.36 kN
72.72 kN-m

72.72 kN-m

72.72 kN-m

72.72 kN-m

72.72 kN-m

72.72 kN-m
Bending Moment Diagram

Taking tension as positive and compression as negative.

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Civil Engineering Structural Analysis

22

36.36 kN
B

63.64 kN

63.64 kN
B

36.36 kN

63.64 kN

63.64 kN

36.36 kN
A
36.36 kN

FBD for Axial force

cos =

4
3
and sin =
5
5

Axial force in CD = 36.36 cos + 63.64 sin = 67.272 kN


63.64 kN
B

67.272 kN
36.36 kN

Axial force diagram

T7 : Solution
Fixed end moments

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MfAB =

5 102
= 41.67 kNm
12

MfBA
MfBC
MfCB
MfCD
MfDC

41.67 kNm
41.67 kNm
41.67 kNm
41.67 kNm
41.67 kNm

=
=
=
=
=

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23

Workbook

EI
L

= 27000 kNm

MBA = MFBA

= 62.5 +

MFAB 3E I
B
+
B

2
l
l

3E I

3E I
0.005
B
B
= 62.5 +
B

l
l
l
l

MBA = 22 + 81000 B
MBC = 41.667 +

= 41.667 +

...(1)

3 (C B )
2E I
2B + C

10
l

2 27000
l

2B + C

3 0.005
10

MBC = 122.667 + 108000 B + 54000 C

...(2)

MCB = 39.333 + 108000 C + 54000 B


MCD = 18.5 + 81000 C

...(3)
...(4)

Similarly,

Equilibrium equation

MBA + MBC = 0
MCB + MCD = 0

(From (1) and (2)

(From (3) and (4)

(From (A) and (B)

100.667 + 189000 B + 54000 C = 0

...(A)

20.833 + 189000 C + 54000 B = 0

...(B)

B = 5.457 104
C = 4.569 105
Final moment values are

MBA = 66.20 kNm; MBC = 66.2 kNm


MCD = 14.8 kNm; MCB = 14.8 kNm
33.782
+

66.2

43.36
+

3.676 m

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Civil Engineering Structural Analysis

24

T8 : Solution
Analysing the given beam by slope-deflection method.
Fixed end Moments

MAB = 0; MBA = 0
MBD =

W 2L
WL
=
8
4

MDB = +

WL
4

Let the deflection at the hinge be ,


Slope deflection equations
MAB = MAB +

3
3

2EI
0 + BA = 0 +
BA
L
L
L

2EI
L

2EI
MBA = MBA +
L

2EI
3

= 0 + L
2BA + 0
L

2BA
L

MBD = MBD +

2EI
2L

EI
2 + 0 +
=
BD
2L
L

WL
2 BD +

2L
4

MDB = MDB +

2EI
2L

3
EI
3

WL
0 + BD + =
BD + +
2L
L
2L
4

Joint equilibrium conditions


From the above figure it is clear that both MBA and MBD are equal to zero
MBA = 0
MBD = 0
Shear equation:
W

C
VA

VD

Fy = 0
VA + VD W = 0

...(iii)
A

M BA
B

M AB
L

VA

M + MBA
VA = AB

VA =

[ MBA = 0]

MAB
L
W

M BD
B

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...(i)
...(ii)

M
D DB
VD

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Workbook

VD =

MDB + MBD + WL
2L

VD =

MDB + WL
2L

25

[ MBD = 0]

Putting values of VA and VD in (iii), we get

M + WL
MAB
+ DB
W=0
L
2L

2MAB + MDB + WL 2WL = 0


2MAB + MDB WL = 0

2EI
L

4EI
L

EI
BA +
L
L

3
EI

BA +
L
L

WL
= WL
BD +
+
2L
4

3
3WL

BD +
=
2L
4

...(iv)

From (i), we have


MBA = 0

2EI
L

2BA
=0
L

= BA
3
L

Substituting this value in (iv), we get

3 2
2

4EI
EI
3WL

BD + BA =
BA 3 BA +
2 3
3
L
L
4

EI
4EI BA
3WL
+
( + BA ) = 4
L BD
L

4EIBA + EIBD + EIBA =


5BA + BD =

From (ii), we get

3WL2
4

3WL2
4EI

MBD = 0

EI
L

WL
=0
2 BD +

2L
4

EI
L

3 2

WL
2BD + BA =
2 3
4

BA + 2BD =

Copyright

... (v)

WL2
4EI

...(vi)

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Civil Engineering Structural Analysis

26

Solving (v) and (vi), we get


BA =

and

5 WL2
WL2
and BD =
36 EI
18EI

MAB =

3
2EI
BA

L
L
2

BA 3 BA
3

2EI
L

2EI
BA
L

2EI
5
WL2

L
36
EI

MAB =

5
10
WL =
WL
18
36

MDB =

EI
L

WL
BD +
+
2L
4

EI
L

3 2

WL
BD + BA +
2 3
4

EI
WL
BD + BA ) +
(
L
4

EI
L

7EI
WL
16
WL2

+
=
WL
L
4
36
36EI

MBD =

WL2
5 WL2
WL
18EI + 36 EI +

4
WL
9
5 WL
MAB
5
W
=
=

18
L
L
18

Also,

VA =

VD = W

13
5
W
W =
18
18
5 WL
18

10 WL
36

16
WL
36

Bending Moment Diagram

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Maximum simply supported BM in BD =


Net positive BM at C =

27

W (2L )
WL
2WL
=
=
2
4
4

5WL
WL
16WL
10WL

=
=
18
2
36 2
36

5
W
18

Shear Force Diagram

13
W
18

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Trusses

T1 : Solution
40 kN
X
I

30 kN

1.5 m

1.5 m

HA = 30 kN

3m

C
2
3m

D 3m

3m

30 kN

RA

Take a section xx as shown. The resulting free body diagram is as shown below
40 kN
J

P1

30 kN

P2

30 kN

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Workbook
For reaction RA, take moments about E,
RA (12) + 30 (3)

RA
HA
Also,
Take moments about B,
P1 (3) 30 (3)
P1

Take moments about I,


P2 (3)

P2

29

= 40 (9) + 30 (3)
= 30 kN
= 30 kN
=
=
=
=

0
30 kN = 30 kN (comp)
30 (3) + 30 (3)
60 kN (Tension)

T2 : Solution
w = 5 kN/m

10 m

HB= H

HA = H

B
hc = 7.5 m

h2

RB= wL2

C
O
A

RA= wL1
L1

L2
L = 75 m

The position of lowest point 0 is given by,


1
10

1
L1 = L
= 25 m
= 75

2 8 7.5
2 8 hc
1
10

1
L2 = L
= 50 m
= 75 +

2 8 7.5
2 8 hc
(L L1 = 75 25 = 5 0 m)

H =

L2 5(75)2
= 468.75kN
=
8h
8(7.5)

Equation of cable profile is given by,

x2
2
5
2
y =
=
x
x
=

2 468.75
187.5
2 H
At x = L1 = 25 m,
At x = L2 = 50 m,
Length of the cable is given by,

h1 = 3.33 m
h2 = 13.33 m
S = L+

2 h12 h22
2 3.332 13.332
+
+ = 75 +

3 L1 L2
3 25
50

= 77.66 m
Cable tension at the two ends,

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TA =

(L1)2 + H 2 =

(5 25)2 + 468.752 = 485.13 kN

TB =

(L2 )2 + H 2 =

(5 50)2 + 468.752 = 531.25 kN


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Civil Engineering Structural Analysis

30

T3 : Solution
Using Unit Load Method
Let Ra and Rf be the vertical reactions at A and F.
Taking moment about A,

Rf 4 = 200 4 1 + 3

Rf = 200 1 + 3 kN

Ra = 200 3

Considering the joint F we conclude Pfb = 0

Pfe = 200 1 + 3 kN (compressive)

Considering the joint A,

Pab = 200 3 kN (tensile)


Pfa = 0
Joint B, resolving vertically,

Pbc sin 45 = 200 3

Pbc = 200 6 kN (tensile)

Resolving horizontally,

Pbe = 200 6 cos 45


= 200 3 kN (compressive)
Joint C, Resolving horizontally,

Pcd = 200 6 cos 45


= 200 3 kN (tensile)
Resolving vertically,

Pce = 200 6 cos 45


= 200 3 kN (compressive)
Joint D, Resolving vertically,

Pde sin 30 = 200


Pde = 400 kN (compressive)
To find the vertical deflection of the joint D, remove the given loading and apply a 1 kN load vertically at D.
The forces in the various members due to the application of a vertical load of 1 kN at D are shown in the
table.

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Workbook

31

Taking tension as positive and compression as negative.


Member
AB
AF
BC
CD
DE
EF
BF
BE
EC

l (m)

200 3
0

3
0

200 6
200 3
400

6
3
2

200(1+ 3)
0
200 3

(1+ 3)
0
3

200 3

PKl
2400 3
0

4 3
4
4 2
4 3
8
4 3
8
4

3200 3 + 4800
0
2400

2400

Total

4800 6
2400 3
6400

12800 3 + 16000

Vertical deflection of D
=

PK l

AE

(12800

3 + 16000 1000

10000 200

= 19.085 mm

T4 : Solution
Step 1 : Apply external load after removing unit load and find member force.
FH = 0

RA + RA + 60 = 0
FV = 0

HD = 80 kN
FD = 0

RA + 8 + 80 6 = 0

RA = 60 kN

RD = 120 kN
Analysis of Member forces

FV

PBC 80 = 0
PBC = 80 kN

FH

= 0

PBA = 0

FH

= 0

= 0

PAC cos + 60 = 0
60
= 100 kN
6 /10

PAC =

PAC = 100 kN

FV

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= 0

PAC sin + PAD = 0


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Civil Engineering Structural Analysis

32

PAD = PAC sin


= (100)

8
= +80 kN
10

PAD = 80 kN

FH

= 0

PDC 120 = 0
PDC = 120 kN

Step 2 : Apply unit load at C in vertical direction after removing external load and find out member forces
MD = 0, RA + RC
= 0
FV = 0, HD = 1
MD = 0

RA 8 + 1 6 = 0

R A =

6
= 0.75
8

RD = 0.75
Analysis of Member Forces
Let be the angle between AC and CD.
Member AB and BC will be a zero force member
kBC = 0
kAB = 0
From

From

FV

= 0

kCA sin + 1 = 0
kCA = = 1.25

FH

= 0

kCD = kCA cos

From

1.25 3
= 0.75
5
= 0

kCD =

FV

kDA = 1
Increase in length of AD
= L T
= 8 0.6 105 120 m
= 5.76 103 m

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Workbook

33

Hence
k (kN)

P (kN)

L (m)

AB
BC
CD
DA
CA

0
0
0.75
1
1.25

0
80
120
80
100

6
8
6
8
10

A ( mm

Member

200
200
200
200
150

PkL
AE

(L T)k

0
0

0
0
0

13.5 X 10 m
3

16 X 10 m

5.76 X 10
0

41.67 X 10

= 71.17 X 10

5.76 X 10

PkL

AE + k.L T

1 =

= 76.93 103 m = 76.93 mm


+ve value of means joint C will have deflection in the direction of unit load i.e. downwards.
T5 : Solution
No. of redundant = 1
External redundancy = 1
Choose RB as redundant
Steps for analysis are :
1.
Remove the redundant and analyze the truss due to external loads.
The member forces due to external loads are as shown in the figure below
10 kN

10 kN

5 kN

10

5 2
5

F
5 2

5 kN

2.

Remove the external load and apply unit load at B. [i.e. at support location below.]
Analyse the truss due to this load. The
1 member forces are as shown below.
D

2
1

F
2

1
A

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B
1

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Civil Engineering Structural Analysis

34
Thus

Member

AB
BC

pk

DG

GD

DA

GF

10

DF

5 2

AF

5 2

10

FC

PkL

AE

15l

AE

PkL

RB =

AE
2

k L
AE

k 2l 8l
=
AE AE
15
=1.875 kN
8

Member forces are tabulated as shown below


Member

Member forces = p + kRB

AB

BC

1.875

DG

1.875

GD

1.875

DA

+3.125

GF

10

DF

+7.07

AF

4.42

FC

2.65

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Matrix Methods of
Structural Analysis

T1 : Solution
To generate the first column of the flexibility matrix, apply a unit force at coordinate 1.
12
1
=
12E I E I
= 0

11 =
21

31 =

12
0.5
=
24E I
EI

41 = 0
To generate the second column of the flexibility matrix, apply a unit force at coordinate 2.
12 = 0
22 =

123
36
=
48E I E I

32 =

122
9
=
16E I E I

42 = 0
To generate the third column of the flexibility matrix, apply a unit force at coordinate 3.
13 =

12
0.5
=
24E I E I

23 =

122
9
=
16E I E I

12
4
=
3E I E I
43 = 0
All the elements of the fourth column of the flexibility matrix are zero, since the beam remains undeflected
with a unit force is applied at coordinate 4. Hence,

33 =

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Civil Engineering Structural Analysis

36

14 = 24 = 34 = 44 = 0
The required flexibility matrix [] is given by the equation

[] =

0 0.5
1
0
36
9
1
E I 0.5 9
4

0
0
0

0
0
0

T2 : Solution
2
B

3
1

Stiffness: Amount of force moment required to produce unit deflection rotaton.


Dk = degree of kinematic indeterminacy
[No. of independent displacements (translational and rotational) possible in a structure]
Size of stiffness matrix = k[Dk, Dk]
To determine [k] matrix for the beam

[k] =

k11 k12
k
21 k 22
k 31 k 32

k11 = amount of moment required when far end is fixed =

k12 = moment due to unit settlement =

k13
k 23
k 33

4E I
L

6E I
(anticlockwise)
L2

k12 = k21 (As matrix is symmetric and validity of Maxwells reciprocal theorem)
k13 = 0 (as axial deformation wont produce)
k22 =

12E I

L3

( )

k23 = 0 = k32 (same reason as for k21 = k12)


k13 = k31
Stiffness Matrix :

[k] =

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4E I
L

6E I
L2

6E I
L2
12E I
L3

AE
L

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37

Flexibility Matrix :
L

EI
L2

2E I

[] =

L2
2E I
L3
3E I
0

AE

T3 : Solution
The two independent displacement components are rotation at B and C. Hence degree of freedom is two.
Let us assign Co-ordinate to the independent displacement components
1

Let us restrain the complete structure and find out the forces developed in the restrained structure in the
Coordinate directions.
MFAB = 30
MFBA = +30
MFBC = 15
MFCB = +15

Net moment in direction (1) = M1 = 30 15 = 15 tm


Net moment in direction (2) = M2 = 15 tm
External moment at joint B and C are zero

[] = [k]1 [P]
Let us give unit displacement in Co-ordinate direction (1) without giving any displacement in direction (2)

k11 =

8E I
8
=
E I = 0.8EI
10
l

k21 =

2E I
= 0.2EI
l

Let us give unit displacement along (2) without giving displacement along (1)

k12 = 0.2EI

k22 = 0.4EI
Hence, stiffness matrix is
[k] =

0.8E I
0.2E I

0.2E I
0.4E I

[] =

0.8E I
0.2E I

0.2E I 15
0.4E I 15

[] =

1 10.714
E I 32.143

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38

Civil Engineering Structural Analysis


Once the displacement are known, the end moments can be calculated using slope deflection equations

MAB = MFAB +
MAB = 30 +
MBA = 30 +

2E I

3
2A + B
l
l

2E I 10.714
0 = 32.1 tm
0
10
EI

2E I 2 10.714

+ 0 0 = 25.7 tm
10
EI

MBC = 15 +

2E I 2 10.714 32.143

0 = 25.7 tm
10
EI
EI

MCB = 0
The free body diagram will be as shown below
24t

32.1

12 (32.1 25.7)
10
= 11.36t

12.64t

12t

25.7

25.7

25.7
10
= 3.43t

8.57t

The loading on the beam is as shown below:


24t

12t
B

12.64 t

19.93 t
5m

5m

3.43 t
5m

5m

T4 : Solution
As the frame cannot sway, rotation at B and C are the unknown displacements.
Let as assign Co-ordinates at (B) and (C) as (1) and (2).
1

2
B
C

All the joints are locked and moments at (1) and (2) are calculated due to external

M1 =

5 3 22 16 4

= 5.6 tm
25
8

M2 = 8 tm
as no external moments are acting at (1) and (2) hence,
[] = [k]1 [P]
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39

Deriving Stiffness matrix


When unit rotation is given in direction (1) without giving rotation in direction (2).

k11 =

4E I 8E I
+
= 2.8E
5
4

k21 = E
When unit displacement is given in direction (2) without giving displacement in direction (1) we have.

k12 = E

k22 = 2E
Hence, the stiffness matrix is
[k] =

2.8E I
EI

[] = [k]1[P]

B

C

4.174
EI

6.087
E I

MAB = 3.6 +

Note :

EI
2E I

MFAB =

2E I
4.174
= 1.93 tm
0+
5
E I

5 2 32

52

MBA = 2.4 +

MBC = 8 +

MCB = 8 +

= 3.6 tm

2E I 2 4.174

+ 0 = 5.74 tm

5 EI

2E (2 I ) 2 4.174 6.087

= 5.74 tm
4
EI
EI

4E I 2 6.087 4.174
+
=0
4
EI
E I

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