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Advanced Placement Chemistry Institute

Texas A&M International University


Laredo, Texas
3 6 AUG 15

Table of Contents
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AP Chemistry Institute Class Schedule


The Basics / Notes on New Exam
Learning Statements for the New AP Exam
AP Course Support
Access and Equity for AP Courses
AP Chemistry Concepts at a Glance
Science Practices of AP Chemistry
Exclusion Statements
Laboratory techniques to be mastered by students
Laboratory notebook procedures expected to be mastered by students
Laboratories from AP Chemistry, Guided-Inquiry Experiments: Applying the Science
Practices
Potential Textbooks for AP Chemistry
AP Audit
Guided Inquiry for Labs (for 2014 Exam)
Formative and Summative Assessments

AP Chemistry Institute Class Schedule


Monday, 3 AUG 15
8:00 8:30
8:30 9:00
9:00 9:30
9:30 10:00
10:00 10:30
10:30 11:00
11:00 11:30
11:30 12:00
12:00 12:30
12:30 1:00
1:00 1:30
1:30 2:00
2:00 2:30
2:30 3:00
3:00 3:30
3:30 4:00
4:00 4:30
4:30 5:00

Introductions / Overview of Institute


The AP Chemistry Exam / AP Course Support / Access and Equity
Organization of the new AP Chemistry curriculum
AP Examination Multiple Choice (in pairs)
AP Examination Multiple Choice (in pairs) / Break
AP Examination Free Response (in pairs)
AP Examination Free Response (in pairs)
Discussion of AP Exam
Lunch
Lunch
The Nature of Light / Photoelectron Spectroscopy
Radial Distribution Functions / Periodic Properties
Expectations of AP Laboratory
Lab Notebook / Reports
Lab Preparation / Break
What Makes Hard Water Hard?
What Makes Hard Water Hard?
What Makes Hard Water Hard?

Homework:

Prepare for lab:

How Can We Determine the Percentage of H2O2 in a Drugstore


Bottle?
Bring AP Syllabus (for AP Audit) (if available)

Tuesday, 4 AUG 15
8:00 8:30
8:30 9:00
9:00 9:30
9:30 10:00
10:00 10:30
10:30 11:00
11:00 11:30
11:30 12:00
12:00 12:30
12:30 1:00
1:00 1:30
1:30 2:00
2:00 2:30
2:30 3:00
3:00 3:30
3:30 4:00
4:00 4:30
4:30 5:00

Chemical Bonding
Valence Bond Theory / Molecular Orbital Theory
AP Syllabus / Audit
AP Syllabus / Audit
Chemical Equations / Stoichiometry / Break
Solution Stoichiometry
Thermochemistry
Lab Techniques / Data Analysis
Lunch
Lunch
How Can We Determine the Percentage of H2O2 in a Drugstore Bottle?
How Can We Determine the Percentage of H2O2 in a Drugstore Bottle?
How Can We Determine the Percentage of H2O2 in a Drugstore Bottle?
Lab Reflection / Break
Gases / Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution / Intermolecular Forces
Guided Inquiry Lab Discussion and Exercise
Guided Inquiry Lab Discussion and Exercise
Lab Sharing and Discussion

Homework:

Prepare for lab: Handwarmer Design Laboratory


Bring labs and/or best practices to share and discuss.
Create non-laboratory exercise using guided inquiry principles.

4
Wednesday, 5 AUG 15
8:00 8:30
8:30 9:00
9:00 9:30
9:30 10:00
10:00 10:30
10:30 11:00
11:00 11:30
11:30 12:00
12:00 12:30
12:30 1:00
1:00 1:30
1:30 2:00
2:30 3:00
3:00 3:30
3:30 4:00
4:00 4:30
4:30 5:00

Guided Inquiry Presentations


Guided Inquiry Presentations / Solid State Chemistry
Polymer Chemistry / Solutions
Formative and Summative Assessments
Break / Kinetics
Kinetics
Equilibrium
Acids / Bases
Lunch
Lunch
Handwarmer Design Laboratory
Handwarmer Design Laboratory
Handwarmer Design Laboratory
Lab Reflection / Break
Acids / Bases
Lab / Best Practice Sharing
Lab / Best Practice Sharing

Homework:

Prepare for lab: LeChteliers Principle Lab


Create formative assessment (topic to be assigned)
Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution
Alloys
Photoelectron Spectroscopy
Arrhenius Equation
Chromatography
Bring school schedule for 2015-2016 school year and/or last years AP Chemistry schedule.

Thursday, 6 AUG 15
8:00 8:30
8:30 9:00
9:00 9:30
9:30 10:00
10:00 10:30
10:30 11:00
11:00 11:30
11:30 12:00
12:00 12:30
12:30 1:00
1:00 1:30
1:30 2:00
2:00 2:30
2:30 3:00
3:00 3:30
3:30 4:00
4:00 4:30
4:30 5:00

Formative Assessment Presentations


Buffers / Titrations / Solubility Equilibria
Questions and Answers
Questions and Answers
Break / Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics
Electrochemistry
Nuclear Chemistry
Lunch
Lunch
AP Schedule Planning
AP Schedule Planning / Break
LeChteliers Principle Lab
LeChteliers Principle Lab
LeChteliers Principle Lab
Lab Reflection
Concluding Discussion
Evaluation

The Basics
A year of AP Chemistry in high school is meant to be equivalent to a year of college general
chemistry.
Students take a national exam in May to be eligible for college credit.
A students score ranges from 1 to 5
- A score of 5 generally makes the students eligible for college credit for both semesters of
general chemistry.
- A score of 3 or 4 generally makes the students eligible for college credit for the first semester
of general chemistry.

Notes on New Exam


New practice exam was published in May 2013
Multiple choice questions will be reduced from 75 questions to 60 questions.
- 90 minutes
- 50% of exam grade
Free response questions will represent all Big Ideas
- 3 multi-part questions (10 points max. per question)
- 4 single-part questions (4 points max. per question)
- 105 minutes total
- 50% of exam grade
New Lab Manual
- 16 minimum mandatory labs
- 6 of which must be inquiry-based
- Advances in AP website: advancesinap.collegeboard.org (Password required)
- Consumable student edition to be available for purchase
- Teaching edition is available as a PDF

Date for test in Spring 2015: Monday, 4 MAY 15


Date for test in Spring 2016: Monday, 2 MAY 16

8:00 a.m
8:00 a.m

Test Fee: Fee $91 with high school keeping $9 for administrative costs
- Reduction to $53 available for students with financial need
Students are eligible for the AP Exam fee reduction on all AP Exams that they take in a given year if:
their familys income is at or below 185 percent of the poverty level issued annually by the
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or
they qualify as an "identified student" because they are:
o in foster care or Head Start, or
o homeless or migrant, or
o living in households that receive SNAP/Food Stamps, TANF cash assistance, or the
Food Distribution on Indian Reservation benefits.

Learning Statements for the New AP Exam

Big Ideas (6)

Enduring Understandings (25)

Essential Knowledge (71)

Science Practices (7/25)

Learning Objectives (97)

Big Idea 1: The chemical elements are fundamental building material of matter, and all matter can
be understood in terms of arrangement of atoms. These atoms retain their identity in chemical
reactions.
Big Idea 2: Chemical and physical properties of materials can be explained by the structure and
the arrangement of atoms, ions, or molecules and the forces between them.
Big Idea 3: Changes in matter involve the rearrangement and/or reorganization of atoms and/or
the transfer of electrons.
Big Idea 4: Rates of chemical reactions are determined by details of the molecular collisions.
Big Idea 5: The laws of thermodynamics describe the essential role of energy and explain and
predict the direction of changes in matter.
Big Idea 6: Any bond or intermolecular attraction that can be formed can be broken. These two
processes are in a dynamic competition, sensitive to initial conditions and external perturbations.

AP Course Support
AP Website: apcentral.collegeboard.com
Accessed: 26 MAY 15
Education Membership Testing
Policy &
Advocacy
AP Online Scores
for Students

Home

College
Guidance

K-12
Services

AP Course Audit
2015/2016

Higher
Ed
Services

Professional Data,
Development Reports &
Research

Be an AP Exam
Reader

News

AP Course and Exams


Course Home Pages
Course Descriptions
The Course Audit
Teachers Resources
Exam Calendar and Fees
Exam Information

Explore AP
AP Exam Dates

Pre-AP

Exam Fees & Fee Reductions

Professional Development
AP Teacher Community
Become an AP Reader

Students & Parents


Featured Articles

Resources for AP
Coordinators
Building Your AP Program
Information for Colleges &
Universities
Explore Pre-AP
Spring Board Pre-AP
Programs

8
AP Chemistry Course Home Page
Essential Course Resources
AP Chemistry Course and Exam Description, Effective Fall 2014.
Course Overview (.pdf/3.15MB) | Full Course Description (.pdf/2.37MB)
AP Chemistry Lab Manual Resource Center
Information, links, and resources relating to the AP Chemistry lab manual.
AP Chemistry Course Planning and Pacing Guides
AP Chemistry Course Planning and Pacing Guide (.pdf/1.53MB)
AP Chemistry Course Planning and Pacing Guide (.pdf/1.6MB)
AP Chemistry Course Planning and Pacing Guide (.pdf/1.6MB)
AP Chemistry Course Planning and Pacing Guide (.pdf/1.6MB)

Scott Balicki, Boston Latin School, MA


Jamie Benigna, The Roeper School, MI
Dale Jensen, Syracuse High School, UT
Armand Amoranto, Oceanside High School, CA

Other Core Resources


o WebcastNew!: Exploring Atomic Structure Using Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES) Data AP Chemistry Open Forum 2013
o AP Chemistry Frequently Asked Questions
o AP Chemistry Development Committee
o Inquiry Instruction in the AP Science Classroom
o America's Lab Report
o AP Vertical Teams Guide for Science
o CB Science Standards for College Success
AP Exam Information and Resources
About the AP Chemistry Exam
Calculator Policies (.pdf/152KB)
AP Course Audit Information
Syllabus Development Guide, Sample Syllabi, and more.
Classroom Resources
From the College Board
o Curriculum Modules
Alternative Approaches to Teaching Traditional Topics (.pdf/3.6MB)

From Your AP Colleagues


o Pedagogy
Improving Performance on the AP Chemistry Examination
Reading Chemistry Outside of the Textbook
Units in Thermochemical Calculations
Approaches to Process and Content in Introductory Chemistry
Teaching Tips for AP Chemistry
o Lab Activities and Resources
Misconceptions and Issues in Quantum Theory
After 100 Years: The Legacy of Marie Curie
Ending Misconceptions About the Energy of Chemical Bonds
Achieving Gender Equality in the Science Classroom
Women Scientists of the Manhattan Project
Milestones for Women in Science
Rosalind Franklin: She's Worth Another Look
o Web Guides
National Science Teachers Association
Journal of Chemical Education
o Reviews of Teaching Resources
There are currently more than 250 reviews of teaching resources, including web sites, software, and more, in the Teachers'
Resources area. Each review describes the resource and suggests ways it might be used in the classroom. Additional resources
can be found on the AP Chemistry Teacher Community.

Professional Development
Background on Course and Exam Revisions
Consortium of Experts
Spring 2011 AP Chemistry Higher Ed Validation Study
Inquiry Instruction in the AP Science Classroom: An Approach to Teaching and Learning
College Board Store

9
Southwestern Regional Office
Serving Arkansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas
4330 Gaines Ranch Loop,
Suite 200
Austin, TX 78735-6735
866-392-3017
E-mail: swro@collegeboard.org
Your Workshop Instructor
Ed Tisko
Department of Chemistry
University of Nebraska at Omaha
Omaha, NE 68182
402 554-3640
etisko@unomaha.edu
www.unomaha.edu/tiskochem/
www.unomaha.edu/tiskochem/apchem

Websites
phet.colorado.edu
www.chemeddl.org
www.adriandingleschemistrypages.com
www.chemmybear.com
http://www.pogil.org/resources/references/chemistry
http://www.gvsu.edu/targetinquiry/
http://www.chem.arizona.edu/chemt/Flash/photoelectron.html
http://group.chem.iastate.edu/Greenbowe/sections/projectfolder/animationsindex.htm
www.chemagic.com
compoundchem.com
apchemistrynmsi.wikispaces.com
www.polleverywhere.com
www.nearpod.com

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School Resources adapted from AP Chemistry Course Description


1. A separate operating and capital budget should be established with the understanding that the
per pupil expenditures for this course will be substantially higher than those for regular high
school laboratory science courses. Adequate laboratory facilities should be provided so that
each student has a work space where equipment and materials can be left overnight if
necessary. Sufficient laboratory glassware for the anticipated enrollment and appropriate
instruments (sensitive balances, spectrophotometers, and pH meters) should be provided.
2. Students in AP Chemistry should have access to computers with software appropriate for
processing laboratory data and writing reports.
3. A laboratory assistant should be provided in the form of a paid or unpaid aide. Parent
volunteers, if well organized, may be able to help fill such a role.
4. Flexible or modular scheduling must be implemented in order to meet the time requirements
identified in the course outline. Some schools are able to assign daily double periods so that
laboratory and quantitative problem-solving skills may be fully developed. At the very least, a
weekly extended laboratory period is needed.
It is not possible to complete high-quality AP laboratory work within standard 45- to 50-minute
periods.
At least six class periods or the equivalent per week should be scheduled for an AP Chemistry
course. Of the total allocated time, a minimum of one double period per week or the equivalent,
preferably in a single session, should be spent engaged in laboratory work. Time devoted to class
and laboratory demonstrations should not be counted as part of the laboratory period.
Resource Requirements
- The school ensures that each student has a college-level chemistry textbook (supplemented
when necessary to meet the curricular requirements) for individual use inside and outside of
the classroom.
- The school ensures that students have access to scientific equipment and all necessary
materials to conduct safe, hands-on, college-level chemistry laboratory investigations.
- The school ensures that students have access to a safe laboratory environment.

Teacher Preparation Time adapted from AP Chemistry Course Description


Because of the nature of the AP Chemistry course, the teacher needs extra time to prepare for
laboratory work. Therefore, adequate time must be allotted during the academic year for teacher
planning and testing of laboratory experiments.
In the first year of starting an AP Chemistry course, one month of summer time and one additional
period each week are also necessary for course preparation work. In subsequent years, an AP
Chemistry teacher routinely requires one extra period each week to devote to course preparation.

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Suggestions for Course Management
- make schedule and keep it
- assign homework problems over breaks
- form study groups
- use full period for instruction
- schedule AP Chem as first period class
- have students present problem solutions to class
- limit the number of the tests (2 or 3 chapters per test)

Teacher Professional Development adapted from AP Chemistry Course Description


AP Chemistry teachers need to stay abreast of current developments in teaching college chemistry.
This is done through contacts with college faculty and with high school teacher colleagues.
Schools should offer stipends and travel support to enable their teachers to attend workshops and
conferences. An adequate budget should be established at the school to support professional
development of the AP Chemistry teacher. The following are examples of such opportunities.
1. One- or two-week AP Summer Institutes (supported by the College Board) are offered in
several locations.
2. One-day AP conferences are sponsored by College Board regional offices. At these,
presentations are made by experienced AP or college-level teachers, many of whom have
been AP Exam Readers or members of the Development Committee.
3. AP institutes covering several disciplines are offered as two- or three-day sessions during the
school year. These are also organized by College Board regional offices and are held at
hotels or universities.

Student Support
-

Student is responsible for learning.


Student must commit early to a working a rigorous academic environment.
Student must commit to learning material outside of the classroom.
Student must commit to homework or lab reports every night.

Parental Support
- Parents should encourage student to persevere with academic struggles.
- Parents should assist student in meeting time and scheduling challenges.
- Parents should encourage student to take the AP Chemistry exam.
Grade Distribution for 2014 AP Chemistry Exam
Examination Grade
5
4
3
2
1
Number of Students
3 or Higher / %
Mean Grade
Standard Deviation

Chemistry
N
% At
14,991
10.1
25,033
16.9
38,402
25.9
38,325
25.8
31,803
21.4
148,554
78,426
52.8
2.68
1.26

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Access and Equity for Advanced Placement Courses


College Board statement on access and equity of AP courses
The College Board and the Advanced Placement Program encourage teachers, AP Coordinators,
and school administrators to make equitable access a guiding principle for their AP programs.
The College Board is committed to the principle that all students deserve an opportunity to
participate in rigorous and academically challenging courses and programs.
All students who are willing to accept the challenge of a rigorous academic curriculum should be
given consideration for admission to AP courses.
The Board encourages the elimination of barriers that restrict access to AP courses for students
from ethnic, racial, and socioeconomic groups that have been traditionally underrepresented in the
AP Program.
Schools should make every effort to ensure that their AP classes reflect the diversity of their
student population.
In a nutshell
One previous year of chemistry, two years of algebra recommended
All qualified students should be encouraged to take AP courses without construction of artificial
barriers limiting access.
It is better to admit a marginal, yet motivated student than to deny the student.
1. Exposure to course material will aid student when taking the college course
2. Exposure to high academic rigor helps with the transition to college and gives student
confidence
3. The student may do better than expected!

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AP Chemistry Concepts at a Glance


pg. 105, Workshop Handbook and Resources
Big Idea 1: The chemical elements are fundamental building materials of matter, and all matter
can be understood in terms of arrangement of atoms. These atoms retain their identity in chemical
reactions.
Enduring Understanding 1.A: All matter is made of atoms. There are a limited number of types of
atoms; these are the elements.
Essential Knowledge 1.A.1: Molecules are composed of specific combinations of atoms; different
molecules are composed of combinations of different molecules and of combinations of the same
elements in differing amounts and proportions.
Essential Knowledge 1.A.2: Chemical analysis provides a method for determining the relative
number of atoms in a substance, which can be used to identify the substance or determine its
purity.
Essential Knowledge 1.A.3: The mole is the fundamental unit for counting numbers of particles
on the macroscopic level and allows quantitative connections to be drawn between laboratory
experiments, which occur at the macroscopic level, and chemical processes, which occur at the
atomic level.
Enduring Understanding 1.B: The atoms of each element have unique structures arising from
interactions between electrons and nuclei.
Essential Knowledge 1.B.1: The atom is composed of negatively charged electrons, which can
leave the atom, and a positively charged nucleus that is made of protons and neutrons. The
attraction of the electrons to the nucleus is the basis of the structure of the atom. Coulombs law is
qualitatively useful for understanding the structure of the atom.
Essential Knowledge 1.B.2: The electronic structure of the atom can be described using an
electron configuration that reflects the concept of electrons in quantized energy levels or shells; the
energetics of the electrons in the atom can be understood by consideration of Coulombs law.
Enduring Understanding 1.C: Elements display periodicity in their properties when the elements
are organized according to increasing atomic number. This periodicity can be explained by the
regular variations that occur in the electronic structures of atoms. Periodicity is a useful principle
for understanding properties and predicting trends in properties. Its modern-day uses range from
examining the composition of materials to generating ideas for designing new materials.
Essential Knowledge 1.C.1: Many properties of atoms exhibit periodic trends that are reflective of
the periodicity of electronic structure.
Essential Knowledge 1.C.2 The currently accepted best model of the atom is based on the
quantum mechanical model.

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Enduring Understanding 1.D: Atoms are so small that they are difficult to study directly; atomic
models are constructed to explain experimental data on collections of atoms.
Essential Knowledge 1.D.1: As is the case with all scientific models, any model of the atom is
subject to refinement and change in response to new experimental results. In that sense, an atomic
model is not regarded as an exact description of the atom, but rather a theoretical construct that fits
a set of experimental data.
Essential Knowledge 1.D.2 An early model of the atom stated that all atoms of an element are
identical. Mass spectroscopy data demonstrate evidence that contradicts this early model.
Essential Knowledge 1.D.3: The interaction of electromagnetic waves of light with matter is a
powerful means to probe the structure of atoms and molecules, and to measure their concentration.
Enduring Understanding 1.E: Atoms are conserved in physical and chemical processes.
Essential Knowledge 1.E.1: Physical and chemical processes can be depicted symbolically; when
this is done, the illustration must conserve all atoms of all types.
Essential Knowledge 1.E.2: Conservation of atoms makes it possible to compute the masses of
substances involved in physical and chemical processes. Chemical processes result in the
formation of new substances, and the amount of these depends on the number and the types and
masses of elements in the reactants, as well as the efficiency of the transformation.

Big Idea 2: Chemical and physical properties of materials can be explained by the structure and
the arrangement of atoms, ions, or molecules and the forces between them.
Enduring Understanding 2.A: Matter can be described by its physical properties. The physical
properties of a substance generally depend on the spacing between the particles (atoms, molecules,
ions) that make up the substances and the forces of attractions among them.
Essential Knowledge 2.A.1: The different properties of solids and liquids can be explained by
differences in their structures, both at the particulate level and in their supramolecular structures.
Essential Knowledge 2.A.2: The gaseous state can be effectively modeled with a mathematical
equation relating various macroscopic properties. A gas has neither a definite volume nor a
definite shape; because the effect of attractive forces are minimal, we usually assume that the
particles move independently.
Essential Knowledge 2.A.3: Solutions are homogeneous mixtures in which the physical properties
are dependent on the concentration of the solute and the strengths of all interactions among the
particles of the solutes and solvent.

15
Enduring Understanding 2.B: Forces of attraction between particles (including the noble gases and
also different parts of some large molecules) are important in determining many macroscopic
properties of a substance, including how the observable physical state changes with temperature.
Essential Knowledge 2.B.1: London dispersion forces are attractive forces present between all
atoms and molecules. London dispersion forces are often the strongest net intermolecular force
between large molecules.
Essential Knowledge 2.B.2: Dipole forces result from the attraction among the positive ends and
negative ends of polar molecules. Hydrogen bonding is a strong type of dipole-dipole force.
Essential Knowledge 2.B.3: Intermolecular forces play a key role in determining the properties of
substances, including biological structures and interactions.
Enduring Understanding 2.C: The strong electrostatic forces of attraction holding atoms together
in a unit are called chemical bonds.
Essential Knowledge 2.C.1: In covalent bonding, electrons are shared between the nuclei of two
atoms to form a molecule or polyatomic ion. Electronegativity differences between the two atoms
account for the distribution of the shared electrons and the polarity of the bond.
Essential Knowledge 2.C.2: Ionic bonding results from the net attraction between oppositely
charged ions, closely packed together in a crystal lattice.
Essential Knowledge 2.C.3: Metallic bonding describes an array of positively charged metal cores
surrounded by a sea of mobile valence electrons.
Essential Knowledge 2.C.4: The localized electron bonding model describes and predicts
molecular geometry using Lewis diagrams and the VSEPR model.
Enduring Understanding 2.D: The type of bonding in the solid state can be deduced from the
properties of the solid state.
Essential Knowledge 2.D.1: Ionic solids have high melting points, are brittle, and conduct
electricity only when molten or in solution.
Essential Knowledge 2.D.2: Metallic solids are good conductors of heat and electricity, have a
wide range of melting points and are shiny, malleable, ductile, and readily alloyed.
Essential Knowledge 2.D.3: Covalent network solids generally have extremely high melting
points, are hard, and are thermal insulators. Some conduct electricity.
Essential Knowledge 2.D.4: Molecular solids with low molecular weight usually have low melting
points and are not expected to conduct electricity as solids, in solution, or when molten.

16
Big Idea 3: Changes in matter involve the rearrangement and/or reorganization of atoms and/or
the transfer of electrons.
Enduring Understanding 3.A: Chemical changes are represented by a balanced chemical equation
that identifies the ratios with which reactants react and products form.
Essential Knowledge 3.A.1: A chemical change may be represented by a molecular, ionic or net
ionic equation.
Essential Knowledge 3.A.2: Quantitative information can be derived from stoichiometic
calculations that utilize the mole ratios from the balanced chemical reactions. The role of
stoichiometry in real-world applications is important to note, so that it does not seem to be simply
an exercise done only by chemists.
Enduring Understanding 3.B: Chemical reactions can be classified by considering what the
reactants are, what the products are, or how they change from one into the other. Classes of
chemical reactions include synthesis, decomposition, acid-base and oxidation-reduction reactions.
Essential Knowledge 3.B.1: Synthesis reactions are those in which atoms and/or molecules
combine to form a new compound. Decomposition is the reverse of synthesis, a process whereby
molecules are decomposed, often by the use of heat.
Essential Knowledge 3.B.2: In a neutralization reaction, protons are transferred from an acid to a
base.
Essential Knowledge 3.B.3: In oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions, there is a net transfer of
electrons. The species that loses electrons is oxidized, and the species that gains electrons is
reduced.
Enduring Understanding 3.C: Chemical and physical transformations may be observed in several
ways and typically involve a change in energy.
Essential Knowledge 3.C.1: Production of heat or light, formation of a gas, and formation of a
precipitate and/or a color change are possible evidences that a chemical change has occurred.
Essential Knowledge 3.C.2: New changes in energy for a chemical reaction can be endothermic or
exothermic.
Essential Knowledge 3.C.3: Electrochemistry shows the interconversion between chemical and
electrical energy in galvanic and electrolytic cells.

17
Big Idea 4: Rates of chemical reactions are determined by details of the molecular collisions.
Enduring Understanding 4.A: Reaction rates that depend on temperature and other environmental
factors are determined by measuring changes in concentrations of reactants or products over time.
Essential Knowledge 4.A.1: The rate of a reaction is influenced by the concentration or pressure
of reactants, the phase of the reactants and products, and environmental factors such as
temperature and solvent.
Essential Knowledge 4.A.2: The rate law shows how the rate depends on reactant concentrations.
Essential Knowledge 4.A.3: The magnitude and temperature dependence of the rate of reaction is
contained quantitatively in the rate constant.
Enduring Understanding 4.B: Elementary reactions are mediated by collisions between molecules.
Only collisions having sufficient energy and proper relative orientation of reactants lead to
products.
Enduring Knowledge 4.B.1: Elementary reactions can be unimolecular or involve collisions
between two or more molecules.
Essential Knowledge 4.B.2: Not all collisions are successful. To get over the activation energy
barrier, the colliding species need sufficient energy. Also, the orientation of the reactant molecules
during the collision must allow for the rearrangement of reactant bonds to form product bonds.
Essential Knowledge 4.B.3: A successful collision can be viewed as following a reaction path
with an associated energy profile.
Enduring Understanding 4.C: Many reactions proceed via a series of elementary reactions.
Essential Knowledge 4.C.1: The mechanism of a multistep reaction consists of a series of
elementary reactions that add up to the overall reaction.
Essential Knowledge 4.C.2: In many reactions, the rate is set by the slowest elementary reaction,
or rate-limiting step.
Essential Knowledge 4.C.3: Reaction intermediates, which are formed during the reaction but not
present in the overall reaction, play an important role in multistep reactions.
Enduring Understanding 4.D: Reaction rates may be increased by the presence of a catalyst.
Essential Knowledge 4.D.1: Catalysts function by lowering the activation energy of an elementary
step in a reaction mechanism, and by providing a new and faster reaction mechanism.
Essential Knowledge 4.D.2: Important classes in catalysis include acid-base catalyst, surface
catalysis, and enzyme catalysis.

18
Big Idea 5: The laws of thermodynamics describe the essential role of energy and explain and
predict the direction of changes in matter.
Enduring understanding 5.A: Two systems with different temperatures that are in thermal contact
will exchange energy. The quantity of thermal energy transferred from one system to another is
called heat.
Essential Knowledge 5.A.1: Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of atoms and
molecules.
Essential Knowledge 5.A.2: The process of kinetic energy transfer at the particulate scale is
referred to in this course as heat transfer, and the spontaneous direction of the transfer is always
from a hot to a cold body.
Enduring Understanding 5.B: Energy is neither created nor destroyed, but only transformed from
one form to another.
Essential Knowledge 5.B.1: Energy is transferred between systems either through heat transfer or
through one system doing work on the other system.
Essential Knowledge 5.B.2: When two systems are in contact with each other and are otherwise
isolated, the energy that comes out of one system is equal to the energy that goes into the other
system. The combined energy of the two systems remains fixed. Energy transfer can occur
through either heat exchange or work.
Essential Knowledge 5.B.3: Chemical systems undergo three main processes that change their
energy: heating/cooling, phase transitions, and chemical reactions.
Essential Knowledge 5.B.4: Calorimetry is an experimental technique that is used to measure the
change in energy of a chemical system.
Enduring Understanding 5.C: Breaking bonds requires energy, and making bonds releases energy.
Essential Knowledge 5.C.1: Potential energy is associated with particular geometric arrangement
of atoms or ions and the electrostatic interactions between them.
Essential Knowledge 5.C.2: The net energy change during a reaction is the sum of the energy
required to break the bonds in the reactant molecules and the energy released in forming the bonds
of the product molecules. The net change in energy may be positive for endothermic reactions
where energy is required, or negative for exothermic reactions where energy is released.
Enduring Understanding 5.D: Electrostatic forces exist between molecules as well as between
atoms or ions, and breaking the resultant intermolecular interactions requires energy.
Essential Knowledge 5.D.1: Potential energy is associated with the interaction of molecules; as
molecules draw near each other, they experience an attractive force.
Essential Knowledge 5.D.2: At the particulate scale, chemical processes can be distinguished from
physical processes because chemical bonds can be distinguished from intermolecular interactions.

19
Essential Knowledge 5.D.3: Noncovalent and intermolecular interactions play important roles in
many biological and polymer systems.
Enduring Understanding 5.E: Chemical or physical processes are driven by a decrease in enthalpy
or an increase in entropy, or both.
Essential Knowledge 5.E.1: Entropy is a measure of the dispersal of matter and energy.
Essential Knowledge 5.E.2: Some physical or chemical processes involve both a decrease in the
internal energy of the components (H < 0) under consideration and an increase in the entropy of
those components (S > 0). These processes are necessarily thermodynamically favored (G
< 0).
Essential Knowledge 5.E.3: If a chemical or physical process is not driven by both entropy and
enthalpy changes, then the Gibbs free energy change can be used to determine whether the process
is thermodynamically favored.
Essential Knowledge 5.E.4: External sources of energy can be used to drive change in cases where
the Gibbs free energy change is positive.
Essential Knowledge 5.E.5: A thermodynamically favored process may not occur due to kinetic
constraints (kinetic vs. thermodynamic control).

20
Big Idea 6: Any bond or intermolecular attraction that can be formed can be broken. These two
processes are in a dynamic competition, sensitive to initial conditions and external perturbations.
Enduring Understanding 6.A: Chemical equilibrium is a dynamic, reversible state in which rates
of opposing processes are equal.
Essential Knowledge 6.A.1: In many classes of reactions, it is important to consider both the
forward and reverse reaction.
Essential Knowledge 6.A.2: The current state of a system undergoing a reversible reaction can be
characterized by the extent to which reactants have been converted to products. The relative
quantitites of reaction components are quantitatively described by the reaction quotient, Q.
Essential Knowledge 6.A.3: When a system is at equilibrium, all macroscopic variables, such as
concentrations, partial pressure, and temperature, do not change over time. Equilibrium results
from an equality between the rates of the forward and reverse reactions, at which point Q = K.
Essential Knowledge 6.A.4: The magnitude of the equilibrium constant, K, can be used to
determine whether the equilibrium lies toward the reactant side or product side.
Enduring Understanding 6.B: Systems at equilibrium are responsive to external perturbations,
with the response leading to a change in the composition of the system.
Essential Knowledge 6.B.1: Systems at equilibrium respond to disturbances by partially
countering the effect of the disturbance (LeChteliers principle).
Essential Knowledge 6.B.2: A disturbance to a system at equilibrium causes Q to differ from K,
thereby taking the system out of the original equilibrium state. The system responds by bringing Q
back into agreement with K, thereby establishing a new equilibrium state.
Enduring Understanding 6.C: Chemical equilibrium plays an important role in acid-base
chemistry and in solubility.
Essential Knowledge 6.C.1: Chemical equilibrium reasoning can be used to describe the protontransfer reactions of acid-base chemistry.
Essential Knowledge 6.C.2: The pH is an important characteristic of aqueous solutions that can be
controlled with buffers. Comparing pH to pKa allows one to determine the protonation state of a
molecule with a labile proton.
Essential Knowledge 6.C.3: The solubility of a substance can be understood in terms of chemical
equilibrium.
Enduring Understanding 6.D: The equilibrium constant is related to temperature and the
difference in Gibbs free energy between reactants and products.
Essential Knowledge 6.D.1: When the difference in Gibbs free energy between reactants and
products (G) is much larger than the thermal energy (RT), the equilibrium constant is either very
small (for G > 0) or very large (for G < 0). When G is comparable to the thermal energy
(RT), the equilibrium constant is near 1.

21

Science Practices of AP Chemistry


Science Practice 1: The student can use representations and models to communicate scientific
phenomena and solve scientific problems.
1.1 The student can create representations and models of natural or man-made phenomena and
systems in the domain.
1.2 The student can describe representations and models of natural or man-made phenomena
and system in the domain.
1.3 The student can refine representations and models of natural or man-made phenomena and
systems in the domain.
1.4 The student can use representations and models to analyze situations or solve problems
qualitatively and quantitatively.
1.5 The student can re-express key elements of natural phenomena across multiple
representations in the domain.
Science Practice 2: The student can use mathematics appropriately.
2.1 The student can justify the selection of a mathematical routine to solve problems.
2.2 The student can apply mathematical routines to quantities that describe natural phenomena.
2.3 The student can estimate numerically quantities that describe natural phenomena.
Science Practice 3: The student can engage in scientific questioning to extend thinking or to guide
investigations within the context of the AP course.
3.1 The student can pose scientific questions.
3.2 The student can refine scientific questions.
3.3 The student can evaluate scientific questions.

22
Science Practice 4: The student can plan and implement data collection strategies in relation to a
particular scientific question. [Note: Data can be collected from many
different sources, e.g., investigations, scientific observations, the finding of
others, historic reconstruction, and/or archived data.]
4.1 The student can justify the selection of the kind of data needed to answer a particular
scientific question.
4.2 The student can design a plan for collecting data to answer a particular scientific question.
4.3 The student can collect data to answer a particular scientific question.
4.4 The student can evaluate sources of data to answer a particular scientific question.
Science Practice 5: The student can perform data analysis and evaluation of evidence.
5.1 The student can analyze data to identify patterns or relationships.
5.2 The student can refine observations and measurements based on data analysis.
5.3 The student can evaluate the evidence provided by data sets in relation to a particular
scientific question.
Science Practice 6: The student can work with scientific explanations and theories.
6.1 The student can justify claims with evidence.
6.2 The student can construct explanations of phenomena based on evidence produced through
scientific practices.
6.3 The student can articulate the reasons that scientific explanations and theories are refined or
replaced.
6.4 The student can make claims and predictions about natural phenomena based on scientific
theories and models.
6.5 The student can evaluate alternative scientific explanations.
Science Practice 7: The student is able to connect and relate knowledge across various scales,
concepts, and representations in and across domains.
7.1 The student can connect phenomena and models across spatial and temporal time scales.
7.2 The student can connect concepts in and across domain(s) to generalize or extrapolate in
and/or across enduring understandings and/or big ideas.

23

Exclusion Statements
Essential Knowledge 1.C.1
Memorization of exceptions to the Aufbau principle is beyond the scope of this course and the AP
Exam.
Essential Knowledge 1.C.2
Assignment of quantum numbers to electrons is beyond the scope of this course and the AP Exam.
Essential Knowledge 2.A.2
Phase diagrams are beyond the scope of this course and the AP Exam.
Essential Knowledge 2.A.3
Colligative properties are beyond the scope of this course and the AP Exam.
Calculations of molality, percent by mass, and percent by volume are beyond the scope of this
course and the AP Exam.
Essential Knowledge 2.C.2
Knowledge of specific types of crystal structures is beyond the scope of this course and the AP
Exam.
Essential Knowledge 2.C.4
The use of formal charge to explain why certain molecules do not obey the octet rule is beyond the
scope of this course and the AP Exam.
Learning how to defend Lewis structures based on assumptions about the limitations of the models
is beyond the scope of this course and the AP Exam.
An understanding of the derivation and depiction of these [hybridized] orbitals is beyond the scope
of this course and the AP Exam.
Other aspects of molecular orbital theory, such as recall or filling of molecular orbital diagrams,
are not part of this course and the AP Exam. [MO theory describes a wider variety of covalent
bonding than Lewis diagrams and VSEPR models. MO diagrams are a useful qualitative tool
showing the correlation between atomic and molecular orbitals.]
Essential Knowledge 3.B.2
Lewis acid-base concepts are beyond the scope of this course and the AP Exam.

24
Essential Knowledge 3.B.3
Language of reducing agent and oxidizing agent is beyond the scope of this course and the AP
Exam.
Labeling an electrode as positive or negative is beyond the scope of this course and the AP Exam.
The Nernst equation is beyond the scope of this course and the AP Exam.
Essential Knowledge 4.B.3
Calculations involving the Arrhenius equation are beyond the scope of this course and the AP
Exam.
Essential Knowledge 4.C.3
Collection of data pertaining to [the evidence in support of one reaction mechanism over an
alternative mechanism] is beyond the scope of this course and the AP Exam.
Essential Knowledge 6.C.1
Numerical computation of the concentration of each species present in the titration curve for
polyprotic acids is beyond the scope of this course and the AP Exam.
Essential Knowledge 6.C.2
Computing the change in pH resulting from the addition of an acid or base to a buffer is beyond
the scope of this course and the AP Exam.
The production of the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation by algebraic manipulation of the relevant
equilibrium constant expression is beyond the scope of this course and the AP Exam.
Essential Knowledge 6.C.3
Memorization of other solubility rules is beyond the scope of this course and the AP Exam. [All
sodium, potassium, ammonium and nitrate salts are soluble in water.]
Computations of solubility as a function of pH are beyond the scope of this course and the AP
Exam.
Computations of solubility in such solutions are beyond the scope of this course and the AP Exam.
[The solubility of a salt will be pH sensitive when one of the ions is an acid or a base.]

25

Laboratory techniques expected to be mastered by students in the general


chemistry sequence.
Properly reading and use of thermometer
Properly rinsing glassware
Using and reading buret
Using pipet
Using a graduated cylinder/Measuring volume by difference
Weighting from weighting bottle/Weighting by difference
Using volumetric flasks
Constructing and using calibration curves
Constructing a meaningful graph
Using spreadsheet to make graph
Properly lighting and adjusting a Bunsen burner
Proper heating of liquids in beakers and test tubes
Proper heating of solids in crucibles
Transfer mother liquor and precipitate to filter funnel
Use gravity filtration
Use vacuum filtration
Use TLC or column chromatography
Perform titration
Properly drying reagents
Weighting an imprecise amount of reagent accurately
Standardization of reagents
Perform quantitative analysis on unknown
Proper use of statistics
- mean, standard deviation, relative standard deviation, Q-test, confidence limits, relative error
Using a qualitative analysis scheme
Perform a selective precipitation of ions
Use of a spectrophotometer
Use of a pH meter
Use of pH paper
Use of a voltmeter
Perform serial dilution

26

Laboratory notebook procedures expected to be mastered by students in


the general chemistry sequence.
The lab report is intended to communicate in a concise fashion the purpose, method and results
of an experiment in sufficient detail to be reproduced by the reader.
Therefore, the report must be organized and coherent.
An organized and coherent report starts with an organized and coherent notebook.
Use a laboratory notebook with carbon or carbonless copies. Write your room and lab drawer
number on the cover. Make all notebook entries in indelible ink. Leave room for a table of
contents on the first page.
The notebook will be kept in chronological order. There are to be no blank pages (or blank spaces)
in the notebook. In preparing for each laboratory session, the notebook must be set up properly.
Sections to be completed before entering lab: Title, Objective, Safety, Pre-lab and Procedure
Sections to be completed during lab: Data and Observations
Sections to be completed after lab: Calculations, Results and Conclusions
NOTEBOOK FORMAT

Headings; The top of each notebook page includes:


Student Name (and Partners Name)

Title of experiment Date lab work is done Page No.

Title
Objective/Purpose
Safety
Hazards of reagents used or procedures performed. May need to obtain MSDS for
information.
Procedure
Required equipment
Reagents used
Brief explanation of the lab procedure
Data and Observations
Data tables are to be prepared before lab; however, no data are recorded before or after the
lab session. Title the table, including the name of the experiment and special experimental
conditions. Leave space for observations, unanticipated data and calculated results. Data are
to be written in pen once in the lab notebook. Pay attention to units and significant figures
when recording data. No data are to be recorded on scrap paper or other paper to be recorded
in the notebook later. The instructor will confiscate scrap papers with writing. Using data
from paper scraps will result in the deduction of points from the notebook grade.
Calculations
Sample calculations of all calculations done in the experiment must be shown, with attention
to units and significant figures. All graphs done need to be put into the laboratory notebook.
Results and Conclusions
All conclusions must be based on the data recorded. The conclusion may be suggested by
the objective. If the lab had multiple parts, the conclusion may be a pattern you recognized
or skill you identified. Use chemical reasoning to explain good results or bad results.

27

Laboratories from AP Chemistry, Guided-Inquiry Experiments: Applying


the Science Practices
1. What is the Relationship Between the Concentration of Solution and the Amount of Transmitted
Light Through the Solution?
Beers law with food coloring with spectrophotometer

2. How Can Color Be Used to Determine the Mass Percent of Copper in Brass?
Dissolve brass with nitric acid, determine copper(II) concentration spectrophotometrically

3. What Makes Hard Water Hard?


Gravimetric determination of polyvalent ions in water via precipitation with carbonate

4. How Much Acid Is in Fruit Juices and Soft Drinks?


Titration of juice or soda with NaOH to find citric and phosphoric acid amounts

5. Sticky Question: How Do You Separate Molecules That Are Attracted to One Another?
Using paper chromatography to separate components of food dyes

6. Whats in That Bottle?


Using physical and chemical properties to distinguish solids from each other

7. Using the Principle That Each Substance Has Unique Properties to Purify a Mixture: An
Experiment Applying Green Chemistry to Purification
Decompose mixture of NaHCO3/Na2CO3 to find mass ratio of mixture

8. How Can We Determine the Actual Percentage of H2O2 in a Drugstore Bottle of Hydrogen
Peroxide?
A redox titration of H2O2 with KMnO4

9. Can the Individual Components of Quick Ache Relief Be Used to Resolve Consumer
Complaints?
Separate aspirin/acetaminophen mixture using water/ethyl acetate extraction with separatory
funnel

10. How Long Will That Marble Statue Last?


Find rate law of decomposition of marble/limestone and HCl by measuring volume of CO2
evolved

28
11. What Is the Rate Law of the Fading of Crystal Violet Using Beers Law?
Find the rate law of the reaction of crystal violet with base using spectrophotometer to
monitor concentration

12. The Hand Warmer Design Challenge: Where Does the Heat Come From?
Measuring the heat of solvation of various solids using coffee cup calorimeter and determine
best material for a hand warmer

13. Can We Make the Colors of the Rainbow? An Application of LeChteliers Principle.
Several equilibria are examined to investigate LeChteliers Principle
Bromothymol blue with acid and base
Formation of FeSCN2+ ion
Formation of Cu(NH3)42+ ion
Cu(H2O)62+ CuCl42Co(H2O)62+ CoCl42Methyl red with carbonated water

14. How Do the Structure and the Initial Concentration of an Acid and a Base Influence the pH of
the Resultant Solution During a Titration?
Determine titration curves of various mixtures of acids and bases using pH meter

15. To What Extent Do Common Household Products Have Buffering Activity?


Determine and use titration curves to examine buffering ability of common household
products

16. The Preparation and Testing of an Effective Buffer: How Do Components Influence a Buffers
pH and Capacity
Create a buffer system to given specifications

29
Potential Textbooks for AP Chemistry (adapted from a list from the Journal of Chemical
Education {the list is no longer maintained}) Texts in Arial font are from AP Central website.
American Chemical Society
Chemistry: A General Chemistry Project of the American Chemical Society, 1st Edition
W. H. Freeman (2004) 820 pp.
Reviewed in Chemical and Engineering News 2004 82(29) 31
American Chemical Society
Chemistry in Context, 7th Edition
McGraw-Hill (2009) 608 pp.
Atkins, Peter W. and Loretta Jones
Chemical Principles: The Quest for Insight, 5th Edition
W. H. Freeman (2010) 1024 pp.
Averill, Bruce and Eldredge, Patricia
Chemistry Principles, Patterns, and Applications, 1st Edition
Pearson/Benjamin Cummings (2007) 1132 pp.
Brady, James E., and Fred Senese.
Chemistry: The Study of Matter and Its Changes., 5th ed.
John Wiley & Sons. (2008) 1011 pp.
Brown, Theodore, Eugene LeMay, Jr., Bruce Bursten, Catherine Murphy, and Patrick
Woodward
Chemistry: The Central Science, 12th Edition
Pearson/Prentice Hall (2012) 1232 pp.
Previous edition reviewed in Journal of Chemical Education, 1997 74 378
Burdge, Julia
Chemistry, 2nd Edition
McGraw-Hill (2011) 1088 pp.
Burdge, Julia and Jason Overby
Chemistry: Atoms First, 1st Edition
McGraw-Hill (2012) 1128 pp.
Chang, Raymond, and Kenneth Goldsby.
Chemistry, AP Edition.
McGraw-Hill. (2012)
Chang, Raymond
Chemistry, 10th Edition
McGraw-Hill (2010) 1152 pp.
Chang, Raymond and Jason Overby
General Chemistry: The Essential Concepts, 6th Edition
McGraw-Hill (2011) 832 pp.
First edition reviewed in Journal of Chemical Education 1996 73(10) A240

30
Ebbing, Darrel D. and Steven D. Gammon
General Chemistry, Enhanced Edition, 9th Edition
Cengage (2011) 1152 pp.
Gilbert, Thomas R., Rein V. Kirss, Natalie Foster, and Geoffrey Davies
Chemistry: The Science in Context, 3rd Edition
W.W. Norton (2010) 1085 pp.
Hill, John W., Ralph H. Petrucci, Terry W McCreary, and Scott W. Perry
General Chemistry, 4th Edition
Pearson/Prentice Hall (2005) 1200 pp.
Hnatow, John, and Ketan Trivedi.
Chemistry In a Flash.
Paperless Publishing Inc.
Jesperson, Neil D., James Brady, and Alison Hyslop
Chemistry: Matter and Its Changes, 6th Edition
John Wiley (2012) 1224 pp.
Kelter, Paul B., Mike Mosher, and Andrew Scott
Chemistry: The Practical Science, Media Enhanced Edition, 1st Edition
Cengage (2009) 1088 pp.
Kotz, John C., Paul M. Treichel, and John R. Townsend
Chemistry and Chemical Reactivity, Enhanced Edition, 8th Edition
Cengage (2012) 1296 pp.
Third edition reviewed in Journal of Chemical Education, 1997 74 378
Masterton, William L. and Cecile N. Hurley
Chemistry: Principles and Reactions, 7th Edition
Cengage (2012) 736 pp.
Previous edition reviewed in New Scientist,1993 139(1892) 49
McMurry, John and Robert C. Fay
Chemistry, 6th Edition
Pearson/Prentice Hall (2012) 1216 pp.
McMurry, John E. and Robert C. Fay
General Chemistry: Atoms First, 1st Edition
Pearson/Prentice Hall (2010) 1056 pp.
McQuarrie, Donald, Peter A. Rock, and Ethan Gallogly
General Chemistry, 4th Edition
University Science Books (2010) 1117 pp.
Moog, Richard S. and John J. Farrell
Chemistry: A Guided Inquiry, 4th Edition
John Wiley (2008) 408 pp.

31
Moore, John W., Conrad L. Stanitski and Peter J. Jurs
Chemistry: The Molecular Science, 4th Edition
Cengage (2011) 1264 pp.
Oxtoby, D. W., H. P. Gillis and Alan Campion
Principles of Modern Chemistry, 7th Edition
Cengage (2012) 1120 pp.
Petrucci, Ralph H., William S. Harwood, and Geoffrey Herring
General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications, 10th Edition
Pearson/Prentice Hall (2011) 1424 pp.
Previous edition reviewed in Journal of Chemical Education 1997 75(5) 695
Reger, Daniel L., Scott R. Goode, and David W. Ball
Chemistry: Principles and Practice, 3rd Edition
Cengage (2010) 1120 pp.
Silberberg, Martin
Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 6th Edition
McGraw-Hill (2012) 1232 pp.
Spencer, James N., George M. Bodner and Lyman H. Rickard
Chemistry: Structure and Dynamics, 5th Edition
John Wiley (2011) 880 pp.
Tro, Nivaldo J.
Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, 2nd Edition
Pearson/Prentice Hall (2011) 1232 pp.
Whitten, Kenneth W., Raymond E. Davis, Larry M. Peck, and George G. Stanley
Chemistry, 9th Edition
Cengage (2010) 1184 pp.
Previous edition reviewed in Journal of Chemical Education 1997 74(5) 695
Zumdahl, Steven S. and Susan A. Zumdahl
Chemistry, 8th Edition
Cengage (2010) 1184 pp.
Reviewed in Journal of Chemical Education 2009 86(11) 1272
Zumdahl, Steven S. and Susan A. Zumdahl
Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach, 1st Edition
Cengage (2012) 1152 pp.
Reviewed in Journal of Chemical Education 2009 86(11) 1272

32

AP Audit (pg. 67 Workshop Handbook and Resources)


Requirements
To request authorization to label a course "AP," complete the following two steps:
1. Complete and submit an AP Course Audit form, on which the teacher and principal attest
that their course includes or exceeds the following curricular requirements delineated by
college and university faculty.
2. Submit an electronic copy of the course syllabus that demonstrates inclusion or
improvement on the curricular requirements (see Syllabus Development Guide).
Scoring Components
An approved syllabus must include the following scoring components.
Scoring Component 1: Students and teachers use a recently published (within the last 10
years) college-level chemistry textbook
Decision Rule: The syllabus must cite the title, author, and publication date of a
college-level textbook. The primary course textbook must be
published within the last 10 years.
Important Considerations
Books in electronic form (e.g., DVD, downloadable versions) of a college-level textbook
can be used. A printed textbook is not required.
If the text cited in the syllabus is not included within the example textbook list, the
textbook must be college-level and provide adequate coverage of AP Chemistry to meet
this requirement.
If a publication date is not cited and an edition is, then professional judgment can be used
to determine whether the component is met. If the reviewer does not know the publication
date, they are not required to look it up.
If it is clearly stated that the teacher uses a book published within the last 10 years, but the
students have older editions, the requirement is met.

33
Scoring Component 2: The course is structured around the enduring understandings within the
big ideas as described in the AP Chemistry Curriculum Framework
Decision Rule: The syllabus must demonstrate how the course plan is structured
around the enduring understandings in each of the big ideas as
described in the AP Chemistry Curriculum Framework. While all six
big ideas need to be explicit, each of the enduring understandings does
not need to be specifically listed.
Important Considerations
The six big ideas need to be explicitly mentioned, described, stated, or listed in the syllabus.
If there is reference to all six big ideas anywhere in the syllabus, then it can be inferred that
the course is structured around the Curriculum Framework.

Scoring Component 3a: The course provides students with opportunities outside the laboratory
environment to meet the learning objectives within Big Idea 1:
Structure of matter
Decision Rule: The syllabus must briefly describe at least one assignment or activity
outside the laboratory environment designed to meet one learning
objective within Big Idea 1.

Scoring Component 3b: The course provides students with opportunities outside the laboratory
environment to meet the learning objectives within Big Idea 2:
Properties of matter characteristics, states and forces of attraction
Decision Rule: The syllabus must briefly describe at least one assignment or activity
outside the laboratory environment designed to meet one learning
objective within Big Idea 2.

Scoring Component 3c: The course provides students with opportunities outside the laboratory
environment to meet the learning objectives within Big Idea 3:
Chemical reactions
Decision Rule: The syllabus must briefly describe at least one assignment or activity
outside the laboratory environment designed to meet one learning
objective within Big Idea 3.

Scoring Component 3d: The course provides students with opportunities outside the laboratory
environment to meet the learning objectives within Big Idea 4: Rates
of chemical reactions
Decision Rule: The syllabus must briefly describe at least one assignment or activity
outside the laboratory environment designed to meet one learning
objective within Big Idea 4.

34
Scoring Component 3e: The course provides students with opportunities outside the laboratory
environment to meet the learning objectives within Big Idea 5:
Thermodynamics
Decision Rule: The syllabus must briefly describe at least one assignment or activity
outside the laboratory environment designed to meet one learning
objective within Big Idea 5.

Scoring Component 3f: The course provides students with opportunities outside the laboratory
environment to meet the learning objectives within Big Idea 6:
Equilibrium
Decision Rule: The syllabus must briefly describe at least one assignment or activity
outside the laboratory environment designed to meet one learning
objective within Big Idea 6.

Scoring Component 4: The course provides students with opportunities to connect their
knowledge of chemistry and science to major societal or technological
components (e.g., concerns, technological advances, innovations) to
help them become scientifically literate citizens
Decision Rule: The syllabus must describe at least one assignment or activity
requiring students to connect their knowledge of chemistry and science
to issues that have a societal or technological component.

Scoring Component 5a: Students are provided the opportunity to engage in investigative
laboratory work integrated throughout the course for a minimum of
25 percent of instructional time.
Decision Rule: The syllabus must include an explicit statement that at least 25
percent of instructional time is spent in hands-on laboratory
experiences integrated throughout the course. Virtual labs do not count
towards the 25 percent of instructional time.

Scoring Component 5b: Students are provided the opportunity to engage in a minimum of 16
hands-on laboratory experiments integrated throughout the course
while using basic laboratory equipment to support the learning
objectives listed within the AP Chemistry Curriculum Framework
Decision Rule: The syllabus must include and describe a minimum of 16 hands-on
laboratory investigations that use basic laboratory equipment.
Molecular modeling may count for one of the 16 hands-on labs.
Important Considerations
Sixteen labs need to be explicitly identified (counted) to meet this requirement.

35
Scoring Component 6:

The laboratory investigations used throughout the course allow


students to apply the seven science practices defined in the AP
Chemistry Curriculum Framework. At a minimum, six of the
required 16 labs are conducted in a guided-inquiry format

Decision Rules: The syllabus must list all laboratory investigations and their
associated science practices.
A minimum of six investigations must be identified as guided inquiry.
Important Considerations
If the syllabus lists the AP Chemistry Guided Inquiry Experiments: Applying the Science
Practices as the source, evidence is sufficient without the need for an explicit indication of
the science practices for each lab. Conducting labs from this lab manual sufficiently
addresses the science practices necessary to meet the decision rule.

Scoring Component 7:

The course provides opportunities for students to develop, record and


maintain evidence of their verbal, written and graphic
communications skills through laboratory reports, summaries of
literature or scientific investigations, and oral, written and graphic
representations

Decision Rules: The syllabus must include the components of the written lab reports
required of students for all the laboratory investigations engaged in
throughout the course.
The syllabus must include an explicit statement that students are
required to maintain a lab notebook or portfolio (hard-copy or
electronic) that includes all of their lab reports.

Possible Responses from Reviewer for Each Scoring Component


Yes (Scoring component is demonstrated)
No Evidence
- no feedback given
Insufficient Evidence
- very terse feedback given
Needs Resources
- feedback is one of seven responses from a drop-down menu
- chemistry reviewers are discouraged from using this option

36

Guided Inquiry for Labs (for 2014 Exam) (pg. 53 Workshop Handbook and
Resources)
Herrons model of inquiry (1971) Herron, M.D. (1971). The nature of scientific enquiry. School Review, 79(2), 171- 212
1. Confirmation
Questions to be answered given by instructor
Procedure to be used given by instructor
Solution to problem as extension of procedure given by instructor
2. Structured Inquiry
Questions to be answered given by instructor
Procedure to be used given by instructor
Solution to problem generated by students data and observations
3. Guided Inquiry
Questions to be answered given by instructor
Procedure to be generated by student based on question to be answered
Solution to problem generated by students data and observations
4. Open Inquiry
Questions to be answered generated by student
Procedure to be generated by student based on question to be answered
Solution to problem generated by students data and observations

37
National Research Council (2000)
Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning (2000)

Within each feature of inquiry instruction.


Learner Self-Directed ------ Teacher Directed
a. -------- d.

Five essential features of inquiry instruction


1. Learner engages in scientifically oriented questions.
a. Learner poses a question.
b. Learner selects among questions, poses new questions.
c. Learner sharpens or clarifies question provided by teacher, materials or other source.
d. Learner engages in question provided by teacher, material or other source.
2. Learner gives priority to evidence in responding to questions.
a. Learner determines what constitutes evidence and collects it.
b. Learner directed to collect certain data.
c. Learner given data and asked to analyze.
d. Learner given data and told how to analyze.
3. Learner formulates explanations from evidence.
a. Learner formulates explanation after summarizing evidence.
b. Learner guided in process of formulating explanations from evidence.
c. Learner given possible ways to use evidence to formulate explanation.
d. Learner provided with evidence and how to use evidence to formulate explanation.
4. Learner connects explanations to scientific knowledge.
a. Learner independently examines other resources and forms the links to explanations
b. Learner directed toward areas and sources of scientific knowledge.
c. Learner given possible connections.
5. Learner communicates and justifies explanations.
a. Learner forms reasonable and logical argument to communicate explanations.
b. Learner coached in development of communication.
c. Learner provided broad guidelines to use/sharpen communication.
d. Learner given steps and procedures for communication.

38

Formative and Summative Assessments


Definitions
Summative high-stakes assessment that attempts to summarize the level of knowledge that a
student has for a particular set of a pedagogical goals
Formative assessment that seeks to assist the student in understanding a particular set of
pedagogical goals
Examples of Formative Assessments

Index Card
Summaries /
Questions
Hand Signals
One-Minute
Essay
Analogy Prompt
Web or Concept
Map
Misconception
Check
Student
Conference
Three-Minute
Pause
Observation
Self-Assessment
Exit Card
Portfolio Check
Quiz
Journal Entry
Choral Response
A-B-C
Summaries
Debriefing
Idea Spinner

Periodically, distribute index cards and ask students to write on both sides,
with these instructions: Side 1-list a big idea that you understand as a
summary, Side 2-Identify a topic you dont understand and construct a
question
Ask students to display a designated hand signal to indicate their understanding
of a specific concept
A one-minute essay question is a focused question with a specific goal to
answered quickly
Periodically, present students with an analogy prompt: This concept is like this
analogy because ..
Students make graphical representations of the connections between key
concepts or key words
Present students with common or predictable misconceptions about a
designated concept, principle or process. Ask them to explain why they agree
or disagree
One-on-one conversation with students to check their level of understanding
Provide students with time to reflect on material just presented and allow them
to make connections with previous mastered material. Have students share the
results of the their reflections
Observe students working to check on learning process
Students attempt meta-cognition by thinking about the process of the their own
learning
Written student responses to questions are submitted on index cards
Check the progress on a students portfolio
Assess students understanding with multiple choice, true/false, short answer,
matching and/or extended response questions
Students record their understanding (or misunderstanding) of a particular
concept
On cue, students respond together the answer to a question
Each student is the class is assigned a letter of the alphabet to find a word
starting with the letter that relates to the topic being discussed
Reflection immediately after an activity
Instructor creates spinner with four quadrants; Predict, Explain, Summarize
and Evaluate. After material is presented, student spin spinner and answers
based on word on which spinner landed

39
Inside-Outside
Circle
Numbered Heads
Together
One-Sentence
Summary
One-Word
Summary
Think-Pair-Share
Ticket to Leave
Entry Card
Newspaper

Inside and outside circles of students quiz each other and then rotate
Each member of a small group has a number. Once small group solves
problem, student with selected number presents solution to class
Students are asked to write short summary to topic presented that answers the
who,what, where, when, how and why of a topic
Select a word that best summarizes a particular topic
Students think about a problem individually, then pair with a partner, after
which they present their solution to the class
Closing activity where students respond in writing or verbally to short
assignments
Student enter classroom with question about reading or assignment
Students finds current event in a periodical that relates to topic being presented

Homework(!)
1.)
Use an index card to summarize formative techniques that youve used successfully
2.)

Create a formative assessment (of a style assigned by the instructor) to assess understanding.
Anticipate good student responses and poor students responses.