Anda di halaman 1dari 7

# Unit Name

Subtopic

## Topic 3: Thermal physics

14 (11 hours teaching)

## Topic 3.1 Thermal concepts

Number of Lessons

Essential Idea
Thermal physics deftly demonstrates the links between the macroscopic measurements essential to many scientific models with
the microscopic properties that underlie these models.
Nature of Science
Evidence through experimentation: Scientists from the 17th and 18th centuries were working without the knowledge of atomic
structure and sometimes developed theories that were later found to be incorrect, such as phlogiston and perpetual motion
capabilities. Our current understanding relies on statistical mechanics providing a basis for our use and understanding of energy
transfer in science. (1.8)
Learning Objective
(Skills, Content and Knowledge)

Resources

Suggestions

Understandings:

Utilization:

## Molecular theory of solids, liquids and

gases
Temperature and absolute temperature
Internal energy
Specific heat capacity
Phase change
Specific latent heat

## Describing temperature change in

terms of internal energy
Using Kelvin and Celsius
temperature scales and converting
between them
Applying the calorimetric techniques

Guidance:

## Internal energy is taken to be

the total intermolecular potential
energy + the total random
kinetic energy of the molecules
Phase change graphs may have
axes of temperature versus time
or temperature versus energy
The effects of cooling should be
understood qualitatively but
cooling correction calculations
are not required

## Pressure gauges, barometers and

manometers are a good way to present
aspects of this sub-topic
Higher level students, especially those
studying option B, can be shown links to
thermodynamics (see Physics topic 9 and
option sub-topic B.4)
Particulate nature of matter (see Chemistry
sub-topic 1.3) and measuring energy
changes (see Chemistry sub-topic 5.1)
Water (see Biology sub-topic 2.2)

Aims:
Aim 3: an understanding of thermal concepts
is a fundamental aspect of many areas of

## of specific heat capacity or specific

latent heat experimentally
Describing phase change in terms of
molecular behaviour
Sketching and interpreting phase
change graphs
Calculating energy changes
involving specific heat capacity and
specific latent heat of fusion and
vaporization

science
Aim 6: experiments could include (but are not
limited to): transfer of energy due to
temperature difference; calorimetric
investigations; energy involved in phase
changes
Lesson 1 Heat as Energy
Transfer
(i) Students rub tennis ball for short
period (say, 30s) on same sized
region (defined by cardboard cutout) on a surface and point infrared
thermometer at surface. They video
that they can later graph
temperature versus time for each
surface that has gained heat energy
generated by friction created with
the tennis ball. They discover
Newtons Law of Cooling.
(ii) Complete worksheet
Temperature & Energy using PhET
simulation Energy Forms and
Changes .
Lesson 2 Molecular Theory
(i) Powperpoint: Kinetic Molecular
Theory
(ii) Video: Kinetic Theory of Gases
(iii) Students complete examinationstyle questions on Kinetic Molecular
Theory from Topic 3 Student
Workbook
Lesson 3 Temperature and
Absolute Temperature
(i) Powerpoint

Resources:

Apparatus:
Infrared Thermometer, tennis ball, stopwatch,
cardboard cut-out to define fixed area , five
different surfaces, video camera.
ICT:
Powerpoint Heat as Energy Experiment
Vernier Logger Pro software.
Online simulations:
PhET Energy Forms and Changes
Worksheets
Temperature & Energy

Resources:

Worksheets:
IB Topic 3 Student Workbook

Resources:

Powerpoint:
Topic 3 Lesson 3
Absolute Zero and the Kelvin Temperature
Scale

v=eEJqaNaq9v8
Lesson 4 Thermometers and
Temperature Scales
Graphing exercise where students
and Fahrenheit degrees and plot a
determine the relationship between
the two temperature scales
Lesson 5 Internal Energy &
Phase Changes

Resources:

## Tasksheet with temperatures given in both

Celsius and Fahrenheit, Vernier Logger Pro,
Powerpoint:
Topic 3 Lesson 4

Resources:

Online simulations:
PhET Simulations:

Simulation Investigation:
Worksheets:
3.1 States of Matter
3.2 Evaporation
3.3 Energy Transfer During Change
of State

## Lesson 6 Specific Heat

Capacity
Experiment Specific heat capacity
of metal cubes by the method of
mixtures

Resources:

## Lesson 7 Latent Heat

Experiment Latent Heat of Fusion
of ice

Resources:

Apparatus:
Beaker, hotplate or bunsen, tripod & gauze,
2cm3 metal blocks, thermometer or
temperature sensor & Go-Link, calorimeter or
nested styrofoam cups, electronic balance,
tongs.
Calculating the Specific Latent heat of Fusion
of Ice

v=wYBxuEQgrfc
Apparatus:
Ice, 2 nested Styrofoam cups , electronic
balance, Thermometer or temperature sensor
Lesson 8 Solving Problems on
Specific Heat
Completion of examination-style
questions on sub-topic 3.1 Thermal
Concepts

Resources:

Worksheets:
IB Topic 3 Student Workbook

## Links to Theory of Knowledge

Observation through sense perception plays a key role in making measurements. Does sense perception play
different roles in different areas of knowledge?
Links to the Learner Profile (Inquirers, Knowledgeable, Thinkers, Communicators, Principled, Open-minded,
Caring, Risk-Takers, Balanced, Reflective)
The learners will use their analytical/creative thinking skills in accomplishing the assessment and activities given to them.

## International Mindedness (Reference to Local, National and World Issues)

The topic of thermal physics is a good example of the use of international systems of measurement that allow
scientists to collaborate effectively

Subtopic

## Topic 3.2 Modelling a gas

Number of Lessons

Essential Idea
The properties of ideal gases allow scientists to make predictions of the behaviour of real gases.
Nature of Science
Collaboration: Scientists in the 19th century made valuable progress on the modern theories that form the basis of
thermodynamics, making important links with other sciences, especially chemistry. The scientific method was in evidence with
contrasting but complementary statements of some laws derived by different scientists. Empirical and theoretical thinking both
have their place in science and this is evident in the comparison between the unattainable ideal gas and real gases. (4.1)

Learning Objective
(Skills, Content and
Knowledge)
Understandings:
Pressure
Equation of state for an ideal
gas
Kinetic model of an ideal gas
Mole, molar mass and the
Differences between real and
ideal gases
Applications and skills:

## Solving problems using the

equation of state for an ideal
gas and gas laws
Sketching and interpreting
changes of state of an ideal
gas on pressure volume,
pressuretemperature and
volumetemperature
diagrams
Investigating at least one gas
law experimentally

Resources

Suggestions

Utilization:

Guidance:

## Students should be aware of the

assumptions that underpin the
molecular kinetic theory of ideal
gases
Gas laws are limited to constant
volume, constant temperature,
constant pressure and the ideal gas
law
Students should understand that a
real gas approximates to an ideal
gas at conditions of low pressure,
moderate temperature and low
density
Lesson 1 Pressure is Force per
Unit Area
Activity to review pressure from
IGCSE:
Examples:
(i) Students mould clay or plasticene
into thick sheets and stack slotted
masses on top measuring depth of
depression.
(ii) Clamp syringe connected to gas
pressure sensor in vertical position &
stack small masses on plunger & read
change in pressure.

## Transport of gases in liquid form or at high

pressures/densities is common practice across
the globe. Behaviour of real gases under
extreme conditions needs to be carefully
considered in these situations.
Consideration of thermodynamic processes is
essential to many areas of chemistry (see
Chemistry sub-topic 1.3)
Respiration processes (see Biology sub-topic
D.6)

Aims:
Aim 3: this is a good topic to make comparisons
between empirical and theoretical thinking in
science
Aim 6: experiments could include (but are not
limited to): verification of gas laws; calculation of
the Avogadro constant; virtual investigation of gas
law parameters not possible within a school
laboratory setting

Resources:

v=4Jxu8VwOsSQ&hl=en-GB&gl=SG
Online simulation:
PhET Under Pressure

## (iii) Students use PhET Under Pressure

simulation to investigate fluid pressure

## Lesson 2 Equation of State for an

Ideal Gas
(i) IBPhysics Stuff: Equation of State of
an Ideal Gas
(ii) Video 1 - The Ideal Gas Law
(iii) Video 2 - KMT & Its Assumptions
(iv) Video 3 - Proof: U=(3/2)PV
Lesson 3 Kinetic Molecular
Theory and Gases
(i) Physics Factsheet #25 Molecular
Kinetic Theory
(ii) Video Crash Course Chemistry:
Ideal Gas Law
(iii) Students complete Questions
Worksheet #2 Kinetic Theory and
Pressure from Topic 3. Thermal
Physics Student Workbook.
(iv)
Lesson 4 Investigating a Gas Law
Experimentally
Students complete a practical
investigation on a gas law eg. Boyles
Law or Charles Law.
They can devise their own
investigation or can do Part 1, Part 2 or
Part 3 of Advanced Chemistry with
Vernier Experiment 30 Exploring the
Properties of Gases

Resources:
Websites:
IB Physics Stuff: Equation of State of an ideal Gas
http://ibphysicsstuff.wikidot.com/ideal-gases
Videos:
The Ideal Gas Law
https://vimeo.com/28118611
https://vimeo.com/72099319

Resources:
Crash Course Chemistry: The Ideal Gas Law
Online simulation: PhET Gas Properties

Resources:
Apparatus:
Vernier gas pressure sensor and Go-Link, syringe,
connectors, LoggerPro software
Experiment sheet:
Experiment 30 Exploring the Properties of Gases

## Lesson 5 Mole, Molar Mass &

(i) Online Learning : PBSLearning Media
Introduction to the Mole and Molar
Mass
(ii) Worksheet Moles & Molar Mass

Resources:

## Lesson 6 Ideal v Real Gases

(i) Video Ideal v Non-ideal Gases
(ii) Students complete IB Topic 3
Student Workbook Worksheet #6
Ideal Gas Equations.

Resources:

## PBS Lesson Online:

http://www.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/75151b
40-5d55-42d3-9975-a150cfd72c41/chemistry-701introduction-to-the-mole-and-molar-mass/

Videos:
https://vimeo.com/72099318
Worksheet #6 IBTopic 3 Student Workbook

## Links to Theory of Knowledge

When does modelling of ideal situations become good enough to count as knowledge?
Links to the Learner Profile (Inquirers, Knowledgeable, Thinkers, Communicators, Principled, Open-minded,
Caring, Risk-Takers, Balanced, Reflective)
The learners will use their analytical/creative thinking skills in accomplishing the assessment and activities given to them.

## International Mindedness (Reference to Local, National and World Issues)

The topic of thermal physics is a good example of the use of international systems of measurement that allow
scientists to collaborate effectively