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A Project Report

on
Tour and Travel ManagementSystem
Submitted for the award of the Degree of
MCA
In
DIT University, Dehradun
by
Ikram Hussain
Under the Guidance of
Nikita Mam

DIT UNIVERSITY, DEHRADUN, INDIA


May2015

DECLARATION

This is to certify that the Project / Thesis / Dissertation entitled Tour And Travel
Management System in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the
Degree of Master Of Computer Application in MSoft Corporation ,Noida .,
submitted to DIT University, Dehradun,Uttarakhand, India, is an authentic record
of bonfire work carried out by me,underthe supervision /guidance of Miss.Nikita
The matter embodied in this Project/Thesis/Dissertation has not been submitted for
the award of any other degree or diploma to any University/Institution.

Date: 26may2015

Signature

Place: Dehradun

Name of Candidate: Ikram Hussain


Roll No:

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the Project/Thesis/Dissertationentitled Tour And Travel
Management System in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the
Degree Master Of Computer Application .in MSoft Corporation,Noida submitted
to DIT University, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India, is an authentic record of
bonafide research work carried out by Mr/Ms.Ikram Hussain Roll No 1354001016
under my supervision/ guidance.

Date: 26may2015

Signature and Name of

Place

Supervisor(s)/Guide

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS/SYMBOLS/GLOSSARY

A flow chart is a pictorial representation of an algorithm that uses boxes on different


shapes to denote different type of instructions. The actual instructions are written with
in these boxes using clear and concise statements. These boxes are connected by
arrows to indicate the flow of operations. The exact sequence in which the
instructions are executed.The flow chart can be used to convert the statement or series
of steps in programming language statements

1.

: - This symbol is used to indicate the beginning end of the program


logic.

2.

:-This is used to denote any type of input and output


statement.

: - Processing symbols used in a flow chart to represent arithmetic

and other expression statements.

:-This symbol is used to indicate a point at which a decision has to be

made. This symbol shows to alternative paths to represent the actions to be taken
when the condition is true or false.
4

: - flow lines with arrow heads are used to indicate the flow operation or

to represent the sequence of flow of instructions.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This project was an ambitious work and would have never been completed without
the facilities provided by the sir and the co-operation of my parents and sincere efforts
of my faculty colleagues guided me helped this project.
My sincere THANKS goes to:

I was to express my gratitude and sincere thanks to our Faculty and HOD of dept.
Mrs. Ritika Verma for providing better working environment for competing this
project successfully.

I am also thankful to all faculties i.e. Mr.Ashish Saxena, Mr.Rakesh Saini


,Mr.Amit Dua. Mr. Deepak Sharma.

Lastly my thanks to my parents and all my friends for inspiring my spirit to


achieve this target.

Ikram Hussain
Master of Computer Applications
College Roll No.16
University Roll No.1354001016

ABSTRACT

The objective of the project is to develop a system that automates the processes
and activities of a travel and. The purpose is to design a system using which one can
perform all operations related to traveling.
EXISTING SYSTEM:
In the present system a customer has to approach various agencies to find details
of places and to book tickets. This often requires a lot of time and effort. A customer
may not get the desired information from these offices and often the customer may be
misguided. It is tedious for a customer to plan a particular journey and have it
executed properly.
PROPOSED SYSTEM:
The proposed system is a web based application and maintains a centralized
repository of all related information. The system allows one to easily access the
relevant information and make necessary travel arrangements. Users can decide about
places they want to visit and make bookings online for travel and accommodation.

Modules

Visitors
Registered Users
7

Administrator

The visitor module include,

View About Us: This module help the visitor to see the latest About Our

Website.
Services: Insurance and Feedback.customer give the feedback About our

services.
Hotels View: Customer View About Our Hotels.
Destination View: View About Our Destination.
Searching:Customer Search Hotel,Flight,Tour Package,Hotel+Flight,Car and

Bus.
Language Translater: Customer change the Language According To Our
Understanding

The registered user module includes,

Book Hotel.
Book Flight.
Book Tour.
Book Car And Bus.
Book Flight+Hotel.
View About Us: This module help the visitor to see the latest About Our

Website.
Services: Insurance and Feedback.customer give the feedback About our

services.
Hotels View: Customer View About Our Hotels.
Destination View: View About Our Destination.
Searching:Customer Search Hotel,Flight,Tour Package,Hotel+Flight,Car and

Bus.
Language Translater: Customer change the Language According To Our
8

Understanding
Customer Check Our Status.
Currency Conversion.
The administrator module includes,
Add Hotel : Admimistrator Add Different Type Hotel .
Add Flight : Admimistrator Add Flight
Add Tour Package : Admimistrator Add Different Type Tour Package.
Add Bus,Car.
Administrator Update User BooKing Status about All .Hotel,Car,Bus
Flight,Tour .
View All Record About Booking Of .Hotel,Car,Bus Flight,Tour .

SOFTWARE:
Technology

: Java,Jsp,Servlet

Web Technologies

: Html, JavaScript, CSS,

Web Server

: Tomcat 8.0

Database

: Oracle

JDK Version

: JDK1.5 ,1.7

HARDWARE:
Processor

Pentium III/Core 2 Duo

RAM

128 MB

Hard disk

20 GB

FDD

1.44MB

Monitor

14 inch

Mouse

3 Button scroll

CD Drive

52 X

Keyboard

108 keys

10

LIST OF TABLES

Table Name: Login:


Fieldname

Data Type

Length

Key

Username

Varchar

20

Primary key

Password

Varchar

25

Status

Varchar

10

Table Name: User Registration:


Fieldname

USERNAME

NAME

ADDRESS

Data Type
VARCHAR2(4000
)
VARCHAR2(4000
)
VARCHAR2(4000
11

Length

Key

No

- primary

Yes

Yes

)
PHONENO

VARCHAR2(66)

Yes

PINCODE

VARCHAR2(66)

Yes

EMAIL

VARCHAR2(4000
)

Yes

Table Name: BusResult:


Fieldname

Data Type

Length

Key

BUSNO

NUMBER

No

- primary

No

No

No

No

No

BUSNAME

SOURCE

DESTINATION

BUSTYPE

BUSNO

VARCHAR2(4000
)
VARCHAR2(4000
)
VARCHAR2(4000
)
VARCHAR2(4000
)
NUMBER
12

Table Name: CarBooking:


Fieldname

Data Type

Length

Key

REQNO

VARCHAR2(40)

No

- primary

NAME

VARCHAR2(40)

Yes

ADDRESS

VARCHAR2(40)

Yes

PHONENO

VARCHAR2(40)

Yes

EMAILID

VARCHAR2(40)

Yes

VIHICLE

VARCHAR2(40)

Yes

PICUP

VARCHAR2(40)

Yes

DROPP

VARCHAR2(40)

Yes

CANTRY

VARCHAR2(40)

Yes

PASSENGER

VARCHAR2(40)

Yes

ARRIVAL

VARCHAR2(40)

Yes

RETURN

VARCHAR2(40)

Yes

CAR

VARCHAR2(40)

Yes

Table Name: CarResult:


Fieldname

Data Type

Length

13

Key

CARNO

CARNAME

SOURCE

DESTINATION

CARTYPE

CARNO

NUMBER
VARCHAR2(4000
)
VARCHAR2(4000
)
VARCHAR2(4000
)
VARCHAR2(4000
)
NUMBER

No

- primary

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Length

Key

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Table Name: Contact:


Fieldname

NAME

ADDRESS

CITY

COUNTRY

PHONENO

Data Type
VARCHAR2(4000
)
VARCHAR2(4000
)
VARCHAR2(4000
)
VARCHAR2(4000
)
VARCHAR2(4000
14

EMAIL

DATAILS

VARCHAR2(4000
)
VARCHAR2(4000
)

Yes

Yes

Table Name: feedBack:


Fieldname

Data Type

Length

Key

NAME

VARCHAR2(50)

Yes

ADDRESS

VARCHAR2(50)

Yes

EMAILID

VARCHAR2(50)

Yes

PHONENO

VARCHAR2(50)

Yes

FEED

VARCHAR2(50)

Yes

FB

VARCHAR2(50)

Yes

MESSAGE

VARCHAR2(50)

Yes

15

Table Name: Flight:


Fieldname

Data Type

Length

Key

REQNO

VARCHAR2(40)

No

- primary

NAME

VARCHAR2(40)

Yes

ADDRESS

VARCHAR2(40)

Yes

AGE

VARCHAR2(40)

Yes

EMAIL

VARCHAR2(40)

Yes

FLIGHTNO

VARCHAR2(40)

Yes

FLIGHTNAME

VARCHAR2(40)

Yes

DATET

VARCHAR2(40)

Yes

CONTACT

VARCHAR2(40)

Yes

SEATS

VARCHAR2(40)

Yes

Yes

Yes

Length

Key

SEATNO

STATUS

VARCHAR2(4000
)
VARCHAR2(4000
)

Table Name: FlightBook:


Fieldname

Data Type

16

FLIGHT_NUMBER

NUMBER(20,0)

No

FLIGHT_NAME

VARCHAR2(20)

Yes

SOURCE

VARCHAR2(25)

No

DESTINATION

VARCHAR2(25)

Yes

ECONOMY_PRICE

NUMBER(10,0)

Yes

BUSINESS_PRICE

NUMBER(10,0)

Yes

DEPARTURE_TIME VARCHAR2(55)

Yes

ARRIVAL_TIME

Yes

VARCHAR2(55)

Table Name: HotelBooking:


Fieldname

Data Type

Length

Key

REQNO

NUMBER

No

- primary

NAME

VARCHAR2(100)

No

ADDRESS

VARCHAR2(100)

No

17

PHONENO

VARCHAR2(100)

No

EMAILID

VARCHAR2(100)

No

HOTEL

VARCHAR2(100)

No

CHECKINDATE

VARCHAR2(100)

No

CHECKOUTDATE

VARCHAR2(100)

No

ROOMS

VARCHAR2(100)

No

ADULTS

VARCHAR2(100)

No

CHILDERN

VARCHAR2(100)

No

Yes

ROOMNO

VARCHAR2(4000
)

Table Name: HotelResult:


Fieldname

Data Type

Length

Key

IMAGE

BLOB

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

HOTELNAME

HOTELADDRESS

HOTELTYPE

VARCHAR2(4000
)
VARCHAR2(4000
)
VARCHAR2(4000
)

18

HOTELPRICE

FACI

VARCHAR2(4000
)
VARCHAR2(4000
)

Yes

Yes

Table Name: TourBook:


Fieldname

Data Type

Length

Key

REQNO

VARCHAR2(40)

No

- primary

NAME

VARCHAR2(40)

Yes

ADDRESS

VARCHAR2(40)

Yes

PHONENO

VARCHAR2(40)

Yes

EMAILID

VARCHAR2(40)

Yes

TOURNAME

VARCHAR2(40)

Yes

CANTRY

VARCHAR2(40)

Yes

TORIST

VARCHAR2(40)

Yes

ARRIVEL

VARCHAR2(40)

Yes

19

RETURN

VARCHAR2(40)

Yes

HOTELNAME

VARCHAR2(40)

Yes

ROOMS

VARCHAR2(40)

Yes

ADULTS

VARCHAR2(40)

Yes

CHILDERN

VARCHAR2(40)

Yes

DETAIL

VARCHAR2(40)

Yes

TOUR_STATUS

HOTEL_STATUS

ROOMNO

VARCHAR2(4000
)
VARCHAR2(4000
)
VARCHAR2(4000
)

Yes

Yes

Yes

Table Name: TourResult:


Fieldname

Data Type

Length

Key

IMAGE

BLOB

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

TOURNAME

TOURPRICE

TOURDAYS

VARCHAR2(4000
)
VARCHAR2(4000
)
VARCHAR2(4000
20

TYPETOUR

SOURCE

DESTINATION

ROUTE

VARCHAR2(4000
)
VARCHAR2(4000
)
VARCHAR2(4000
)
VARCHAR2(4000
)

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

CONTENTS
21

1. Introduction

19-20

1.1 . Objective of Project

20

2. Scope of Project

21

3. Theoretical Background

22-28

3.1 . Java

22-24

3.2.Java Virtual Machine

24-25

3.3.Class Libraries

25-26

3.4.Platform independence

26-28

4. System Analysis & Design

29-38

4.1. Introduction

29

4.2.Objective

29

4.3. Defining A System

29-30

4.4.System Life Cycle.

30-38

5. Complete Structure

39-43

5.1.Overall Description

39-40

5.2.Function Description.

40-43

6. Feasibility Study

44-45

6.1.Technical feasibility

44

6.2.Economic feasibility

44
22

6.3.Behavioral feasibility

45

7. Database design
8. Relational Database management system
8.1.Relation Domains & Attributes
8.2.Relationship

9. Normalisation
9.1.First Normal Form
9.2.Second Normal Form
9.3.Third Normal Form

10.System Maintains & Evaluation


10.1.Testing & Debugging
10.2.Security

11.Cost & Benefit Analysis


11.1.Hardware Costs
11.2.Personal Cost
11.3.Operatinng Cost
11.4.Supply Cost

12.ERD, DFD, Flow Chart


12.1. Context Level Dfd
12.2. Level1 Administrator Dfd
12.3.Level1 User Dfd
12.4.Level2 Travels Dfd
23

12.5.Level2 Booking Dfd


12.6 Level3 Searching Dfd

13.System Algorithm
13.1.Customer Registration
13.2.Tour Packages And Holiday Package Booking
13.3.Online Bus Ticket Reservation
13..4.Online Hotel Boking Reservation
13.5.Cancelation
13.6.Check Status

14.Input/ Output Screen Design


14.1.User Home Page
14.2.About Us
14.3.Travelling
14.4.Holiday package
14.5.Seaching

15.Conclusion
15.1.Work Done
15.2.Goals

16.Bibliography
24

17.CD Details

25

INTRODUCTION

Tour & Travel is an irresistible word when it comes totour and travel packages. We
offer tour and travel services including ticket bookings, hotel reservations,rental car
services, holiday tour packages, domestic tour packages. We provide the most suitably
designed as well as the customized travel packages to the customers. We
offereverything related to travelling services under one roof.

Today's extremely

exhausting work environment dictates that individuals requires some joyful holiday.
We provide stress-free joyful refreshing holidays with cost competitive and
customized packages according to their requirements.We provide services in almost
each and every city of India. We want to serve our customers with best possible
service and provide them the kind of comfort they want. We also want to customize
our tours as per our customers requirement without reducing joy or quality of tour.
People of all ages and backgrounds will come to enjoy the unique, upscale, joyful,
and refreshing environment that Tour & Travel Travelprovides. We provide the
transportation through its Airways, Railways and busses. According to the tour
packages we provide the facilities to customers such as hotels, guesthouses, rental
cars. It may vary from customer to customer and packages according to need. We
offer new products and concepts from time to time. Keeping the effect of change of
seasons on the human mind and body, we revise our itineraries regularly. This is
because the comfort and the satisfaction of our customers are paramount to us. Tour &
Travel Traveloffer a large range of travel opportunities. Whether you're looking for a
weekend getaway to relax and indulge, a special holiday with friends and family, a
trip to your favorite chill out spot or a new adventure, you've come to the right place.
Tour & TravelTravel offers great deals and discounts on flights, railways, hotels,
holiday packages, car rental and travel activities everything you need to plan, shop
26

OBJECTIVES OF PROJECT

The project carried out under the title TOUR & TRAVEL MANEGMENT
SYSTEM is a sincere efforts towards increasing the speed and enhancing the
Performance a managing an Private Work. This has been tried to achieve thought
making the whole system computerized along with the basic tasks of Private work and
automation of all storage network. Certain additional feature like making new user to
use this software, better User interaction etc.

This Application is build in NETBEANS and database is in ORACLE 10g.


NETBEANS is used as Front end and ORACLE as a backend of this software.
You can manage all your information from a single database file. Within the file,
Divide your data in to separate storage containers called tables, view, add and update
table data using online forms, find and retrieve just and data you want using queries
and analyze or print data in a specific Layout using reports.

27

SCOPE OF PROJECT

The Website is developed based on real life. It is very helpful in business applications.
Today's extremely exhausting work environment dictates that individuals requires
some joyful holiday. The website will provides a stress-free joyful refreshing holidays
with cost competitive and customized packages according to their requirements.As it
is web based it can provide services in almost each and every city of India. It offer
tour and travel services including ticket bookings, hotel reservations,rental car
services, holiday tour packages, domestic tour packages only in one click. It provide
the most suitably designed as well as the customized travel packages to the customers.
A traveler can find everything related to travelling services under one roof by this
website. The site will help to estimate the benefits and calculate the requirement very
easily. The benefits will be in terms of speedy query .Smooth and faster operations at
all levels improve the working atmosphere of the entire organization. Maintaining the
database as required. Database can be modified accordingly.

28

Theoretical Background
JAVA
Java is a small, simple, safe, object oriented, interpreted or dynamically
optimized, byte coded, architectural, garbage collected, multithreaded programming
language with a strongly typed exception-handling for writing distributed and
dynamicaly extensible programs.
Java is an object oriented programming language. Java is a high-level, third
generation language like C, FORTRAN, Small talk, Pearl and many others. You can
use java to write computer applications that crunch numbers, process words, play
games, store data or do any of the thousands of other things computer software can
do.
Special programs called applets that can be downloaded from the internet and played
safely within a web browser. Java a supports this application and the follow features
make it one of the best programming languages.
It is simple and object oriented
It helps to create user friendly interfaces.
It is very dynamic.
It supports multithreading.
It is platform independent
It is highly secure and robust.
29

It supports internet programming


Java is a programming language originally developed by Sun
Microsystems and released in 1995 as a core component of Sun's Java platform. The
language derives much of its syntax from C and C++ but has a simpler object model
and fewer low-level facilities. Java applications are typically compiled to byte code
which can run on any Java virtual machine (JVM) regardless of computer
architecture.
The original and reference implementation Java compilers, virtual machines, and class
libraries were developed by Sun from 1995. As of May 2007, in compliance with the
specifications of the Java Community Process, Sun made available most of their Java
technologies as free software under the GNU General Public License. Others have
also developed alternative implementations of these Sun technologies, such as the
GNU Compiler for Java and GNU Class path.
The Java language was created by James Gosling in June 1991 for use
in a set top box project. The language was initially called Oak, after an oak tree that
stood outside Gosling's office - and also went by the name Green - and ended up later
being renamed to Java, from a list of random words. Gosling's goals were to
implement a virtual machine and a language that had a familiar C/C++ style of
notation.
Primary goals
There were five primary goals in the creation of the Java language:
1. It should use the object-oriented programming methodology.
2. It should allow the same program to be executed on multiple operating
systems.
3. It should contain built-in support for using computer networks.
4. It should be designed to execute code from remote sources securely.
30

5. It should be easy to use by selecting what were considered the good parts of
other object-oriented languages.
The Java platform is the name for a bundle of related programs, or
platform, from Sun which allow for developing and running programs written in the
Java programming language. The platform is not specific to any one processor or
operating system, but rather an execution engine (called a virtual machine) and a
compiler with a set of standard libraries which are implemented for various hardware
and operating systems so that Java programs can run identically on all of them.
Different "editions" of the platform are available, including:

Java ME (Micro Edition): Specifies several different sets of libraries (known


as profiles) for devices which are sufficiently limited that supplying the full set
of Java libraries would take up unacceptably large amounts of storage.

Java SE (Standard Edition): For general purpose use on desktop PCs, servers
and similar devices.

Java EE (Enterprise Edition): Java SE plus various APIs useful for multi-tier
client-server enterprise applications.

31

Java Virtual Machine


The heart of the Java Platform is the concept of a "virtual machine" that
executes Java bytecode programs. This bytecode is the same no matter what hardware
or operating system the program is running under. There is a JIT compiler within the
Java Virtual Machine, or JVM. The JIT compiler translates the Java bytecode into
native processor instructions at run-time and caches the native code in memory during
execution.
The use of bytecode as an intermediate language permits
Java programs to run on any platform that has a virtual machine available. The use of
a JIT compiler means that Java applications, after a short delay during loading and
once they have "warmed up" by being all or mostly JIT-compiled, tend to run about as
fast as native programs. Since JRE version 1.2, Sun's JVM implementation has
included a just-in-time compiler instead of an interpreter.
Although Java programs are Platform Independent, the
code of the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) that execute these programs are not. Every
Operating System has its own JVM.
Class libraries

32

In most modern operating systems, a large body of reusable code is


provided to simplify the programmer's job. This code is typically provided as a set of
dynamically loadable libraries that applications can call at runtime. Because the Java
Platform is not dependent on any specific operating system, applications cannot rely
on any of the existing libraries. Instead, the Java Platform provides a comprehensive
set of standard class libraries, containing much of the same reusable functions
commonly found in modern operating systems.
The Java class libraries serve three purposes within the Java Platform.
Like other standard code libraries, they provide the programmer a well-known set of
functions to perform common tasks, such as maintaining lists of items or performing
complex string parsing. In addition, the class libraries provide an abstract interface to
tasks that would normally depend heavily on the hardware and operating system.
Tasks such as network access and file access are often heavily dependent on the native
capabilities of the platform. The Java java.net and java.io libraries implement the
required native code internally, then provide a standard interface for the Java
applications to perform those tasks. Finally, when some underlying platform does not.

Platform independence
One characteristic, platform independence, means that programs written in the Java
language must run similarly on any supported hardware/operating-system platform.
One should be able to write a program once, compile it once, and run it anywhere.
This is achieved by most Java compilers by compiling the Java language code
halfway (to Java bytecode) simplified machine instructions specific to the Java
platform. The code is then run on a virtual machine (VM), a program written in native
code on the host hardware that interprets and executes generic Java bytecode. (In
33

some JVM versions, bytecode can also be compiled to native code, either before or
during program execution, resulting in faster execution.) Further, standardized
libraries are provided to allow access to features of the host machines (such as
graphics, threading and networking) in unified ways. Note that, although there is an
explicit compiling stage, at some point, the Java bytecode is interpreted or converted
to native machine code by the JIT compiler.
The first implementations of the language used an interpreted virtual machine to
achieve portability. These implementations produced programs that ran more slowly
than programs compiled to native executables, for instance written in C or C++, so the
language suffered a reputation for poor performance. More recent JVM
implementations produce programs that run significantly faster than before, using
multiple techniques.
One technique, known as just-in-time compilation (JIT), translates the
Java bytecode into native code at the time that the program is run, which results in a
program that executes faster than interpreted code but also incurs compilation
overhead during execution. More sophisticated VMs use dynamic recompilation, in
which the VM can analyze the behavior of the running program and selectively
recompile and optimize critical parts of the program. Dynamic recompilation can
achieve optimizations superior to static compilation because the dynamic compiler
can base optimizations on knowledge about the runtime environment and the set of
loaded classes, and can identify the hot spots (parts of the program, often inner loops,
that take up the most execution time). JIT compilation and dynamic recompilation
allow Java programs to take advantage of the speed of native code without losing
portability.
Another technique, commonly known as static compilation, is to compile directly into
native code like a more traditional compiler. Static Java compilers, such as GCJ,
translate the Java language code to native object code, removing the intermediate
bytecode stage. This achieves good performance compared to interpretation, but at the
expense of portability; the output of these compilers can only be run on a single
architecture. Some see avoiding the VM in this manner as defeating the point of
34

developing in Java; however it can be useful to provide both a generic bytecode


version, as well as an optimised native code version of an application.
Automatic memory management
One of the ideas behind Java's automatic memory management model is that
programmers be spared the burden of having to perform manual memory
management. In some languages the programmer allocates memory for the creation of
objects stored on the heap and the responsibility of later deallocating that memory
also resides with the programmer. If the programmer forgets to deallocate memory or
writes code that fails to do so, a memory leak occurs and the program can consume an
arbitrarily large amount of memory. Additionally, if the program attempts to
deallocate the region of memory more than once, the result is undefined and the
program may become unstable and may crash. Finally, in non garbage collected
environments, there is a certain degree of overhead and complexity of user-code to
track and finalize allocations. Often developers may box themselves into certain
designs to provide reasonable assurances that memory leaks will not occur.
In Java, this potential problem is avoided by automatic garbage collection. The
programmer determines when objects are created, and the Java runtime is responsible
for managing the object's lifecycle. The program or other objects can reference an
object by holding a reference to it (which, from a low-level point of view, is its
address on the heap). When no references to an object remain, the Java garbage
collector automatically deletes the unreachable object, freeing memory and preventing
a memory leak. Memory leaks may still occur if a programmer's code holds a
reference to an object that is no longer neededin other words, they can still occur
but at higher conceptual levels.
The use of garbage collection in a language can also affect programming paradigms.
If, for example, the developer assumes that the cost of memory allocation/recollection
is low, they may choose to more freely construct objects instead of pre-initializing,
holding and reusing them. With the small cost of potential performance penalties
(inner-loop construction of large/complex objects), this facilitates thread-isolation (no
35

need to synchronize as different threads work on different object instances) and datahiding. The use of transient immutable value-objects minimizes side-effect
programming.
Comparing Java and C++, it is possible in C++ to implement similar functionality (for
example, a memory management model for specific classes can be designed in C++ to
improve speed and lower memory fragmentation considerably), with the possible cost
of adding comparable runtime overhead to that of Java's garbage collector, and of
added development time and application complexity if one favors manual
implementation over using an existing third-party library. In Java, garbage collection
is built-in and virtually invisible to the developer. That is, developers may have no
notion of when garbage collection will take place as it may not necessarily correlate
with any actions being explicitly performed by the code they write. Depending on
intended application, this can be beneficial or disadvantageous: the programmer is
freed from performing low-level tasks, but at the same time loses the option of writing
lower level code. Additionally, the garbage collection capability demands some
attention to tuning the JVM, as large heaps will cause apparently random stalls in
performance.
Java does not support pointer arithmetic as is supported in, for example, C++. This is
because the garbage collector may relocate referenced objects, invalidating such

36

SYSTEM ANALYSIS & DESIGN

29.1 INTRODUCTION
Systems are created to solve problems. One can think of the systems approach as an
organized way of dealing with a problem. In this dynamic world, The subject System
Analysis and Design, mainly deals with the software development activities.
29.2 OBJECTIVES
After going through this lesson, you should be able to:
understand a system
understand the different phases of system developments life cycle
know the components of system analysis
know the components of system designing
29.3 Defining A System
A collection of components that work together to realize some objective forms a
system. Basically there are three major components in every system, namely input,
processing and output.

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In a system the different components are connected with each other and they are
interdependent. For example, Human body represents a complete natural system. We
are also bound by many national systems such as political system, economic system,
educational system and so forth. The objective of the system demand that some output
is produced as a result of processing the suitable inputs.

29.4 SYSTEM LIFE CYCLE


System life cycle is an organisational process of developing and maintaining systems.
It helps in establishing a system project plan, because it gives overall list of processes
and sub-processes required developing a system.
System development life cycle means combination of various activities. In other
words we can say that various activities put together are referred as system
development life cycle. In the System Analysis and Design terminology, the system
development life cycle means software development life cycle.
Following are the different phases of software development cycle:
System study
Feasibility study
System analysis
System design
Coding
Testing
Implementation
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Maintenance
The different phases of software development life cycle is shown in Fig.29.1

(a) System Study


System study is the first stage of system development life cycle. This gives a clear
picture of what actually the physical system is? In practice, the system study is done
in two phases. In the first phase, the preliminary survey of the system is done which
helps in identifying the scope of the system. The second phase of the system study is
more detailed and in-depth study in which the identification of users requirement and
the limitations and problems of the present system are studied. After completing the
system study, a system proposal is prepared by the System Analyst (who studies the
system) and placed before the user. The proposed system contains the findings of the
present system and recommendations to overcome the limitations and problems of the
present system in the light of the users requirements.
To describe the system study phase more analytically, we would say that system study
phase passes through the following steps:
problem identification and project initiation
background analysis

39

inference or findings
(b) Feasibility Study
On the basis of result of the initial study, feasibility study takes place. The feasibility
study is basically the test of the proposed system in the light of its workability,
meeting users requirements, effective use of resources and .of course, the cost
effectiveness. The main goal of feasibility study is not to solve the problem but to
achieve the scope. In the process of feasibility study, the cost and benefits are
estimated with greater accuracy.
(c) System Analysis
Assuming that a new system is to be developed, the next phase is system analysis.
Analysis involved a detailed study of the current system, leading to specifications of a
new system. Analysis is a detailed study of various operations performed by a system
and their relationships within and outside the system. During analysis, data are
collected on the available files, decision points and transactions handled by the
present system. Interviews, on-site observation and questionnaire are the tools used
for system analysis. Using the following steps it becomes easy to draw the exact
boundary of the new system under consideration:
Keeping in view the problems and new requirements
Workout the pros and cons including new areas of the system
All procedures, requirements must be analysed and documented in the form of
detailed data flow diagrams (DFDs), data dictionary, logical data structures and
miniature specifications. System Analysis also includes sub-dividing of complex
process involving the entire system, identification of data store and manual processes.
The main points to be discussed in system analysis are:
Specification of what the new system is to accomplish based on the user
requirements.
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Functional hierarchy showing the functions to be performed by the new system


and their relationship with each other.
Function network which are similar to function hierarchy but they highlight the
those functions which are common to more than one procedure.
List of attributes of the entities - these are the data items which need to be held
about each entity (record)
(d) System Design
Based on the user requirements and the detailed analysis of a new system, the new
system must be designed. This is the phase of system designing. It is a most crucial
phase in the development of a system. Normally, the design proceeds in two stages :
preliminary or general design
Structure or detailed design
Preliminary or general design: In the preliminary or general design, the features of the
new system are specified. The costs of implementing these features and the benefits to
be derived are estimated. If the project is still considered to be feasible, we move to
the detailed design stage.
Structure or Detailed design: In the detailed design stage, computer oriented work
begins in earnest. At this stage, the design of the system becomes more structured.
Structure design is a blue print of a computer system solution to a given problem
having the same components and inter-relationship among the same components as
the original problem. Input, output and processing specifications are drawn up in
detail. In the design stage, the programming language and the platform in which the
new system will run are also decided.
There are several tools and techniques used for designing. These tools and techniques
are:

41

Flowchart
Data flow diagram (DFDs)
Data dictionary
Structured English
Decision table
Decision tree
Each of the above tools for designing will be discussed in detailed in the next lesson.
(e) Coding
After designing the new system, the whole system is required to be converted into
computer understanding language. Coding the new system into computer
programming language does this. It is an important stage where the defined procedure
are transformed into control specifications by the help of a computer language. This is
also called the programming phase in which the programmer converts the program
specifications into computer instructions, which we refer as programs. The programs
coordinate the data movements and control the entire process in a system.
It is generally felt that the programs must be modular in nature. This helps in fast
development, maintenance and future change, if required.
(f) Testing
Before actually implementing the new system into operations, a test run of the system
is done removing all the bugs, if any. It is an important phase of a successful system.
After codifying the whole programs of the system, a test plan should be developed
and run on a given set of test data. The output of the test run should match the
expected results.

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Using the test data following test run are carried out:
Unit test
System test
Unit test: When the programs have been coded and compiled and brought to working
conditions, they must be individually tested with the prepared test data. Any
undesirable happening must be noted and debugged (error corrections).
System Test: After carrying out the unit test for each of the programs of the system
and when errors are removed, then system test is done. At this stage the test is done on
actual data. The complete system is executed on the actual data. At each stage of the
execution, the results or output of the system is analysed. During the result analysis, it
may be found that the outputs are not matching the expected out of the system. In
such case, the errors in the particular programs are identified and are fixed and further
tested for the expected output.
When it is ensured that the system is running error-free, the users are called with their
own actual data so that the system could be shown running as per their requirements.
(g) Implementation
After having the user acceptance of the new system developed, the implementation
phase begins. Implementation is the stage of a project during which theory is turned
into practice. During this phase, all the programs of the system are loaded onto the
user's computer. After loading the system, training of the users starts. Main topics of
such type of training are:
How to execute the package
How to enter the data

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How to process the data (processing details)


How to take out the reports
After the users are trained about the computerised system, manual working has to
shift from manual to computerised working. The following two strategies are
followed for running the system:
i.

Parallel run: In such run for a certain defined period, both the systems i.e.
computerised and manual are executed in parallel. This strategy is helpful
because of the following:
Manual results can be compared with the results of the computerised system.
Failure of the computerised system at the early stage, does not affect the
working of the organisation, because the manual system continues to work, as
it used to do.

i.

Pilot run: In this type of run, the new system is installed in parts. Some part
of the new system is installed first and executed successfully for considerable
time period. When the results are found satisfactory then only other parts are
implemented. This strategy builds the confidence and the errors are traced
easily.

(h) Maintenance
Maintenance is necessary to eliminate errors in the system during its working life and
to tune the system to any variations in its working environment. It has been seen that
there are always some errors found in the system that must be noted and corrected. It
also means the review of the system from time to time. The review of the system is
done for:
knowing the full capabilities of the system
knowing the required changes or the additional requirements
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studying the performance


If a major change to a system is needed, a new project may have to be set up to carry
out the change. The new project will then proceed through all the above life cycle
phases.
WATERFALL MODEL
The waterfall model is a popular version of the system development life cycle
model for software engineering. Often considered the classic approach to the systems
development life cycle, the waterfall model describes a development method that is
linear and sequential. Waterfall development has distinct goals for each phase of
development. Imagine a waterfall on the cliff of a steep mountain. Once the water has
flowed over the edge of the cliff and has begun its journey down the side of the
mountain, it cannot turn back. It is the same with waterfall development. Once a
phase of development is completed, the development proceeds to the next phase and
there is no turning back.
The

advantage

of

waterfall

development

is

that

it

allows

for

departmentalization and managerial control. A schedule can be set with deadlines for
each stage of development and a product can proceed through the development
process like a car in a carwash, and theoretically, be delivered on time. Development
moves from concept, through design, implementation, testing, installation,
troubleshooting, and ends up at operation and maintenance. Each phase of
development proceeds in strict order, without any overlapping or iterative steps.
The disadvantage of waterfall development is that it does not allow for much
reflection or revision. Once an application is in the testing stage, it is very difficult to
go back and change something that was not well-thought out in the concept stage.
Alternatives to the waterfall model include joint application development (JAD),
rapid application development (RAD), synch and stabilize, build and fix, and the
Spiral model.

45

46

Fig :WaterFall Model

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THE COMPLETE STRUCTURE


T n T Travels is an One Stop Shops for all kinds of tour and travel
productsto serve the domestic and international tourists at any time, any moment and
anywhere in any parts of the India. It is a complete online travel solution portal in the
sense that the travellers need not require moving to different travel agents for different
services involved in the entire travel process. Sitting at one place, travellers can
enquire, navigate and ask for everything related to travel services. The major list of
online travel services include online flight booking, online hotel booking, online
cruise booking , online car/bus booking.The entire system is user-friendly that guides
the travellers automatically while making their reservation.

Overall Description
T n T Travels arranges holidays for customers. It offer tour and travel
services including ticket bookings, hotel reservations,rental car services, holiday tour
packages, domestic tour packages. Bookings are made online directly by customers.
The customer has to register himself/herself as our registered customer. Now he/she
can select package tours provided by us or can customize his/hers own tour. When a
customer select his tour venue, then he/she may selects other accommodations from
flight details, railway details, cruise details, bus details and hotel details according to
their will. The registered customer can also reserve tickets only or book hotel only
through our site. They can also choose rental car services and guide facility also
according to their requirements. We provide full freedom to our customer to make
their choice from the vast information provided by us according to their comfort and
finances. The details are entered onto a Provisional Booking file.
The customer must confirm this booking within three days by sending a
deposit of 10% of the costs. On receipt of the deposit, Reservations transfer the details
from the Provisional Bookings file to the Confirm Bookings file.

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Four weeks before the Tour is due, we send an invoice to the customer for the
remaining costs. The Customer is notified when the full payment is received via
Email or messages, and Customer Services then send tickets and other instructions
and informations to the customer via email. The tickets are then send to the
customers by mail.
Customer can also cancel their reservation online. The register customer log
into our site and can confirm their reservation. The cancelation is confirmed by the
administrator and then refund amount is send to the customer within 5 days deducting
the cancelation charges.

Functional Description
T n T Travels impeccable services and well researched & planned out tour
itineraries have drawn us a veritable list of clients from the world over. We believe in
a simple philosophy that reads as "Give the customer what they ask for---an excellent
travel entertainment with complete peace of mind and satisfaction". In the short span
of time we have generated huge number of clients who enjoys our flawless services
and facilities.
The different Modules involved in online Tour and Travel management system
are as follows.

Customer Registration
Tour Packages And Holiday
Online Ticket Reservation
Online Bus Ticket Reservation
Online Hotel Reservation
Cancelation
Online Bus Ticket Cancelation
Online Hotel Cancelation
Tour Cancelation

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Customer Reservation
The customer are given the facility to make online directly.Theyhas to register
themselves as registered customers. It is made to authentication of the customers,
exchange of cryptography keys, and creation of a profile for each traveler. Each
customer is identified by the user name. The customer confirms their reservation or
makes any query using the user id.

Tour Packages and Holiday


T n T Travels offers a variety of tours for Groups and Individual tourists and has
been able to mastermind tour packages with great deal of efficiency. Some of our tour
packages are: Tailor-made packages, cultural tours packages, adventure tour packages,
desert tour packages,beach tour packages, religious tour packages,safari tour
packages, festival tour packages, art and crafts tour packages, wildlife tour packages,
conference tour packages etc. and much more packages in the Indian Subcontinent.
Our Inbound Tour division specializes in a wide spectrum of tours packages.

Online Ticket Reservation


T n T Travels allows its customers to reserve ticket online through its own site
visit.com.Visit.com contains a huge information regarding all types of convenes
throughout India in comparatively less price. Customer may select their own way of
communication according to their requirements. Travels boasts of a modern and
computerized infrastructure. This enables us to assure immediate reservations to
ourccustomersand provide them with relevant online information. . The advantage of
booking your online ticket is that you receive "e-tickets" instantly, which consist of a
number that identifies your transaction. This not only saves your time but also helps
you to compare and find the best deals on your travel.

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Online Bus Ticket Reservation


Traveling India by Bus is the best kind of way for traveling because by bus
you are able to experience India more easily and closely. If someone has India for
traveling and no nothing about this place bus traveling is the best option. No doubt
those buses are the best kind of way for traveling in India because it is available in
every part of India. T n T Travels provide online bus ticket booking services in India
to reserve bus ticket up to 10, 000 destinations, with almost every major tourist
places, worship places and suburb places of India. Our online reservation system
helps us in confirming the bookings instantly even in the very busy sectors. Just let us
know the place and time and we will do the rest as soon as possible. Every kind of
buses is available at visit.com site such as Volvo bus, sleeper bus, AC bus and non AC
bus. The process for reserving a ticket or numerous tickets is very easy and short time
process. We offer a very simple reservation process. You need to select or enter the
desired destination, enter the dates we are willing to departure, enter the bus type,
enter your desired seats and the number of tickets required. Our online reservation
system helps us in confirming the bookings instantly even in the very busy sectors.
Just let us know the place and time and we will do the rest as soon as possible

Online Hotel Booking


Choosing the right place to stay is the most important thing when it comes to
vacations. If you choose a good vacation house, you can have a great time with your
family and friends. Conversely, if you choose a shabby place, the whole vacation
could turn into a nightmare. With our elaborated network of collaboration with the
hotels in almost every part of the Indian subcontinent T n T Travels provide our
services of individual or group booking in any hotel of any category. Not only this, we
always try to offer lucrative discounted rates to our clients. We will be happy to make
the requisite arrangements for you. We offer a very simple reservation process. You
need to select or enter the desired city, enter the dates of arrival and departure and
51

enter the number of guests. You could also search by a specific hotel name within a
city. A list of hotels or vacation rentals will appear on the screen.
After room types and rates are returned to your screen, you will be able to
choose the rate you desire by reading the room information in the centre of the screen,
then clicking on the Book It button on the right side of the screen. After you have
selected your desired room type, you will be taken to a "Secure Reservation Request"
form. Then you will need to review the "Reservation Information" and fill in the
blanks on the "Guest Information" section. Be sure that you write your name and
email address correctly. After you fill out all of the needed information, press the
"Submit Reservation" button.

Cancelation
Customer can also cancel their reservation online. The register customer log into our
site visit.com and can request for cancelation of their reservation. The cancelation is
confirmed by the administrator and then refund amount is send to the customer within
5 days deducting the cancelation charges. The If the cancellation is received before
four weeks before the departure date, then 50% of appropriate deposit shall be
forfeited. In the event of the cancellation being 30 days or less prior to the departure
date the following charges will apply, with a minimum cancellation fee of the original
deposit,
More than 4weeks 50% of deposit
31 days to 15 days ----30% of tour cost
15 days or 2days80% of tour cost

FEASIBILITY STUDY
Feasibility study is made to see if the project on completion will serve the
purpose of the organization for the amount of work, effort and the time that spend on

52

it. Feasibility study lets the developer foresee the future of the project and the
usefulness. A feasibility study of a system proposal is according to its workability,
which is the impact on the organization, ability to meet their user needs and effective
use of resources. Thus when a new application is proposed it normally goes through a
feasibility study before it is approved for development.

The document provide the feasibility of the project that is being designed and
lists various areas that were considered very carefully during the feasibility study of
this project such as Technical, Economic and Operational feasibilities. The following
are its features:
TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY
The system must be evaluated from the technical point of view first. The
assessment of this feasibility must be based on an outline design of the system
requirement in the terms of input, output, programs and procedures. Having identified
an outline system, the investigation must go on to suggest the type of equipment,
required method developing the system, of running the system once it has been
designed.
Technical issues raised during the investigation are:

Does the existing technology sufficient for the suggested one?


Can the system expand if developed?

The project should be developed such that the necessary functions and
performance are achieved within the constraints. The project is developed within
latest technology. Through the technology may become obsolete after some period of
time, due to the fact that never version of same software supports older versions, the
system may still be used. So there are minimal constraints involved with this project.
53

The system has been developed using Java the project is technically feasible for
development.

ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY

The developing system must be justified by cost and benefit. Criteria to ensure
that effort is concentrated on project, which will give best, return at the earliest. One
of the factors, which affect the development of a new system, is the cost it would
require.
The following are some of the important financial questions asked during
preliminary investigation:

The costs conduct a full system investigation.


The cost of the hardware and software.
The benefits in the form of reduced costs or fewer costly errors.

Since the system is developed as part of project work, there is no manual cost to
spend for the proposed system. Also all the resources are already available, it give an
indication of the system is economically possible for development.

BEHAVIORAL FEASIBILITY
This includes the following questions:
Is there sufficient support for the users?
Will the proposed system cause harm?

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DATABASE DESIGN
A database is an organized mechanism that has the capability of
storing information through which a user can retrieve stored information in an
effective and efficient manner. The data is the purpose of any database and must be
protected.

The database design is a two level process. In the first step, user
requirements are gathered together and a database is designed which will meet these
requirements as clearly as possible. This step is called Information Level Design and
it is taken independent of any individual DBMS.
In the second step, this Information level design is transferred into a design for
the specific DBMS that will be used to implement the system in question. This step is
called Physical Level Design, concerned with the characteristics of the specific
DBMS that will be used. A database design runs parallel with the system design. The
organization of the data in the database is aimed to achieve the following two major
objectives.
o Data Integrity
o Data independence
Normalization is the process of decomposing the attributes in an application,
which results in a set of tables with very simple structure. The purpose of
normalization is to make tables as simple as possible. Normalization is carried out in
this system for the following reasons.
To structure the data so that there is no repetition of data , this helps in
saving.
To permit simple retrieval of data in response to query and report
request.

55

To simplify the maintenance of the data through updates,

RELATIONAL DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

A relational model represents the database as a collection of relations.


Each relation resembles a table of values or file of records. In formal relational model
terminology, a row is called a tuple, a column header is called an attribute and the
table is called a relation. A relational database consists of a collection of tables, each
of which is assigned a unique name. A row in a tale represents a set of related values.

RELATIONS, DOMAINS & ATTRIBUTES:


A table is a relation. The rows in a table are called tuples. A tuple is an
ordered set of n elements. Columns are referred to as attributes. Relationships
have been set between every table in the database. This ensures both Referential
and Entity Relationship Integrity. A domain D is a set of atomic values. A common
method of specifying a domain is to specify a data type from which the data
values forming the domain are drawn. It is also useful to specify a name for the
domain to help in interpreting its values. Every value in a relation is atomic, that is
not decomposable.
RELATIONSHIPS:
o Table relationships are established using Key. The two main keys of prime
importance are Primary Key & Foreign Key. Entity Integrity and Referential
Integrity Relationships can be established with these keys.
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o Entity Integrity enforces that no Primary Key can have null values.
o Referential Integrity enforces that no Primary Key can have null values.
o Referential Integrity for each distinct Foreign Key value, there must exist a
matching Primary Key value in the same domain. Other key are Super Key
and Candidate Keys.
o Relationships have been set between every table in the database. This ensures
both Referential and Entity Relationship Integrity.

NORMALIZATION:
As the name implies, it denoted putting things in the normal form. The
application developer via normalization tries to achieve a sensible organization of data
into proper tables and columns and where names can be easily correlated to the data
by the user. Normalization eliminates repeating groups at data and thereby avoids data
redundancy which proves to be a great burden on the computer resources. These
includes:

Normalize the data.


Choose proper names for the tables and columns.
Choose the proper name for the data.

First Normal Form:


The First Normal Form states that the domain of an attribute must include only
atomic values and that the value of any attribute in a tuple must be a single value from
the domain of that attribute. In other words 1NF disallows relations within relations
or relations as attribute values within tuples. The only attribute values permitted by
1NF are single atomic or indivisible values.

57

The first step is to put the data into First Normal Form. This can be donor by
moving data into separate tables where the data is of similar type in each table. Each
table is given a Primary Key or Foreign Key as per requirement of the project. In this
we form new relations for each nonatomic attribute or nested relation. This eliminated
repeating groups of data.
A relation is said to be in first normal form if only if it satisfies the constraints that
contain the primary key only.
Second Normal Form:
According to Second Normal Form, for relations where primary key contains
multiple attributes, no nonkey attribute should be functionally dependent on a part of
the primary key.
In this we decompose and setup a new relation for each partial key with its
dependent attributes. Make sure to keep a relation with the original primary key and
any attributes that are fully functionally dependent on it. This step helps in taking out
data that is only dependant on apart of the key.

A relation is said to be in second normal form if and only if it satisfies all the first
normal form conditions for the primary key and every non-primary key attributes of
the relation is fully dependent on its primary key alone.
Third Normal Form:
According to Third Normal Form, Relation should not have a nonkey attribute
functionally determined by another nonkey attribute or by a set of nonkey attributes.
That is, there should be no transitive dependency on the primary key.
In this we decompose and set up relation that includes the nonkey attributes that
functionally determines other nonkey attributes. This step is taken to get rid of
anything that does not depend entirely on the Primary Key.

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A relation is said to be in third normal form if only if it is in second normal form


and more over the non key attributes of the relation should not be depend on other non
key attribute.

SYSTEM MAINTAINS & EVALUATION

TESTING & DEBUGGING

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Testing is the one of the most essential process that involve checking of the
entire software files that helps in the proper functioning of the software. Testing
provides a way of finding out the errors & faults that might have occurred during the
development of the software. During the process of the testing of the software, all the
necessary errors & faults that have occurred or arisen are traced & proper solutions
regarding the errors. Are prepared.

Testing acts as an important phase of the software development life cycle.


Testing basically depends upon following two factors:1. Error Faults.
2. Reliability.

Errors Faults defines the number of errors that have occurred during the
development of the software that in effect have changed or diverted the entire process
of the functioning of the software. The second important factor that comes out as
result of testing is Reliability. By testing the entire software, we can easily find out the
reliability of the software. So, testing provides a platform for the software developers
to develop software that are error free and in effect, efficient and reliable.

Testing can be categorized into the following types depending on their use and
purpose in the development of the software. They are:1. Functional Testing:Functional testing of the software comprises of
testing of the function and modules that were created in the software
and checking the accuracy of the functioning of the modules and
functions that have been used in the proper and effective working of
the software.

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2. Structural Testing: -Structural Testing involves the process of testing


the entire structure of the software that is developed (i.e. Logical as
well as physical). All the logical steps related to the logical structure
and the physical structure are tested for their accurate functioning and
satisfaction for the developer.

Debugging: - Testing is the process of checking the errors, faults and failures that
have occurred during the development or during the running of the system and which
in turns have caused problems in the proper functioning of the system. Testing just
provides a medium for searching out errors. On the other hand, de-bugging allows
developers of the software to remove or make corrections on the errors that were
found during testing of the software as de-bugging means, removing of bugs.

SECURITY

Security of the system means to define the safety of the software or the system.
Softwares whether they may be large or small security play a vital role in improving
the reliability and efficiency of the software. By securing the software at all the levels
of the software makes the application as well as the software more reliable & efficient
in working or functioning.
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Security or safety of the system or the software can be done in many ways. These can
be categorized as:Physical Security:- The term physical security of safety of the software, one
means define the physical structure of the software safe and secure. This can be
achieved by providing appropriate checks at each and every level of data entry
and also by not giving any kind of structural changes in the software they are
working on.
Application Security:- In the software the text box will accept only those values
for which it is placed in the project. Such as it the name of costumer is to be
entered in the text then it will accept the only the string value and it will not
accept the numeric values and if the user will give any wrong value then it will
display the error message and if the user will give the string value in the numeric
text box then also it will give the error message. In this way the application is
secured for accepting the correct value in the database is secured.
Administrator Security:-The administrator is the main of any system and if the
user enter the password of the administrator then he/she will enter in administrator
mode or only then he/she can change the administration password or add or
remove login. Otherwise if any user login he/she cant be able to access this
administrator mode.
Operating Level Security:- This level of security provide a safety kit at times
when any user free of worries and tension and tension of how the software may
behave if they provide wrong input at any level of operating the software. For this
several of checks are attached with the software of the software with on the Spot
correction making etc.
Database Security:-The database security of the databases that are used in the
software in one of the most necessary step that should be kept in the mind while
making the software secure as all the data that is purpose. If, by mistake any thing
happens to the database, then the entire software is useless or is of no use. So, one
should not provide access to databases to the user of the software and if in some
62

conditions it become essential to give permissions to the users, then, one should
provide readily, write only etc. as permission types.

COST & BENEFIT ANALYSIS

63

When the estimates for a system (YUGVEENA LIBRARY) developed, I need


to consider several cost elements. Among them are hardware, personal, facility,
operating and supply costs.
1. Hardware Costs :- Hardware cost relates to the actual purchase or less of the
computer and peripherals (for ex. Printer, disk drive, tape etc.). Determining the
actual cost of the hardware is generally ore difficult when various users that for a
dedicated stand alone system share the system. In some cases the best way to
control for this cost is to treat it as an operating cost.

2. Personal Costs :-This type of cost include EDP staff salaries and benefits
(health insurance, vaccination time etc.) as well as pay for those involved in
developing the system. Costs incurred during the development of a system are
one time cost.

3. Facility Cost :- Facility cost expenses include in the prevention of the physical
site where the application or the computer will be in operation. This include
wiring, flooring, acoustics, lightning and air cooling. These costs are treated as
one time costs are incorporated into the overall cost estimate of the candidate
system.

4. Operating Cost :- This cost include all cost associated with the day-to-day
operations of the System; the amount depends on the number of shifts, the nature
of the applications and the caliber of the operating staff. There are various ways
of covering operating cost. The amount Charged is based on computer time, staff
time and volume of the output produced.

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5. Supply Costs :- Supply cost are variable cost that increase with increased use of
paper, ribbons, disks, and the like. They should be estimated and included in the
over all cost of the system. A system is also expected or provides benefits. The
first task is to identify each benefit and then assign a monetary value to it for
cost/benefit analysis. Benefit may be tangible and intangible, direct or indirect as
we shall see later.

Procedure for Cost & Benefit Determination :- Cost are incurred during throughout
its life cycle. Benefits are realized in the form of reduced operating cost, improved
operating image, staff efficiency or revenues. To what extent benefits outweigh costs
is the function of cost/benefit analysis/ Cost benefit analysis is a procedure that gives
a procedure of the various costs, benefit and rules associated with a system. The
determination of costs and benefits entails the following step :-

Identify the costs and benefit pertaining to given project.


Categorized the various costs and benefits for analysis.
Select a method of evolution.
Interpret the result of analysis.
Take action.

Classification of Costs and Benefit Analysis :-The next step in cost and benefit
determination is to categorized costs and benefits. Following are the Categories :1. Tangible or Intangible Costs and Benefits.
2. Direct or Indirect Costs and Benefits.

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3. Fixed or Variable Costs and Benefits.

DATA FLOW DIAGRAM:Stately Sojourn

USER

ADMINISTRATOR

Context level DFD:

Booking
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DB

Level 1 DFD for Administrator:

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Administrator

Registration details

User name, Password


Login

View user details

Tour And Travel


View records
View record of hotel carr
Bus ,tour ,flight,

View Feedback
User
Update Booking Status

Add hotel car, bus, flight ,tour and other

Add records

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status

Level 1 DFD for Users:

Level 2 DFD for Travels:

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Level 2 DFD for Routes:

Level 2 DFD for Pickup Points:

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Level 2 DFD for Booking Modules:

71

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Level 4 DFD for Searching

viewer

Search Hotel
User name, Password

user search

Searching

Login

user Search
Search Flight

User
User Search

User search

Search Tour

Searching Train

Level 4 DFD for Testimonial:

SYSTEM ALGORITHM

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Customer Registration
Step1. Start

Step2. Enter To The Sites Home Page

Step3. Click On The New Registration Link

Step4. Fill Up The Registration Form In The Site

Step5. Set User Name And Password

Step6. Stop.

Tour Packages And Holiday Booking


Step1. Start

Step2. Enter To The Sites Home Page

Step3. Click On The Package Link

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Step4. Select Category Package.

Step5. View Details

Step 6.Click on Book now Button

Step 7.Fill up the Travellers Details Form

Step 8.Pay Amount Online.

Step 9.Your Tickets,and other Details will be send to you .

Step10. Stop.

Online Bus Ticket Reservation


Step1. Start

Step2. Enter To The Sites Home Page

Step3. Click On The Bus Link

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Step4. Fill up the Bus Searching Form.

Step5. View Details according to your Requrements.

Step 6.Click on Book now Button

Step 7.Fill up the Travellers Details Form

Step 8.Pay Amount online.

Step 9.Your Tickets Details will be send to you .

Step10. Stop.

Online Hotel Reservation


Step1. Start

Step2. Enter To The Sites Home Page

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Step3. Click On The Hotel Link

Step4. Fill up the Hotel Searching Form.

Step5. View Details according to your Requrements.

Step 6.Click on Book now Button

Step 7.Fill up the Travellers Details Form

Step 8.Pay Amount Online.

Step 9.Your Reservation Details will be send to you .

Step10. Stop.

Cancelation
Step1. Start

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Step2. Enter To The My Account Page

Step3. Click On The My Booking Link

Step4. Select the Booking You want to Cancel.

Step5. View Details of the Booking.

Step 6.Click on Cancle now Button

Step 7. Confirm your Cacelation.

Step 8.Your Refundable Amount(according to the Rules )will be debited to your


account.

Step 9.Stop.

New Tour Packages And Holiday Details


Step1. Start

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Step2.Admin Log In.

Step3. Enter To The Admin Master Page

Step 4.Select new Insert Type

Step5. Fill up the Package tour Details Form.

Step 6.Fill up the Package Description Form.

Step7. Upload Picture and Images of the Package Tour.

Step8. Stop.

New Bus Details


Step1. Start

Step2.Admin Log In.

Step3. Enter To TheAdmin Master Page

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Step 4.Select new Insert Type

Step4. Fill up the Bus Details form.

Step5. Upload Picture .

Step6.Stop.

New Hotel Details


Step1. Start

Step2.Admin Log In.

Step3. Enter To TheAdmin Master Page

Step 4.Select new Insert Type

Step5. Fill up the Hotel Details form.

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Step6. Upload Picture .

Step7.Stop.

Edit Tour Packages And Holiday Details


Step1. Start

Step2.Admin Log In.

Step3. Enter To The Admin Master Page

Step 4.Select Edit Insert Type

Step5. Select the Package required to Modified .

Step 6.Edit Package tour Details.

Step7.Edit Picture and Images of the Package Tour.

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Step8. Stop.

Edit Bus Details


Step1. Start

Step2.Admin Log In.

Step3. Enter To TheAdmin Master Page

Step 4.Select edit Insert Type

Step5. Select the Bus required to Modified .

Step 6.Edit Bus Details.

Step7.Edit Picture and Images of the Bus.

Step8.Stop.

Edit Hotel Details


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Step1. Start

Step2.Admin Log In.

Step3. Enter To TheAdmin Master Page

Step 4.Select edit Insert Type

Step5. Select the Hotel required to Modified .

Step 6.Edit Hotel Details.

Step7.Edit Picture and Images of the Hotel.

Step8.Stop.

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INPUT OUTPUT SCREEN DESIGN


Home Page.

Hotel Page

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Searching Page.

Tour Package.

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CONCLUSION

WORK DONE:

The Tour & Travel Management was successfully designed and is tested for
accuracy and quality.

During this project we have accomplished all the objectives and this project
meets the needs of the organization .The developed will be used in searching,
retrieving and generating information for the concerned requests.

GOALS
Reduced entry work.
Easy retrieval of information
Reduced errors due to human intervention
User friendly screens to enter the data
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Portable and flexible for further enhancement


Web enabled.
Fast finding of information requested

References/ Bibliography:

(i) :
Vournas C.D., Second order hydraulic turbine models for multi machine
stability studies, IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, Vol 5, No. 3,
pp.23944, 1990.
(ii) Books (in case of reference):
Kundur P., Power system stability and control, New York: McGraw-Hill;
pp.23944, 1994.
(iii) Conference proceedings:
Singh S.P, NandKishor, R.P. Saini, Nonlinear decentralized robust governor
control for hydro turbine- generator sets of multi-machine system, 3rd World
Congress on Intelligent Control and Automation, Jaipur, vol. 1, pp. 4552, 2000.
(iv)Books (in case of Bibliography):
Kundur P., Power system stability and control, New York: McGraw-Hill;
1994.
ONLINE REFERENCE:

www.theserverside.com
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www.java.sun.com
www.javatpoint.com
www.W3cschool.com

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