Anda di halaman 1dari 4

Laryngitis

is an inflammation of the larynx. It causes hoarse voice or temporary complete loss of


the voice because of irritation to the vocal folds (vocal cords). Dysphonia is the medical
term for a vocal disorder, of which laryngitis is one cause.
Laryngitis is categorised as acute if it lasts less than three weeks and chronic if it last
over three weeks. The chronic form occurs mostly in middle age and is much more
common in men than women. Antibiotics do not appear to be very useful in the acute
form.[1]
Signs and symptoms

Dry, sore, burning throat

Coughing, both a causing factor and symptom of laryngitis

Dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing)

Sensation of swelling in the area of the larynx

Cold or flu-like symptoms (which, like a cough, may also be the causal factor for
laryngitis)

Swollen lymph nodes in the throat, chest, or face

Fever

Coughing out blood

shortness of breath, predominantly in children

Increased production of saliva.

In early stages, erythema (reddening) and edema of epiglottis, aryepiglottic


folds, arytenoids and ventricular folds occurs. In late stages, the vocal foldsand
subglottic structures are also involved. There are sticky secretions between cords and in

interarytenoid region. Sometimes, submucous hemorrhage is seen, especially in case of


vocal abuse. Acute membranous laryngitis, a condition resembling acute
membranous tonsillitis, is caused by pyogenic nonspecific organisms. It has to be
differentiated from laryngeal diphtheria. In some cases tightening of the chest may be
present due toCOPD or other relevant breathing disorder.

Causes

Laryngitis can be infectious as well as noninfectious in origin. Chronic laryngitis also


may be caused by more severe problems, such as nerve damage, sores, polyps, or
hard and thick lumps (nodules) on the vocal cords.

[2]

Noninfectious

Acid reflux disease, resulting in laryngitis gastrica

Allergies

Excessive or chronic coughing,[citation needed] smoking, or alcohol consumption.

Inflammation due to overuse of the vocal cords[3][4][5][6][7]

Prolonged use of inhaled corticosteroids for asthma treatment

Thermal or chemical burns

Laryngeal trauma, including iatrogenic one caused by endotracheal intubation

Infectious

Viral laryngitis can be caused by rhinovirus, influenza virus, parainfluenza


virus, adenovirus, coxsackievirus, coronavirus, and RSV.

Bacterial laryngitis can be caused by group A streptococcus,streptococcus


pneumoniae, C. diphtheriae, M. catarrhalis, haemophilus influenzae, bordetella
pertussis, bacillus anthracis, and M. tuberculosis. Bacterial infections usually follow preexisting viral infection.

Fungal laryngitis can be caused by Histoplasma, Blastomyces, Candida(especially in


immunocompromised persons), and rarely byCryptococcus and Coccidioides.

Laryngitis can occasionally lead to pneumonia, either viral pneumonia orbacterial


pneumonia.

Diagnosis

Acute laryngitis

Chronic laryngitis

Granulomatous laryngitis

Pseudomyxomatous laryngitis

Treatment

General measures: Voice rest is important.[8] Steam inhalations withtincture of benzoin or


oil of pine or eucalyptus help loosen secretions.[medical citation needed] Cough suppressants are
sometimes given to reduce cough. For a severely inflamed larynx,
a humidifier orvaporizer is used to moisten the air inhaled by person.

If laryngitis is caused by gastroesophageal reflux, an H2-inhibitor (such as ranitidine) or


proton-pump inhibitor (such as omeprazole) is used to reduce gastric acid secretions.

If laryngitis is caused by thermal or chemical burns, steroids are used.

In viral laryngitis, drinking sufficient fluids is helpful.

If laryngitis is due to a bacterial or fungal infection, appropriate antibiotic or antifungal


therapy is given.

If persistent hoarseness or loss of voice (dysphonia) is a result of vocal cord nodules,


physicians may recommend a course of treatment that may include a surgical procedure
and/or speech therapy.

Antibiotics do not appear to be very useful.[1]

Prognosis

Most cases of laryngitis are viral and resolve without treatment with sufficient voice rest.
Laryngitis, hoarseness, or breathiness that lasts for more than two weeks may signal a
voice disorder and should be followed up with a voice pathologist. This is typically
a vocology certified SLP (speech language pathologist) or a laryngologist (voice
specialized ENT).