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www.elsevier.com/locate/epsr

distribution systems using generalized instantaneous reactive power

theory

Mahesh K. Mishra, Avinash Joshi, Arindam Ghosh *

Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208 016, India

Received 2 May 2001; received in revised form 31 July 2001; accepted 12 September 2001

Abstract

This paper discusses various compensation strategies for shunt active power filters using a generalized theory of instantaneous

reactive power. A general instantaneous vector expression for filter current in terms of active and reactive powers has been

derived. The general time domain algorithm for filter reference currents in terms of source powers has been given. It is shown that

the algorithm works under balanced and unbalanced source voltages while producing a set of balanced three-phase source currents

at a desired power factor. Detailed simulation results using MATLAB have been presented to validate the proposed theory for

balanced as well as unbalanced supply voltages. 2001 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

Keywords: Shunt active power filter; Compensation algorithms; Unbalanced systems; Generalized instantaneous reactive power theory

1. Introduction

The use of power electronics has grown considerably

over the last couple of decades. This has increased the

reactive power demand and the harmonic pollution in

power industry. To eliminate these harmonics and to

improve the power quality, it is necessary to have the

proper measures and corrections for them. From this

point of view, many definitions and formulations of

reactive power have been proposed in literature [18].

Akagi et al. [1,2] provided elegant definitions of powers

for compensation, but did not consider zero sequence

components. In [5,8] zero sequence power was considered, but the formulations make the use of the h i0

transformation. As a consequence of this, the algorithm

is computation intensive. In [4], the decomposition of

currents into the orthogonal components rather than

power has been proposed.

In [7], the general definitions of reactive and active

powers have been presented. In this formulation, the

* Corresponding author. Tel.: + 91-512-597179; fax: + 91-512590063.

E-mail address: aghosh@iitk.ac.in (A. Ghosh).

the cross product of voltage and current vectors, respectively. It is further shown that the pq theory [1,2]

is a special case of these general definitions. However,

the instantaneous vector constructed for filter current in

[7] is for a special kind of compensation, where only the

total reactive power of the load is compensated. The

theory is far more powerful and provides an effective

tool for analyzing and understanding of shunt

compensators.

In this paper, the theory has been extended and a

more general vector equation for filter current has been

proposed. The equivalent time expressions give a general filter current algorithm in terms of the desired

source powers. Several types of compensations can be

obtained by suitable choice of the desired source pow-

PII: S 0 3 7 8 - 7 7 9 6 ( 0 1 ) 0 0 1 6 6 - 3

30

a three-phase, four-wire distribution system with balanced voltages. The proposed general filter current

algorithm has been modified for obtaining correct compensation when applied to a system with unbalance in

voltage magnitudes and phase angles. The modified

algorithm (Equal Current Strategy) has been verified by

simulation. For the special case of unity power factor

operation an alternative simple algorithm (Equal Resistance Strategy) has also been derived and verified by

simulation.

instantaneous reactive current vector, iq are defined as,

iap

p

ip = ibp =

7

77

i

cp

(4a)

iaq

q 7

iq = ibq =

77

icq

(4b)

reactive current vectors i.e.

2. Basic definitions

(5)

i= ip + iq

The basic definitions of various terms have been

clearly defined in [7]. However, for the sake of completeness, these definitions are reviewed below.

Consider a three-phase, four-wire system with instantaneous voltages and currents as shown in Fig. 1. In the

following, subscripts a, b and c denote the respective phases and vector quantities are shown boldfaced.

The instantaneous vectors, 7 and i are defined as follows.

6a

7 = 6b

6c

and

ia

i= ib

ic

(1)

scalar (dot) product of the vectors 7 and i, i.e.

p= 7 i= 6aia +6bib +6cic

to 7 and ip is parallel to 7.

The instantaneous apparent power s is a scalar

defined as,

s= 7 i

(6)

where
7
=

6 + 6 + 6 and
i
=

i + i +i are

the norms of the instantaneous voltage and current

vectors, respectively. The instantaneous power factor u

can be defined as ratio of active and apparent power i.e.

2

a

u=

2

b

2

c

2

a

2

b

2

c

p

s

(7)

been discussed in detail in [7].

(2)

as,

reactive powers in terms of symmetrical components

6b 6c

ib ic

qa

6c 6a

q = 7 i= qb =

ic ia

q

c

6a 6b

i

i

a b

Using theory of instantaneous symmetrical components [9], we can express source voltages and currents in

terms of sequence components. These components are

complex numbers. We have,

(3)

vector i.

Further the norm of vector q =

q 2a +q 2b + q 2c

may be sometimes used as the scalar representing the

instantaneous reactive power. Alternatively, the algebraic sum qsum =(qa +qb +qc)/

3 can also be used as

the scalar representing the total reactive power that

circulates in the three phases. An advantage of this

representation is that it can indicate the polarity of

instantaneous reactive power unlike q , which is always positive.

6sa

1 1

1

6sb =

1 a 2

3

6sc

1 a

1 6a0

a 6a1

a 2 6a2

(8)

isa

1 1

1

isb =

1 a 2

3

isc

1 a

1 ia0

a ia1

a 2 ia2

(9)

to be noted that the instantaneous vectors 7a1 and 7a2

(called instantaneous positive and negative sequence

voltages) are complex conjugate of each other and 7a0 is

a real quantity, which is zero if the voltages are balanced. These facts also apply to ia1, ia2 and ia0.

31

Using Eqs. (2), (3), (8) and (9), we can compute the

active and reactive powers in terms of instantaneous

symmetrical components. On simplification, we get,

ps = 6a0ia0 + 2Re(6a1i*a1 )

(10a)

qsa

6a1i*a1

2

Im 6a1i*a1

qs = qsb =

3 6 i*

qsc

a1 a1

ia1

j 2y/3

6a0Im ia1e

+ j 2y/3

3

i

e

a1

2

6a1

2

j 2y/3

+

ia0Im 6a1e

3

+ j 2y/3

6a1e

(10b)

pL = pL + pL

imaginary part and *, the conjugate of a complex

quantity. The relations (Eqs. (10a) and (10b)) are very

useful in explaining the compensator performance when

the system voltages are unbalanced. Similarly, the instantaneous scalar source reactive power is given by

qs sum =

= 2Im(6a1i*a1 )

qL = qL + qL = qLb = qLb + qLb

qLc qLc qLc

(10c)

6a0 and ia0 do not contribute to the qs sum. In general, qs

sum has a dc component, qs sum, and a double frequency

(100 Hz for 50 Hz fundamental) component, qs sum.

Thus only first term of Eq. (10b) contributes to the

average reactive power, qs sum.

components i.e.

p=p + p

(11a)

q= q +q

(11b)

and zero mean oscillating values of the powers. In the

following discussion, the subscripts s, L or l and f

will denote the source, load and compensator (filter),

respectively. Load currents are written with subscript

l, while load powers are written with subscript L. For

example pL denotes the average load power, qs denotes

the zero mean oscillating instantaneous reactive source

power and il denotes the instantaneous load current

vector. It should be noted that as per Eqs. (3) and

(11b),

(13)

Further, qL is the average value of qL sum, the instantaneous scalar reactive load power i.e.

qL = qL sum =

(14)

the instantaneous vector of filter reference currents in

terms of the filter active power (pf) and reactive power

(qf) is as follows

i*=

i*fp + i*fq =

f

pf7s

q 7s

+ f

7 s 7 s 7s 7 s

(15)

written in terms of the source reactive power (qs) and

active power (ps) is as follows

ps7s

q 7s

+ s

7s 7s 7s 7s

is = isp + isq =

4. General expressions for filter and source currents

(12)

(16)

four-wire compensated system is shown in Fig. 2. The

compensator is realized with three ideal current sources

i *,

fa i *

fb, i *.

fc Applying KCL at the three nodes of filter

and load coupling and expressing currents in vector

form, we get,

(17)

i*=

il is

f

the definition similar to Eq. (3). This gives the following

time domain expressions for filter currents

i*fa = ila

1

%

(18)

(19)

6 2sj

j = a,b,c

i*fb = ilb

1

%

j = a,b,c

2

sj

32

i*fc = ilc

(20)

2

sin 100yt

3

6sb = 440

2y

2

sin 100yt

3

3

6sc = 440

2

2y

sin 100yt +

3

3

6 2sj

j = a,b,c

qsb qsc]t is the source reactive power. The superscript t

denotes transpose operator.

'

'

'

6sa = 440

load: Za = 500 V, Zb = 10045 V, Zc = 7530 V;

(ii) three-phase full bridge converter with firing angle of

60.

For a given system voltages and load configuration,

the steady state load currents are computed. The computed load currents ila, ilb, ilc have been plotted in Fig.

3a. Then, the power terms pL, and qL (whose components

are qla, qlb and qlc) are computed using Eqs. (2) and (3),

respectively. Using the samples of pL, and qL, we compute

p L and q L using Moving Average Filter over half cycle

[10]. Vector q L is computed by subtracting q L from qL

using Eq. (12). The scalar average reactive power of load,

q L, is computed using Eq. (14). The active powers pL, p L

and reactive powers qL and q L are shown in Fig. 3b and

c, respectively. Thus, the power terms pL, p L, qLa, qLb, qLc,

q La, q Lb, q Lc and q L are known. These values are

substituted, according to Table 1, for ps, qsa, qsb and qsc

in Eqs. (18)(20) to generate filter reference currents so

as to achieve different compensation schemes.

All three cases of compensation given in Table 1 have

been considered for simulation. The second terms on

right hand sides of Eqs. (18)(20), corresponding to the

compensated source currents, have been plotted for these

compensation schemes. In the following figures, the

voltage waveform of phase a only has been plotted. It

has also been reduced by a factor of 20, so that its

numerical values are comparable to those of source

currents. In the following discussion, compensated

source currents refer to the currents drawn from source

after compensation.

simulated using MATLAB. The following system parameters have been considered for simulation.

5.1.1. Case 1

The source supplies the average load power (p L) and

the total or a part of the average reactive power of the

Equations (Eqs. (15) and (16)) give the filter currents

and source currents in a vector form. The alternate

equations (Eqs. (18) (20)) for reference filter currents are

equivalent to Eq. (15), but they use the desired source

powers instead of filter powers. Considering filter current

sources (Fig. 2) to be ideal, the appropriate selection of

source power terms, ps, and qsa, qsb, qsc in Eqs. (18)(20)

gives the desired compensating characteristics. The three

compensating schemes and the corresponding selection

of power terms in Eqs. (18) (20) are proposed and these

have been shown in Table 1.

The power terms in Table 1 have been defined in Eqs.

(12) (14). In Table 1, i is a factor, usually between 0 and

1, which decides the desired power factor of the source.

The relation between i and the desired phase shift

between source current and source voltage is given by,

tan =

iq

= L

Average real power supplied by source

p L

(21)

instantaneous symmetrical components in [10] can accommodate a variable source power factor. However, it

assumes that the compensator supplies the zero-oscillating load active power and a part of or total reactive

power as in Case 1. The other two cases given in Table

1 cannot be readily achieved using the algorithm of [10].

Table 1

Various compensation schemes under balanced voltages

Cases

Powers

Active and reactive powers drawn from source

1

2

3

compensator

ps

qsa

qsb

qsc

pf

qf

p L

p L

p L

iq L/3

q La

qLa

iq L/3

q Lb

qLb

iq L/3

q Lc

qLc

p L

p L

p L

qLqs

qL

0

33

Fig. 3. (a) Three-phase load currents. (b) Load active power. (c) Load reactive power.

power of the load. It is desired that the phase lag

between the source currents and the source voltages be

30 lagging. To achieve this, using Eq. (21) i is 0.67. It

is seen from Fig. 4 that the compensated source currents are sinusoidal and balanced and have a phase

angle of 30. In order to obtain unity power factor, i is

set to zero. If i is varied from 0 to 1, the power factor

angle varies from 0 to 41. The values of i larger than

unity are not desired as the power factor angle increases

even further. The source power factor can even be

made leading by choosing negative values of i.

powers are drawn from the phases. It is possible by

averaging to redistribute the total reactive power

equally among three-phases. In this situation, the compensated source currents, though distorted, will be similar in shape. The notches result from discontinuities in

p L and q L, (Fig. 3) due to ideal thyristor bridge. The

simulation of the cases 1 and 2 in Table 1, using pq

theory, has been reported in [5]. For these cases, the

simulated results given above using generalized instantaneous reactive power theory are found to be similar.

5.1.2. Case 2

The compensator compensates only for average reactive load power q L and zero mean oscillating active

power p L, while the source supplies the remaining part

i.e. q L and p L. The results are shown in Fig. 5, where

the fundamentals of source currents are seen to be in

phase with voltages. The source currents are unbalanced and non-sinusoidal due to supply of q L from the

source.

5.1.3. Case 3

The compensator supplies only the zero mean oscillating active power (p L) of the load and the rest of the

powers of load are supplied by the source. This case

arises if we want to suppress the mechanical vibrations

in the prime movers arising due to supply of p L [5]. The

source currents, shown in Fig. 6, are unbalanced and

non-sinusoidal. The fundamental components of currents also show a phase shift with respect to the source

voltages.

Thus, we can make the compensator take action on

any of the power terms q L, q L and p L, or their various

combinations. However, the average load power p L and

the losses in a real compensator always come from the

source. We can consider the cases in which the source

supplies the total load active power pL instead of p L but

this is not preferred as it results in additional distortion

in source currents.

It is observed from simulation results that in cases 2

and 3 that the source currents are unbalanced and have

not assume balanced source voltages. Thus, the proposed theory may be applied in case of the unbalanced

voltages. It has been shown in Section 6.1, that the

application of filter current algorithm (Eqs. (18)(20))

to an unbalance system results in distorted source currents. The algorithm is modified to obtain correct compensation as given in Sections 6.2 and 6.3.

The following magnitude and phase unbalance in

supply voltages have been considered.

'

6sa = 440

2

sin 100yt

3

34

'

'

2y

2

sin 100yt + 30

3

3

2

2y

sin 100yt + 10

3

3

The load currents will change accordingly. Considering

unity power factor operation, (Case 1 with i = 0 in

Table 1), the compensated source currents are shown in

Fig. 8. The load active power, pL is shown in Fig. 9.

For balanced three-phase system, with three phase balanced sinusoidal voltages and balanced sinusoidal currents, the three phase instantaneous active power is

always a constant. Similarly, the three instantaneous

reactive powers, qsa, qsb, qsc are also constant.

In a compensated system, when source voltages are

balanced, 6a0 =0. However, the load currents may be

balanced or unbalanced. But due to compensator action, the source currents become balanced, and therefore ia0 =0. Consequently, the first term of Eq. (10a)

and second and third terms of Eq. (10b) are zero and ps

and qs become constant. Thus, the compensated system

becomes a three-phase balanced system.

When voltages are unbalanced, the unbalance is

passed on to the compensator control algorithm (Eqs.

(18) (20)) and results in a particular kind of compensation. The compensator does satisfy the overall conditions imposed on it by the algorithm (Eqs. (18)(20)),

i.e. ps = p L (Fig. 9) and each component of qs is zero.

Since the voltages are unbalanced, and we constrain the

source to supply a constant power, ps, equal to the

average load power, p L, the currents distort from the

voltage unbalance, both 6a0 and ia0 are non-zero, time

varying and ia0 is also non-sinusoidal. Thus in Eq.

(10a), the first term, i.e. 6a0ia0 becomes non-sinusoidal

whose ac part is equal and opposite to ac part of the

second term. Similarly, the second and third term in

Eq. (10b) in each phase yield non-sinusoidal variations.

These non-sinusoidal variations are measure of the

distortion in source currents seen in Fig. 8. To overcome this problem the algorithm (Eqs. (18)(20)) is

modified as described in the following.

Let there be unbalance in magnitudes and in phase

angles of the supply voltages, i.e.

6sa = Vsma sin t

2y

+qb

3

(22b)

2y

+qc

3

(22c)

6sc = Vsmc sin t +

(22a)

In above, the magnitudes Vsma, Vsmb, Vsmc are unequal. The phase angles qb and qc contribute to the

phase unbalance. The algorithm given in Eqs. (18)(20)

is modified by using a fictitious set of voltages 6 %sa, 6 %sb,

6 %sc in place of the real voltages 6sa, 6sb, 6sc given by Eqs.

(22a), (22b) and (22c). The fictitious set of voltages are

balanced and are given by,

6 %sa = V %sm sin t

(23a)

35

2y

3

(23b)

2y

3

(23c)

The use of balanced voltages in the algorithm produces balanced compensated source currents as shown

in the example of Case 1 in Section 5, (Fig. 4). For

balanced compensated source currents, both sets of

voltages given by Eqs. (22a), (22b), (22c), (23a), (23b)

and (23c) above, should yield equal average real power,

p s. From this requirement, we obtain the magnitude

V %sm as,

1

3

IsmV %sm cos = (VsmaIsm cos +VsmbIsm cos( + qb)

2

2

+VsmcIsm cos( + qc))

The above equation leads to

1

V %sm = (Vsma +Vsmbhb +Vsmchc)

3

(24)

hb =

cos( + qb)

cos

and

hc =

cos( + qc)

cos

(25)

voltage 6sa and the desired compensated source current

isa. In the case of unbalance in magnitudes only i.e.

qb = qc =0, the factors hb and hc in Eq. (24) reduce to

unity and consequently V %sm is the average of the unequal magnitudes Vsma, Vsmb, Vsmc.

Based on above considerations, the modified algorithm for filter reference currents is as follows,

1

i*fa = ila

(26a)

(26b)

(26c)

qb = qc = 0, the algorithm given above converges to

that given in Eqs. (18)(20). Under balanced source

voltage conditions the algorithm given in Eqs. (26a),

(26b) and (26c) converges to that given in [10] when

operated under unity power factor condition.

The power terms in Eqs. (26a), (26b) and (26c) are

obtained from Case 1 in Table 1 and measured load

powers by the same procedure as in the case of the

balanced voltages as discussed in Section 5. With this

algorithm, considering the same parameters as in Section 6.1, the simulated results for unity power factor

operation i.e. i=0 are shown in the Figs. 10 and 11. It

is seen that the compensated source currents obtained

from the modified algorithm are balanced sinusoids,

unlike the distorted waveforms of Fig. 8.

It is to be noted that if we consider 6 %sa, 6 %sb, 6 %sc,

fictitious balanced supply voltages then the fictitious

source would supply only average load power and no

zero mean oscillating active and reactive power. But

since the actual supply has unbalance in magnitudes, so

the source supplies some zero mean oscillating active

and reactive powers as shown in Fig. 11.

The above algorithm may be referred to as Equal

Current Strategy. Similar strategies have been reported

as Sinusoidal Current Source Strategy in [8] and Equal

Current Criteria in [11]. However in [8], to find the

fictitious balanced set of voltages for control algorithm,

the complex hi0 transformations and elaborate

computations are used. In [11] the synchronous detection method is used but it is limited to the case of unity

6%

2

sj

j = a,b,c

i*fb = ilb

6%s2j

j = a,b,c

i*fc = ilc

1

%

j = a,b,c

6%

2

sj

Fig. 11. Instantaneous active and reactive powers for Equal Current

Strategy.

36

modified algorithm given above, using generalized theory is simple and considers unbalances in magnitudes

and/or phase angles. The algorithm also provides the

facility of setting the desired power factor angle, .

operation

Equal Resistance Strategy has been reported in [11].

This strategy can also be realized using generalized

algorithm (Eqs. (18) (20)) with appropriate choice of

power terms ps, qsa, qsb and qsc. One way to remove the

non-sinusoidal variations of the terms in Eqs. (10a) and

(10b) described above is to impose the following condition to the source currents.

6sa 6sb 6sc

= = = Req

isa isb isc

(27)

by the source. Inverting Eqs. (8) and (9), and applying

Eq. (27), it can be shown that 6a0 =ia0Req, 6a1 =ia1Req

and ia0 is sinusoidal. Therefore, the first term in Eq.

(10b) is zero by itself and second and third terms cancel

in each phase. Hence the vector qs and its components

qsa, qsa and qsc in Eq. (10b) become zero. Further, real

power ps Eq. (10a) consists of a dc and a sinusoidal

part in each term. Because the compensated system is

equivalent to a resistance in each phase, the power

drawn from the source is given as,

%

ps =

6 2sj

j = a,b,c

(28)

Req

Using ps from Eq. (28) and qsa =qsb =qsc =0, we get

from Eqs. (18)(20):

i*fa = ila

6sa

Req

(29a)

i*fb = ilb

6sb

Req

(29b)

6sc

Req

(29c)

i*fc = ilc

Strategy.

%

%

6 2sj=

V 2smj

j = a,b,c

j = a,b,c

(31)

%

Req =

V 2smj

j = a,b,c

2p L

(32)

phase j. Substituting Req from Eq. (32), into Eqs. (29a),

(29b) and (29c) the instantaneous reference filter current vector is given as:

6

2p L sa

il

6sb

(33)

i*=

f

% 6 2smj 6sc

j = a,b,c

(33)) tends to algorithm (Eqs. (18)(20)) for case 1 with

i= 0. The performance of the improved compensator

with voltage unbalance has been simulated using same

parameters as in Section 6.1. The compensator uses Eq.

(33) to generate the reference filter currents. The compensated source currents are shown in Fig. 12. The

active source and load powers are plotted in Fig. 13.

Comparing the source current waveforms of Figs. 8

and 12, it is seen the later has no distortion. The source

currents are purely sinusoidal and in phase with the

respective phase voltages. However, this is achieved at

the cost of drawing a particular value of zero mean

oscillating active power from the source. This is seen in

waveform of ps, which contains 100 Hz ac component

in addition to p L as shown in Fig. 13. Thus if we use the

is equated to the average load power. This gives:

%

p s =

j = a,b,c

Req

6 2sj

= p L

(30)

half cycle. For sinusoidal voltages (with or without

unbalance in magnitudes and phase angles), the following relation is true

Fig. 13. Source and load powers for Equal Resistance Strategy.

condition Eq. (27), we get improvement over the distorted source currents of Fig. 8 by redistribution of the

zero mean oscillating active power between the source

and the compensator.

37

switching losses, a feedback loop is usually included.

The reference current generation scheme can then be

suitably modified to incorporate the feedback signal as

in [10].

7. Conclusions

References

In this paper, shunt compensation algorithms based

on generalized instantaneous reactive power theory

have been proposed. The general filter current expressions (Eqs. (18)(20)) have been derived in terms of

desired source powers. Different choices of these powers in terms of the load power give rise to different

compensation schemes (Table 1). These filter current

expressions are very general and give correct compensation for balanced voltages, with or without zero sequence components. The proposed theory has been

extended for unbalanced source voltage operation by

introducing a fictitious set of system voltages, which

gives the same average load power. The modified filter

current algorithm gives correct compensation to obtain

any desired source power factor for unbalance in source

voltage magnitudes and/or phase angles. This can be

called Equal Current Strategy, as the compensated

three-phase source currents are balanced sinusoids. For

the special case of unity power factor operation, an

alternative Equal Resistance Algorithm has also been

obtained.

All these algorithms have been verified by simulation

using MATLAB. The detailed simulation results have

been given for each case. Note that algorithm can not

be directly be used when the source voltages are distorted. In this situation, fundamental extraction of distorted source voltages must be used. In the proposed

work, an ideal compensator is considered. However, a

practical compensator is usually supplied by a dc storage capacitor. The capacitor voltage is pre-charged to a

voltage that is higher than the peak of system voltage.

theory of instantaneous reactive power and its application, Electrical Engineering in Japan 103 (4) (1983) 58 65.

[2] H. Akagi, Y. Kanazawa, A. Nabae, Instantaneous reactive

power compensators comprising switching devices without energy storage components, IEEE Transactions on Industry Application 20 (3) (1984) 625 630.

[3] T. Furuhashi, S. Okuma, Y. Uchikawa, A study on the theory of

instantaneous reactive power, IEEE Transactions on Industrial

Electronics 37 (1) (1990) 86 90.

[4] J.W. Willems, A new interpretation of the Akagi Nabae power

components for nonsinusoidal three-phase situations, IEEE

Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement 41 (4) (1992)

523 527.

[5] E.H. Watanabe, R.M. Stephan, M. Aredes, New concepts of

instantaneous active and reactive powers in electrical systems

with generic loads, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery 8 (2)

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