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1.

An experiment was carried out to study the effect of particle size on the rate of reaction.
Suatu eksperimen telah dijalankan untuk mengkaji kesan saiz zarah terhadap kadar tindak
balas.

Experiment I
Eksperimen I

50 cm3 of 0.1 mol dm-3 of hydrochloric acid was


added into a conical flask containing 6.0 g of
excess larger marble chips. The total volume of
gas collected was recorded at 12 minute intervals.
50 cm3 0.1 mol dm-3 asid hidroklorik ditambah ke
dalam sebuah kelalang kon yang mengandungi 6.0
Large marble chips
g ketulan marmar besar berlebihan. Jumlah
Ketulan
marmar besar
isipadu gas yang dikumpul dicatatkan pada selang
1
2 minit.

50 cm3 of 0.1 mol dm-3 of hydrochloric acid was


added into a conical flask containing 6.0 g of
Experiment II excess smaller marble chips. The total volume of
Eksperimen I gas collected was recorded at 12 minute intervals.
50 cm3 0.1 mol dm-3 asid hidroklorik ditambah ke
dalam sebuah kelalang kon yang mengandungi 6.0
g ketulan marmar kecil berlebihan. Jumlah
isipadu gas yang dikumpul dicatatkan pada selang
1
2 minit.

Small marble chips


Ketulan marmar kecil

The result of the experiment was recorded below:


Keputusan eksperimen dicatatkan di bawah:

(a) Draw a labeled diagram of the apparatus used to carry out the experiments.
Lukiskan gambar rajah berlabel bagi radas-radas yang digunakan untuk
menjalankan eksperimen ini.

[2 marks]
[2 markah]

(b) Write a balanced chemical for the reaction between marble and hydrochloric acid.
Tulis persamaan kimia yang seimbang bagi tindak balas antara marmar dan asid
hidroklorik.
[1 mark]
[1 markah]
(c) Plot a graph of volume of gas against time for both experiments I and II on the same
axes.
Plotkan graf isipadu gas melawan masa bagi kedua-dua eksperimen I dan II pada
paksi yang sama.
[4 marks]
[4 markah]
(d)

From your graph, determine the rate of reaction for experiment (i) I (ii) II for time

1
2

minute.
Explain your result.
Daripada graf, tentukan kadar tindak balas eksperimen (i) I (ii) II bagi masa

1
2

minit.
Terangkan keputusan anda.
[2 marks]
[2 markah]
Explain why the rate of reaction is different for the two experiments.
Terangkan mengapa kadar tindak balas adalah berbeza bagi dua eksperimen
tersebut.
[2 marks]
[2 markah]
(e) Explain why the total volume of gas collected for both experiments are the same.
Terangkan mengapa jumlah isipadu gas yang dikumpul dalam kedua-dua eksperimen
adalah sama.
[1 mark]
[1 markah]
(f) The theoretical volume of gas collected is 60 cm3.
Give a reason why the experimental volume of gas collected is lower than the
theoretical value.
Isipadu gas yang dikumpul secara teori ialah 60 cm3.

Berikan satu sebab mengapa isipadu gas yang dikumpul secara eksperimen lebih
rendah berbanding nilai teori.
[1 mark]
[1 markah]
(g) The experiment was repeated by adding 50 cm 3 of 0.2 mol dm-3 of hydrochloric acid
into a conical flask containing 6.0 g of excess smaller marble chips.
What is the effect of this change on the total volume of gas collected?
Explain your answer.
Eksperimen diulang dengan menambah 50 cm3 0.2 mol dm-3 asid hidroklorik ke
dalam sebuah kelalang kon yang mengandungi 6.0 g ketulan marmar kecil
berlebihan.
Apakah kesan perubahan ini terhadap jumlah isipadu gas yang dikumpul?
Jelaskan jawapan anda.
[2 marks]
[2 markah]
2.

Three experiments were carried out to study the catalytic decomposition of hydrogen
peroxide.
Tiga eksperimen dijalankan untuk mengkaji penguraian bermangkin bagi hidrogen
peroksida.
Experiment I
Eksperimen I
Experiment II
Eksperimen II
Experiment III
Eksperimen III

: 25 cm3 of 0.2 mol dm-3 hydrogen peroxide + 2 g catalyst X.


: 25 cm3 0.2 mol dm-3 hidrogen peroksida + 2 g mangkin X.
: 25 cm3 of 0.2 mol dm-3 hydrogen peroxide + 1g catalyst X.
: 25 cm3 0.2 mol dm-3 hidrogen peroksida + 1 g mangkin X.
: 25 cm3 of 0.1 mol dm-3 hydrogen peroxide + 1g catalyst X.
: 25 cm3 0.1 mol dm-3 hidrogen peroksida + 1 g mangkin X.

(a) Name the catalyst X used in the reaction.


Namakan mangkin X yang digunakan dalam tindak balas ini.
[1 mark]
[1 markah]
(b) Write a chemical equation for the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide.
Tulis persamaan kimia bagi penguraian hidrogen peroksida.
[1 mark]
[1 markah]
(c) Suggest a method whereby the gas given out can be recorded accurately.
Cadangkan satu kaedah dimana gas yang dibebaskan dapat dicatatkan dengan tepat.

[1 mark]
[1 markah]
(d) Sketch the graphs of volume of gas collected against time on the same axes for the
three experiments.
Lakarkan graf isipadu gas yang dikumpul melawan masa pada paksi yang sama bagi
ketiga-tiga eksperimen.
[3 marks]
[3 markah]

(e) Comparing experiment I and II, which has a higher rate of reaction?
Explain your answer.
Dengan membandingkan eksperimen I dan II, yang manakah mempunyai kadar
tindak balas yang lebih tinggi?
Jelaskan jawapan anda.
[2 marks]
[1 markah]
(f) Without catalyst X the rate of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide is low.
Explain how the catalyst increases the rate of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide.
Kadar penguraian hidrogen peroksida adalah rendah tanpa mangkin X.
Jelaskan bagaimana mangkin dapat meningkatkan kadar penguraian hidrogen
peroksida.
[2 marks]
[2 markah]
(g) Suggest another method to increase the rate of decomposition of hydrogen

peroxide.
Cadangkan kaedah lain untuk meningkatkan kadar penguraian hidrogen peroksida.
[1 mark]
[1 markah]
3.

Four experiments are carried out to study the rate of reaction between magnesium ribbon
and acid solutions. The time taken for the 15 cm length of magnesium ribbon to dissolve is
recorded in the table below.
Empat eksperimen dijalankan untuk mengkaji kadar tindak balas antara pita magnesium
dan larutan asid. Masa yang diambil bagi panjang 15 cm pita magnesium untul larut
dicatatkan dalam jadual di bawah.
Experiment
Eksperimen
I

II

III

IV

Temperature /oC Time /sec


Suhu /oC
Masa /
saat
3
o
20 cm of 1.0 M ethanoic acid + 15 cm
30 C
150
magnesium ribbon.
20 cm3 1.0 M asid etanoik + 15 cm pita
magnesium.
20 cm3 of 1.0 M hydrochloric acid + 15 cm
30oC
60
magnesium ribbon.
20 cm3 1.0 M asid hidroklorik + 15 cm pita
magnesium.
20 cm3 of 1.0 M sulphuric acid + 15 cm
30oC
30
magnesium ribbon.
20 cm3 1.0 M asid sulfurik + 15 cm pita
magnesium.
20 cm3 of 1.0 M hydrochloric acid + 15 cm
30oC
42
3
magnesium ribbon + 1 cm of copper(II)
sulphate solution.
20 cm3 1.0 M asid hidroklorik + 15 cm pita
magnesium + 1 cm3 larutan kuprum(II) sulfat.
Mixtures
Campuran

(a) Write an ionic equation between an acid and magnesium metal.


Tulis persamaan ionik antara asid dan logam magnesium.
[1 mark]
[1 markah]
(b) Explain why the time of reaction for experiment II is shorter than the time of reaction
for experiment I.
Terangkan mengapa masa tindak balas bagi eksperimen II lebih pendek berbanding
masa tindak balas bagi eksperimen I.

[2 marks]
[2 markah]
(c) Explain why the time of reaction for experiment III is shorter than the time of reaction
for experiment II.
Terangkan mengapa masa tindak balas bagi eksperimen III lebih pendek berbanding
masa tindak balas bagi eksperimen II.
[2 marks]
[2 markah]
(d) Explain why the time of reaction for experiment IV is shorter than the time of reaction
for experiment II.
Terangkan mengapa masa tindak balas bagi eksperimen IV lebih pendek berbanding
masa tindak balas bagi eksperimen II.
[2 marks]
[2 markah]
(e) If experiment II is repeated but at 40oC, predict the time taken to dissolve the 15 cm
magnesium ribbon. Explain your answer above.
Jika eksperimen II diulang tetapi pada 40oC, ramalkan masa yang diambil untuk
melarutkan 15 cm pita magnesium.
Jelaskan jawapan anda di atas.
[3 marks]
[3 markah]
4.

An experiment was carried out to study the effect of concentration on the rate of reaction.
50 cm3 of 0.2 mol dm-3 sodium thiosulphate solution was poured into a conical flask. 5 cm3
of 2.0 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid was added to the sodium thiosulphate solution. The stop
watch was started. The flask was shaken and then placed on a piece of paper which was
marked X. The flask was viewed from above as shown in the diagram below.
Suatu eksperimen dijalankan untuk mengkaji kesan kepekatan terhadap kadar tindak
balas. 50 cm3 0.2 mol dm-3 larutan natrium thiosulfat dituang ke dalam sebuah kelalang
kon. 5 cm3 2.0 mol dm-3 asid hidroklorik ditambah ke dalam larutan natrium thiosulfat.
Jam randik dimulakan. Kelalang digoncang dan diletakkan pada sekeping kertas yang
ditanda X. Kelalang dilihat daripada atas seperti dalam rajah di bawah.

View from top of the conical flask


Pandangan dari atas kelalang kon

The stop watch was stopped the moment the mark X disappeared from view as shown in
the diagrams above and the time of reaction recorded. The experiment was repeated by
diluting the sodium thiosulphate solution as shown in the table below:
Jam randik dihentikan apabila tanda 'X' tidak kelihatan lagi seperti dalam rajah di atas
dan masa tindak balas dicatatkan. Eksperimen diulang dengan mencairkan larutan
natrium thiosulfat seperti dalam jadual yang ditunjukkan di bawah.
Experiment
Eksperimen
Volume of 0.2 M of Na2S2O3
solution.
0.2 M larutan Na2S2O3.
Volume of water /cm3
Isipadu air /cm3
Concentration of sodium
thiosulphate solution / M
Kepekatan larutan natrium
thiosulfat / M
Volume of 2.0 M HCl / cm3
Isipadu bagi 2.0 M HCl /
cm3
Time,t /sec
Masa, t / saat
1
/ sec-1
t
1
/ saat-1
t

II

III

IV

50

40

30

20

10

10

20

30

40

20.5

25.0

32.5

50.0

100.0

0.2

(a) Write the chemical equation for the reaction between sodium thiosulphate and
hydrochloric acid.
Tulis persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas antara natrium thiosulfat dan asid
hidroklorik.
[1 mark]
[1 markah]
(b) Calculate the concentrations of sodium thiosulphate solution for the experiments II
IV.
Hitungkan kepekatan larutan natrium thiosulfat bagi eksperimen II - IV.
[2 marks]
[2 markah]
(c)

Calculate the values of

1
for each experiment
t

Hitungkan nilai bagi

1
bagi setiap eksperimen.
t

[2 marks]
[2 markah]
(d) Plot a graph of concentration of sodium thiosulphate solution against time, t.
Plotkan graf kepekatan larutan natrium thiosulfat melawan masa, t.

[3 marks]
[3 markah]
(e) What can you conclude from the graph in (d) above?
Apakah kesimpulan yang anda boleh buat daripada graf dalam (d) di atas.
[1 mark]
[1 markah]
Plot a graph of concentration of sodium thiosulphate solution against
Plotkan graf kepekatan larutan natrium thiosulfat melawan

1
.
t

1
.
t

[2 marks]
[2 markah]
From your graph, determine the time of reaction if sodium thiosulphate solution

of concentration 0.1M is used in the reaction.


Daripada graf anda, tentukan masa tindak balas jika larutan natrium thiosulfat
dengan kepekatan 0.1 M digunakan dalam tindak balas ini.
[2 marks]
[2 markah]
What conclusion can you make from the graph above?
Apakah kesimpulan yang boleh anda buat daripada graf di atas.
[2 marks]
[2 markah]
(g) Using the collision theory, explain how concentration affects the rate of reaction.
Dengan menggunakan teori pelanggaran, terangkan bagaimana kepekatan
mempengaruhi kadar tindak balas.
[3 marks]
[3 markah]
5.

The decomposition of potassium chlorate(V) catalysed by manganese(IV) oxide is


represented by the equation below:
Penguraian kalium klorat(V) dimangkinkan oleh mangan(IV) oksida diwakili oleh
persamaan di bawah:
MnO2
2NaClO3(aq)
2NaCl(aq) + 3O2(g)

MnO2
2NaClO3(ak)

2NaCl(ak) + 3O2(g)

1.0 gram of manganese(IV) oxide was added into 50 cm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3 sodium
chlorate(V) solution at 30oC and the total volume of oxygen gas collected was recorded at
30 second intervals.
1.0 gram mangan(IV) oksida ditambah ke dalam 50 cm 3 0.5 mol dm-3 larutan natrium
klorat(V) pada 30oC dan jumlah isipadu gas oksigen yang dikumpul dicatatkan pada
selang 30 saat.
(a) Calculate the maximum number of moles of oxygen gas collected when 50 cm 3 of 0.5
mol dm-3 sodium chlorate(V) solution decomposed completely.
Hitungkan bilangan mol maksimum bagi gas oksigen yang dikumpul apabila 50 cm 3
0.5 mol dm-3 larutan natrium klorat(V) terurai dengan lengkap.
[2 marks]
[1 markah]
(b) Sketch the graph of number of moles of oxygen collected against time for the above
experiment.
Lakarkan graf bilangan mol oksigen yang dikumpul melawan masa bagi eksperimen

di atas.

[1 mark]
[1 markah]
(c) Sketch the shape of the graph obtained on the same axes as (b) if the experiments
were repeated
Lakarkan bentuk graf yang diperolehi pada pakis yang sama pada (b) jika
eksperimen diulang
at temperature of 40oC.
pada suhu 40oC.
[1 mark]
[1 markah]
by replacing the 50 cm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3 sodium chlorate(V) solution with 50
cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 sodium chlorate(V) solution
dengan menggantikan 50 cm3 0.5 mol dm-3 larutan natrium klorat(V) dengan 50
cm3 1.0 mol dm-3 larutan natrium klorat.
[1 mark]
[1 markah]
(d) How does the rate of decomposition of the oxygen gas given out changes with time?
Explain your answer.
Bagaimanakah kadar penguraian berubah dengan masa?
Terangkan jawapan anda.
[2 marks]
[2 markah]

10

(e) Suggest another substance that can be used to replace manganese(IV) oxide as
catalyst.
Cadangkan bahan lain yang boleh digunakan untuk menggantikan mangan(IV)
oksida sebagai mangkin.
[1 mark]
[1 markah]
6.

Two experiments are carried out separately:


Dua eksperimen dijalankan secara berasingan:
Experiment I : 10 g of marble chips (excess) was added into
Eksperimen I: acid with concentration X mol dm-3.
10 g ketulan marmar (berlebihan) ditambah
hidroklorik dengan kepekatan X mol dm-3.
Experiment II : 10 g of marble chips (excess) was added into
Eksperimen II: acid with concentration Y mol dm-3.
10 g ketulan marmar (berlebihan) ditambah
hidroklorik dengan kepekatan Y mol dm-3.

100 cm 3 of hydrochloric
ke dalam 100 cm 3 asid
100 cm 3 of hydrochloric
ke dalam 100 cm 3 asid

Both experiments are carried out at room temperature and pressure. The graphs of volume
of carbon dioxide gas against time for both experiments are shown below:
Kedua-dua eksperimen dijalankan pada suhu dan tekanan bilik. Graf isipadu gas karbon
dioksida melawan masa bagi kedua-dua eksperimen ditunjukkan di bawah:

(a) Which of the two experiments uses hydrochloric acid solution of lower concentration?
Explain your answer.
Antara dua eksperimen tersebut yang manakah menggunakan larutan asid
hidroklorik pada kepekatan yang lebih rendah?
Jelaskan jawapan anda.
[2 marks]

11

[2 markah]
(b) Calculate the average rate of reaction for experiment I.
Hitungkan purata kadar tindak balas bagi eksperimen I.
[1 mark]
[1 markah]
Calculate the number of mole of carbon dioxide gas collected in experiment II.
(1 mole of gas occupies a volume of 24 dm3 at room temperature and pressure).
Hitungkan bilangan mol gas karbon dioksida yang dikumpul dalam eksperimen
II.
(1 mol gas menempati isipadu 24 dm3 pada suhu dan tekanan bilik).
[1 mark]
[1 markah]
Calculate the concentration of the acid used in experiment II.
Hitungkan kepekatan asid yang digunakan dalam eksperimen II.
[3 marks]
[3 markah]
(d) Suggest two other ways to increase the rate of reaction between the marble chips and
the hydrochloric acid solutions.
Cadangkan dua cara lain untuk meningkatkan kadar tindak balas antara ketulan
marmar dan larutan asid hidroklorik.
[2 marks]
[2 markah]
(e) Explain why the total volume of carbon dioxide gas collected for both experiments is
different?
Jelaskan mengapa jumlah isipadu gas karbon dioksida yang dikumpul bagi keduadua eksperimen adalah berbeza?
[1 mark]
[1 markah]
SECTION B Restricted Response Items
Instruction: Answer all questions in this section.
7.

(a) Manganese(IV) oxide is a catalyst for the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide.


Mangan(IV) oksida ialah mangkin bagi penguraian hidrogen peroksida.

12

Define what is a catalyst.


Definisikan apakah mangkin.
[2 marks]
[2 markah]
Name two catalysts used in chemical industries.
Namakan dua mangkin yang digunakan dalam industri kimia.
[4 marks]
[4 markah]
(b) Describe an experiment to prove that manganese(IV) oxide catalyses the
decomposition of hydrogen peroxide.
Huraikan satu eksperimen untuk membuktikan bahawa mangan(IV) oksida
memangkinkan penguraian hidrogen peroksida.
[8 marks]
[8 markah]
(c) Use the Collision Theory to explain how manganese(IV) oxide catalyses the reaction.
Gunakan Teori Pelanggaran untuk menerangkan bagaimana mangan(IV) oksida
memangkinkan tindak balas.
[6 marks]
[6 markah]
8.

(a) When a solid reacts with a solution, there are three factors that can change the rate of
a reaction.
Name the three factors.
Apabila pepejal bertindak balas dengan larutan, terdapat tiga faktor yang boleh
mengubah kadar tindak balas.
Namakan tiga faktor tersebut.
[3 marks]
[3 markah]
(b) Using the reaction between zinc and hydrochloric acid as an example, describe an
experiment by which you could investigate the change in reaction rate with one of the
factors which you have mentioned in (i) above.
Your answer should include :
Dengan menggunakan tindak balas antara zink dan asid hidroklorik sebagai contoh,
huraikan satu eksperimen untuk menyiasat perubahan dalam tindak balas dengan
salah satu faktor yang anda nyatakan dalam (i) di atas. Jawapan anda mestilah
merangkumi:
(i)

Aim of your experiment


Tujuan eksperimen
[1 marks]
[1 markah]

(ii)

Procedure of the experiment


Prosedur eksperimen

13

[7 marks]
[7 markah]
(iii) Tabulation of the results
Penjadualan keputusan
[3 marks]
[3 markah]
(iv) Conclusion from your results
Kesimpulan daripada keputusan anda
[3 marks]
[3 markah]
(c) Use the Collision Theory to explain the effect of this factor on the rate of reaction.
Dengan menggunakan Teori Pelanggaran jelaskan kesan faktor itu terhadap kadar
tindak balas.
[3 marks]
[3 markah]
SECTION C
Instruction: Answer all questions in this section.
9.

Using the reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid as an example,
describe an experiment by which you could investigate the effect of concentration on the
rate of reaction. Your answer should include:
Dengan menggunakan tindak balas antara natrium thiosulfat dan asid hidroklorik
sebagai contoh, huraikan satu eksperimen yang mana anda boleh menyiasat kesan
kepekatan terhadap kadar tindak balas. Jawapan anda mestilah merangkumi:
Problem statement
Pernyataan masalah

[2 marks]
[2 markah]

Hypothesis
Hipotesis

[2 marks]
[2 markah]

State all the variables involved.


Nyatakan semua pembolehubah yang terlibat.

[3 marks]
[3 markah]

Procedure of experiment
Prosedur eksperimen

[6 marks]
[6 markah]

Tabulation of results
Penjadualan keputusan

[3 marks]
[3 markah]

Discussion of the results obtained

[4 marks]

14

Perbincangan keputusan yang diperolehi


10.

[4 markah]

A student carried out an experiment I as described below:


Seorang pelajar menjalankan eksperimen I seperti yang dihuraikan di bawah:

0.2 g of lithium was added into 200 cm 3 of water in a conical flask at room temperature
and pressure. The gas collected was recorded at 20 second intervals. The results were
tabulated below:
0.2 g litium ditambah ke dalam 200 cm3 air di dalam sebuah kelalang kon pada suhu dan
tekanan bilik. Gas yang dikumpul dicatatkan pada selang 20 saat, Keputusan
dijadualkan di bawah:
Time (sec)
Masa (saat)
Gas syringe reading (cm3)
Bacaan picagari gas (cm3)

20

40

60

80

100

250

310

355

360

360

(a) Write a chemical equation for the reaction between lithium metal and water.
Tulis persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas antara logam litium dan air.
[2 marks]
[2 markah]
(b) Plot a graph of the volume of gas evolved against time.
Plotkan graf isipadu gas yang dibebaskan melawan masa.

15

[3 marks]
[3 markah]
(c) (i) State how the reaction rate changes with time.
Nyatakan bagaimana kadar tindak balas berubah dengan masa.
[1 mark]
[1 markah]
(ii) Explain your answer.
Jelaskan jawapan anda.
[1 mark]
[1 markah]
(d) Calculate the number of moles of gas collected.
(1 mole of gas occupies a volume of 24 dm3 at room temperature and pressure)
Hitungkan bilangan mol gas yang dikumpul.
(1 mol gas menempati isipadu 24 dm3 pada suhu dan tekanan bilik)
[2 marks]
[2 markah]
(e) The experiments are repeated as stated below:
Experiment II : 0.2 g of lithium was added to 200 cm3 of water at 40oC.
Experiment III: 0.1 g of lithium was added to 200 cm3 of water at 30oC.
Sketch the shape of the graphs for each of these experiments on the same axes as
graph (b) above.
Eksperimen diulang seperti yang dinyatakan di bawah:
Eksperimen II : 0.2 g litium ditambah kepada 200 cm3 air pada 40oC.

16

Eksperimen III: 0.1 g litium ditambah kepada 200 cm3 air pada 30oC.

[4 marks]
[4 markah]
(f) (i) Name another metal that shows the same chemical property as lithium.
Namakan logam lain yang menunjukkan sifat kimia yang sama seperti litium.
[1 mark]
[1 markah]
(ii) Compare the reactivity of this metal and lithium.
Explain your answer.
Bandingkan kereaktifan logam itu dengan litium.
Jelaskan jawapan anda.
[6 marks]
[6 markah]

17