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PARANOIDPERSONALITYDISORDER
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Cooperation: Acting together for a common benet

PARANOIDPERSONALITYDISORDER
Since childhood or adolescence, was socially withdrawn because of being suspicious, feeling victimized, and bearing
grudges. This was not due to a medical or substance use disorder.

Predictions:
LastsForYears/Lifetime
Occupational-Economic:
Works poorly with others (highly critical of others, yet hypersensitive to criticism of self)
Cooperation (Critical, Quarrelsome):
Suspiciousness:
Suspects, without sufcient basis, that others are exploiting, harming, or deceiving her
Is preoccupied with unjustied doubts about the loyalty or trustworthiness of her friends or associates
Is reluctant to conde in others because of her unwarranted fear that the information will be used
maliciously against her
Reads hidden demeaning or threatening meanings into benign remarks or events
Perceives attacks on her character or reputation that are not apparent to others and is quick to react angrily
or to counterattack
Has recurrent suspicions, without justication, regarding delity of her spouse or sexual partner
Lack of Forgiveness:
Persistently bears grudges, i.e., is unforgiving of insults, injuries, or slights
Justice: N/A
Wisdom: N/A
Self-Control: N/A
Courage: N/A
Medical: N/A
High Probability Medium Probability Not Applicable

Explanation Of Terms And Symbols

What is Paranoid Personality Disorder? (Mental Health Guru)

Dr. Spiegel: What Is Paranoid Personality Disorder?

SAPASPersonalityScreeningTest

Individuals with this disorder would answer "Yes" to the red questions:

In general, do you have difculty making and keeping friends?


Would you normally describe yourself as a loner?
In general, do you trust other people? (No)
Do you normally lose your temper easily?
Are you normally an impulsive sort of person?
Are you normally a worrier?
In general, do you depend on others a lot?
In general, are you a perfectionist?

Internet Mental Health Quality of Life Scale

ClickHereForFreeDiagnosis
ExampleOfOurComputerGeneratedDiagnosticAssessment

ParanoidPersonalityDisorder301.0
This diagnosis is based on the following ndings:
Suspiciousness or paranoid ideation ( still present )
Has unjustied doubts about the loyalty or trustworthiness of friends or associates ( still
present )
Reluctant to conde in others due to unwarranted fear that this will be used against him (
still present )
Reads hidden, demeaning, or threatening meanings into benign remarks or events ( still
present )
Persistently bears grudges (i.e., is unforgiving of insults, injuries, or slights) ( still present )
Is quick to counterattack and react with anger to misperceived insults ( still present )
Is patholgically jealous regarding spouse or sexual partner ( still present )
This disorder did not exclusively occur during the course of a psychotic mental disorder
This disorder is not due to the direct physiological effects of a general medical condition
Predictions:
Individuals with Paranoid Personality are chronically suspicious, angry and hostile, and may
show disturbed thinking.
These individuals:
Are chronically suspicious, expecting that others will harm, deceive, conspire against, or
betray them
Blame their problems on other people or circumstances, and to attribute their difculties to
external factors. Rather than recognizing their own role in interpersonal conicts, they tend
to feel misunderstood, mistreated, or victimized.
Are angry or hostile and prone to rage episodes.
See their own unacceptable impulses in other people instead of in themselves, and are
therefore prone to misattribute hostility to other people.
Are controlling, oppositional, contrary, or quick to disagree, and to hold grudges.
Elicit dislike or animosity and lack close friendships and relationships.
Show disturbances in their thinking, above and beyond paranoid ideas. Their perceptions
and reasoning can be odd and idiosyncratic, and they may become irrational when strong
emotions are stirred up, to the point of seeming delusional.
(Note: "Predictions" is only available in the therapist version of the
computerized assessment.)
TreatmentGoals:

Goal: be more trusting of others.


If this problem persists: She will continue to assume that other people will exploit, harm,
or deceive her, even when there is no evidence to support these suspicions. She will
continue to feel that she has been deeply hurt by another person even when there is no
evidence for this.
Goal: stop questioning friends' loyalty.
If this problem persists: She will continue to be preoccupied with unjustied doubts about
the loyalty or trustworthiness of her friends and associates, and continue to minutely
scrutinize their behavior for evidence of betrayal or hostile intentions.
Goal: conde more in others.
If this problem persists: She will continue to be reluctant to conde in or become close to
others because of her fear that the information she shares will be used against her.
Goal: stop reading hidden, demeaning, or threatening meanings into benign events.
If this problem persists: She will continue to misread honest mistakes made by others as
deliberate attempts to harm her. She may also continue to misinterpret compliments as
criticisms of her. Likewise, she may view an offer of help as a criticism that she is not
doing well enough on her own.
Goal: be more forgiving of others.
If this problem persists: She will continue to bear grudges and be unwilling to forgive the
slights that she thinks she has received. Minor slights will continue to arouse major
hostility.
Goal: don't react with anger to perceived insults.
If this problem persists: She will continue to be quick to counterattack and react with anger
to perceived insults.
Goal: stop being so jealous.
If this problem persists: She will continue to be pathologically jealous, often suspecting
that her romantic partner is unfaithful without any adequate justication.

DiagnosticFeatures
Individuals with Paranoid Personality Disorder grow up having excessive distrust and suspiciousness. The core
feature of this disorder is detachment (suspiciousness). This disorder is only diagnosed if: (1) it begins no later than
early adulthood, (2) these behaviors occur at home, work, and in the community, and (3) these behaviors lead to
clinically signicant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. This
disorder should not be diagnosed if its symptoms occur exclusively during the course of a Psychotic Disorder, or if it
is attributable to Substance Use Disorder another medical condition.
Individuals with Paranoid Personality Disorder falsely believe that they are being victimized by others. They are highly
critical of others, yet hypersensitive to criticism of themselves. They bear grudges and are unwilling to forgive the
insults that they think they have received. Minor slights arouse major hostility, and the hostile feelings persist for a
long time. Their combative and suspicious nature may elicit a hostile response in others, which then serves to conrm
their original expectations. They may be pathologically jealous.
Like all personality disorders, Paranoid Personality Disorder is a deeply ingrained and enduring behavior pattern,
manifesting as an inexible response to a broad range of personal and social situations. This behavior represents an
extreme or signicant deviation from the way in which the average individual in a given culture relates to others. This
behavior pattern tends to be stable.
Course
Paranoid Personality Disorder may be rst apparent in childhood and adolescence with solitariness, poor peer

relationships, social anxiety, underachievement in school, hypersensitivity, and peculiar thoughts and language. These
children may appear to be odd or eccentric and attract teasing. The course of this disorder is chronic.
Complications
Individuals with Paranoid Personality Disorder are generally difcult to get along with and often have problems with
close relationships because of their excessive suspiciousness and hostility. They usually are unable to collaborate well
with others at work. They may have a need to have a high degree of control over those around them. They are
reluctant to conde in or become close to others because they fear that the information they share will be used against
them. They may be litigious and frequently become involved in legal disputes.
Their combative and suspicious nature may elicit a hostile response in others, which then serves to conrm their
original expectations. They are often rigid, and critical of others, although they have great difculty accepting
criticism themselves. They may exhibit thinly hidden, unrealistic grandiose fantasies, are often attuned to issues of
power and rank, and tend to develop negative stereotypes of others, particularly those from population groups distinct
from their own. More severely affected individuals with Paranoid Personality Disorder may be perceived by others as
fanatics and form tightly knit cults or groups with others who share their paranoid beliefs.
Comorbidity
Some other disorders frequently occur with this disorder:
NonPersonalityDisorders

Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders:


This disorder may be a premorbid antecendent of a psychotic
disorder. In response to stress, individuals with this disorder may
experience very brief psychotic episodes (lasting minutes to hours).
If the psychotic episode lasts longer, this disorder may actually
develop into delusional disorder or schizophrenia.
Depressive Disorders:
Major depressive disorder
Anxiety Disorders:
Agoraphobia
Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders:
Obsessive-compulsive disorder
Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders:
Alcohol and other substance use disorder frequently occur
PersonalityDisorders

Negative Emotion Cluster:


Avoidant personality disorder
Detachment Cluster:
Schizoid and schizotypal personality disorders
Note: Paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal personality disorders are
all closely related since they all share the same core feature of
detachment. If an individual has one of these detached personality
disorders, they are very likely to have another.
Antagonism Cluster:
Narcissistic, borderline personality disorders
AssociatedLaboratoryFindings
No laboratory test has been found to be diagnostic of this disorder.
Prevalence
The prevalence of Paranoid Personality Disorder is 2.3%-4.4% of the general population. It occurs more commonly in
males.
Outcome
Paranoid Personality Disorder is chronic.
FamilialPattern

Paranoid Personality Disorder is more common among rst-degree biological relatives of those with Schizophrenia
and Delusional Disorder, Persecutory Type.
ControlledClinicalTrialsOfTherapy
Click here for a list of all the controlled clinical trials of therapy for this disorder.
Psychotherapy
The effectiveness of psychotherapy for Paranoid Personality Disorder is unknown because there are no randomized
controlled trials of therapy. Individuals with this disorder seldom voluntarily present for treatment. Most therapists
believe that Paranoid Personality Disorder is very difcult to treat.
Pharmacotherapy
There are currently no medications approved by the FDA to treat this disorder. Vitamins and dietary supplements are
ineffective for all Personality Disorders.

ADangerousCult

Scientology Secret Lives L Ron Hubbard

Exposing Scientology: The Secret Life of L Ron Hubbard (Full documentary)

DiagnosticCriteria
Paranoid Personality Disorder F60.0 - ICD10 Description, World Health Organization
Paranoid personality disorder is characterized by excessive sensitivity to setbacks, unforgiveness of
insults; suspiciousness and a tendency to distort experience by misconstruing the neutral or friendly
actions of others as hostile or contemptuous; recurrent suspicions, without justication, regarding the
sexual delity of the spouse or sexual partner; and a combative and tenacious sense of personal rights.
There may be excessive self-importance, and there is often excessive self-reference.
ICD-10 Diagnostic Criteria (For Research) And IPDE Questions:
A. The general criteria of personality disorder must be met:

Evidence that the individual's characteristic and enduring patterns of inner


experience and behavior deviate markedly as a whole from the culturally
expected and accepted range (or 'norm').
The deviation must manifest itself pervasively as behavior that is inexible,
maladaptive, or otherwise dysfunctional across a broad range of personal and
social situations (i.e. not being limited to one specic 'triggering' stimulus or
situation).
There is personal distress, or adverse impact on the social environment, or both,
clearly attributable to the behavior.
There must be evidence that the deviation is stable and of long duration, having
its onset in late childhood or adolescence.
The deviation cannot be explained as a manifestation or consequence of other
adult mental disorders.
Organic brain disease, injury, or dysfunction must be excluded as possible cause
of the deviation.
B. At least four of the following must be present:
Excessive sensitivity to setbacks and rebuffs.
(E.g., "I don't react well when someone offends me.")
(Donald Trump quotes: "For many years I've said that if someone
screws you, screw them back. When somebody hurts you, just go
after them as viciously and as violently as you can." [How to Get
Rich, 2004)] ... "But when somebody tries to sucker punch me, when
they're after my ass, I push back a hell of a lot harder than I was
pushed in the rst place. If somebody tries to push me around, he's
going to pay a price. Those people don't come back for seconds. I
don't like being pushed around or taken advantage of." [Playboy,
March 1990])
Tendency to bear grudges persistently, e.g. unforgiveness of insults, injuries or
slights.
(E.g., "I've held grudges against people for years.")
(Donald Trump quote: "When you have an enemy, you have to f--them, and spend your whole life f------ them, and when you have a
friend, you love them, and nobody exists in the middle." [New York
Magazine 9 November 1992])
Suspiciousness and a pervasive tendency to distort experience by misconstruing
the neutral or friendly actions of others as hostile or contemptuous.
(E.g., "I don't believe most people are fair and honest with me.")
(Donald Trump quotes: "People are too trusting. I'm a very
untrusting guy." [Playboy, March 1990] ... "The world is a horrible
place. Lions kill for food, but people kill for sport. People try to kill
you mentally, especially if you are on top. We all have friends that
want everything we have. They want our money, our business, house,
car, wife and dog. Those are our friends. Our enemies are even
worse! You have to protect yourself in life." [Trump's book: "Think
Big And Kick Ass" 2007])
A combative and tenacious sense of personal rights out of keeping with the
actual situation.
(E.g., "I ght for my rights even when it annoys people.")
(5 of Donald Trump's craziest lawsuits)

Recurrent suspicions, without justication, regarding sexual delity of spouse


or sexual partner.
(E.g., "I think my spouse (or lover) is unfaithful to me.")
Persistent self-referential attitude, associated particularly with excessive selfimportance.
(E.g., "People often make fun of me behind my back.")
(Donald Trump quote: "The press portrays me as a wild
amethrower. In actuality, I think I'm much different from that. I
think I'm totally inaccurately portrayed." [New Yorker, May 19,
1997])
Preoccupation with unsubstantiated "conspiratorial" explanations of events
around the subject or in the world at large.
(E.g., "I'm convinced there is a conspiracy behind many things that
happen in the world.")
(Donald Trump quotes: "Donald J. Trump is calling for a total and
complete shutdown of Muslims entering the United States until our
country's representatives can gure out what is going on." [Trump
website 7 December 2015] ... "What can be simpler or more
accurately stated? The Mexican Government is forcing their most
unwanted people into the United States. They are, in many cases,
criminals, drug dealers, rapists, etc." [Business Insider 6 July 2015]
... "The concept of global warming was created by and for the
Chinese in order to make U.S. manufacturing non-competitive."
[Twitter, Nov. 6, 2012])

Paranoid Personality Disorder - Diagnostic Criteria, American Psychiatric Association


An individual diagnosed with paranoid personality disorder needs to show at least 4 of the following
criteria:
Suspects, without sufcient basis, that others are exploiting, harming, or deceiving him or
her.
Is preoccupied with unjustied doubts about the loyalty or trustworthiness of friends or
associates.
Is reluctant to conde in others because of unwarranted fear that the information will be
used maliciously against him or her.
Reads hidden demeaning or threatening meanings into benign remarks or events.
Persistently bears grudges, i.e., is unforgiving of insults, injuries, or slights.
Perceives attacks on his or her character or reputation that are not apparent to others and
is quick to react angrily or to counterattack.
Has recurrent suspicions, without justication, regarding delity of spouse or sexual
partner.
This enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior must deviate markedly from the
expectations of the individual's culture.
This enduring pattern is inexible and pervasive across a broad range of personal and social
situations.
This enduring pattern leads to clinically signicant distress or impairment in social, occupational,
or other important areas of functioning.

EmpiricallyDerivedTaxonomyforPersonalityDiagnosis:ParanoidPersonality
Disorder
(This section uses an alternative classication system to that of the American Psychiatric Association)
HowParanoidPersonalityDiffersFromOtherPersonalityDisorders

Individuals with Paranoid Personality are chronically suspicious, angry and hostile, and may show
disturbed thinking.
These individuals:
Are chronically suspicious, expecting that others will harm, deceive, conspire against, or
betray them
Blame their problems on other people or circumstances, and to attribute their difculties to
external factors. Rather than recognizing their own role in interpersonal conicts, they
tend to feel misunderstood, mistreated, or victimized.
Are angry or hostile and prone to rage episodes.
See their own unacceptable impulses in other people instead of in themselves, and are
therefore prone to misattribute hostility to other people.
Are controlling, oppositional, contrary, or quick to disagree, and to hold grudges.
Elicit dislike or animosity and lack close friendships and relationships.
Show disturbances in their thinking, above and beyond paranoid ideas. Their perceptions
and reasoning can be odd and idiosyncratic, and they may become irrational when strong
emotions are stirred up, to the point of seeming delusional.

HowParanoidPersonalityDisorderDiffersFromAHealthyPersonality
Characteristics of a healthy vs. unhealthy personality:
In This Disorder: Severe Problem Moderate Problem Mild or No Problem
Cooperation (Agreeableness):
People with a healthy personality have:
Trust:
Trusting the loyalty and good intentions of signicant others (e.g., family,
friends).
Forgiveness:
Forgiving other peoples' mistakes; not bearing grudges or seeking revenge.
Gratitude:
Being thankful for the good things in life; expressing thanks to others.
Humility:
Being humble (not arrogant, boastful or excessively proud).
Cooperation And Generosity:
Cooperating with others and doing a fair share of the work; unselshly helping
others.
Kindness:
Being a kind, considerate, loving person; feeling another's suffering & wanting
to alleviate it.
People with an unhealthy personality have:
Callousness:
Lack of concern for feelings or problems of others; lack of guilt or remorse
about the negative or harmful effects of one's actions on others.
Grandiosity:
Exaggerated sense of self-importance; feelings of entitlement, either overt or
covert; self-centeredness; rmly holding to the belief that one is better than
others; condescension toward others.
Manipulativeness:
Frequent use of subterfuge to inuence or control others; use of seduction,
charm, glibness, or ingratiation to achieve one's ends.

Hostility:
Persistent or frequent angry feelings; anger or irritability in response to minor
slights and insults; mean, nasty, or vengeful behavior.
Suspiciousness:
Expectations of - and heightened sensitivity to - signs of interpersonal ill-intent
or harm; doubts about loyalty and delity of others; feelings of persecution.
Justice (Conscientiousness):
People with a healthy personality have:
Respect:
Treating others with respect and making them feel appreciated.
Responsibility:
Being reliable and careful; being able to accept blame, heed correction and
make amends.
Honesty:
Not lying, stealing or cheating.
Caution:
Thinking carefully before acting or speaking; being cautious.
Moderation:
Setting realistic goals; accepting "good enough" rather than demanding
perfection.
Work-Life Balance:
Maintaining a proper balance between work and the rest of life.
Flexibility:
Willingness to try new things; ability to tolerate normal disorder; taking
reasonable risks.
People with an unhealthy personality have:
Low Conscientiousness:
Deceitfulness:
Dishonesty and fraudulence; misrepresentation of self; embellishment or
fabrication when relating events.
Irresponsibility:
Disregard for - and failure to honor - nancial and other obligations or
commitments; lack of respect for - and lack of follow-through on - agreements
and promises.
Reckless Risk Taking:
Engagement in dangerous, risky, and potentially self-damaging activities,
unnecessarily and without regard for consequences; boredom proneness and
thoughtless initiation of activities to counter boredom; lack of concern for one's
limitations and denial of the reality of personal danger.
Impulsivity:
Acting on the spur of the moment in response to immediate stimuli; acting on a
momentary basis without a plan or consideration of outcomes; difculty
establishing and following plans; a sense of urgency and self-harming behavior
under emotional distress.
Inappropriate Seductiveness:
Inappropriate sexually seductive or provocative behavior.
Extreme Conscientiousness:
Rigid Perfectionism:
Rigid insistence on everything being awless, perfect, and without errors or
faults, including one's own and others' performance; sacricing of timeliness to
ensure correctness in every detail; believing that there is only one right way to
do things; difculty changing ideas and/or viewpoint; preoccupation with
details, organization and order.
Perseveration:
Persistence at tasks long after the behavior has ceased to be functional or
effective; continuance of the same behavior despite repeated failures.
Wisdom (Openness To Experience):
People with a healthy personality have:
Lucidity:

Ability to see things clearly, rationally, and sanely.


Intelligence:
Normal capacity for reasoning, problem solving, planning, abstract thinking,
judgment, academic learning, and learning from experience.
People with an unhealthy personality have:
Cognitive and Perceptual Dysregulation:
Odd or unusual thought processes; vague, circumstantial, metaphorical,
overelaborate, or stereotyped thought or speech; odd sensations in various
sensory modalities.
Unusual Beliefs And Experiences:
Thought content and views of reality that are viewed by others as bizarre or
idiosyncratic; unusual experiences of reality.
Eccentricity:
Odd, unusual, or bizarre behavior or appearance; saying unusual or
inappropriate things.
Self-Control (Extraversion):
People with a healthy personality have:
Sociability:
Being gregarious, energetic and outgoing; interested in social contacts and
activities.
Emotional Expressiveness:
Normal range of emotional experience and expression.
People with an unhealthy personality have:
High Extraversion
Attention Seeking:
Excessive attempts to attract and be the focus of the attention of others;
admiration seeking.
Inappropriate Seductiveness:
Inappropriate sexually seductive or provocative behavior.
Low Extraversion
Withdrawal:
Preference for being alone to being with others; reticence in social situations;
avoidance of social contacts and activity; lack of initiation of social contact.
Intimacy Avoidance:
Avoidance of close or romantic relationships, interpersonal attachments, and
intimate sexual relationships.
Diminished Emotional Expression:
Little reaction to emotionally arousing situations; constricted emotional
experience and expression; indifference or coldness.
Ahedonia:
Lack of enjoyment from, engagement in, or energy for life's experiences; decits
in the capacity to feel pleasure or take interest in things.
Courage (vs. Neuroticism):
People with a healthy personality have:
Courage:
Ability to condently face adversity and enjoy challenges.
Serenity:
Being calm, peaceful, or tranquil.
Happiness:
Feelings of contentment and pleasure in accomplishing things; optimism about
the future; feelings of adequate self-worth.
Independence:
Ability to function without being dependent on others.
Assertiveness:
Ability to assert oneself effectively and appropriately when necessary.
People with an unhealthy personality have:
Anxiousness:

Intense feelings of nervousness, tenseness, or panic, often in reaction to social


situations; worry about the negative effects of past unpleasant experiences and
future negative possibilities; feeling fearful, apprehensive, or threatened by
uncertainty; fears of embarrassment; fears of falling apart or losing control.
Social Anxiety:
Marked fear or anxiety when exposed to potentially humiliating or
embarrassing social situations.
Separation Anxiety:
Fears of rejection by - and/or separation from - signicant others.
Emotional Lability:
Unstable emotional experiences and frequent mood changes; emotions that are
easily aroused, intense, and/or out of proportion to events and circumstances.
Loneliness:
Frequent feelings of being left out or isolated from others, or feeling a lack of
companionship.
Depressed Mood:
Frequent feelings of being down, miserable, and/or hopeless; difculty
recovering from such moods; pessimism about the future; pervasive shame,
feelings of inferior self-worth; thoughts of suicide and suicidal behavior.
Dependency:
Needs others to assume responsibility for most major areas of one's life; goes to
excessive lengths to obtain nurturance and support from others.
Submissiveness:
Marked tendency to submit or yield to the authority of another; unresistingly
obedient.

LackOfSocialSkillsInPersonalityDisorders
There are certain social skills that are essential for healthy social functioning. Individuals with paranoid personality
disorder lack the essential social skills of trust, forgiveness, and gratitude.
SocialSkillsThatAreLackingInParanoidPersonalityDisorder

SOCIAL SKILL

PARANOID
PERSONALITY

Trust

Suspiciousness

Forgiveness

Bearing grudges

Gratitude

Feeling victimized

NORMAL
Trusting the loyalty and good intentions of
signicant others (e.g., family, friends)
Forgiving other peoples mistakes; not bearing
grudges or seeking revenge
Being thankful for the good things in life;
expressing thanks to others

WhichBehavioralDimensionsAreInvolved?
The ancient Greek civilization lasted approximately 3,000 years (16th century BC to 15th century AD). The ancient
Greek philosophers taught that the 5 pillars of their civilization were: cooperation, justice, wisdom, self-control, and
courage. Research has shown that these 5 themes are basic dimensions of personality disorders and other mental
disorders. This website uses these 5 major dimensions of human behavior to describe all mental disorders. [Whenever
possible, the more easily understood Greek concept (e.g., "Cooperation") is used instead of the "Big 5" personality
dimension name (e.g., "Agreeableness")]
WhatAreThe5majordimensionsofhumanbehavior?

ANCIENT GREEK CONCEPT


Cooperation
Justice
Wisdom
Self-Control
Courage
Cooperation(Agreeableness):

"BIG 5" PERSONALITY TRAITS


Agreeableness
Conscientiousness
Openness
Extraversion
Neuroticism

Sympathetic, Warm (High Agreeableness):


Sympathetic, warm, kind, cooperative, altruistic, empathetic, polite.
Critical, Quarrelsome (Low Agreeableness):
Unsympathetic, cold, rude, harsh.
Cooperation is dependent upon individuals acting in agreement. Agreeable, cooperative individuals are
sympathetic, warm, kind, altruistic, empathetic, and polite. Disagreeable, uncooperative individuals are
unsympathetic, cold, rude, and harsh (e.g., Paranoid Personality Disorder). [Research in neuroscience has
shown that cooperation (the "Big 5" personality trait of "agreeableness") covaried with volume in regions
that process information about the intentions and mental states of other individuals.]
Justice(Conscientiousness):

Dependable, Self-disciplined (High Conscientiousness):


Organized, efcient, systematic, practical, industrious, diligent, constrained.
Disorganized, Careless (Low Conscientiousness):
Disorganized, sloppy, inefcient, careless.
In life there is a constant struggle between good and evil; hence there is a need for justice. Justice means
neither to harm nor to be harmed. Human behavior is governed by conscience - an inner sense of what is
right or wrong - which guides conscientious behavior. Conscientious, careful, responsible people follow the
rules, conform to norms, think before acting, and control their impulses. They set clear goals and pursue
them with determination; they are reliable and hard-working. Unconscientious, careless, irresponsible
people are disorderly, frivolous, and undependable. They lack clear life goals and the motivation to purse
them (e.g., Antisocial Personality Disorder). In contrast to the chaotic, undercontrolled life of individuals
with Antisocial Personality Disorder, is the highly ordered, overcontrolled life of individuals with
Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder. Individuals with Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder
are overly conscientious, perfectionistic, scrupulous and meticulous. [Research in neuroscience has shown
that justice (the "Big 5" personality trait of "conscientiousness") covaried with volume in lateral prefrontal
cortex, a region involved in planning and the voluntary control of behavior.]
Wisdom(Openness):

Open To New Experiences, Complex (High Openness):


Creative, imaginative, philosophical, intellectual, complex, curious.
Conventional, Uncreative (Low Openness):
Uncreative, unintellectual.
Individuals that are open to new experience are creative, imaginative, philosophical, intellectual, complex,
and curious. They nd it easy to think in symbols and abstractions (hence excel in mathematical, logical or
geometric thinking). They often excel in literature, music composition or performance, or in the visual or
performing arts. They love to play with ideas, and debate intellectual issues. Individuals that are
conventional and uncreative are conforming and prefer dealing with either people or things rather than
ideas. They have narrow, commonplace interests, and they prefer the plain and obvious over the complex
and subtle. Their minds are closed and resistant to change. Wisdom can be impaired by physical brain
disorders (that characteristically present with distractibility, confusion, irrationality, developmental delay
and/or multiple cognitive decits).
SelfControl(Extraversion):

Extraverted, Enthusiastic (High Extravertion):


Talkative, extroverted, bold, energetic, emotionally positive, enthusiastic, sociable, assertive.
Reserved, Quiet (Low Extraversion = Introversion):
Shy, quiet, bashful, withdrawn.
People differ in how gregarious they are in social groups. Extraverted, enthusiastic people are talkative,
bold, energetic, emotionally positive, and sociable. Whereas reserved, quiet people (introverts) are aloof
and lack the exuberance, energy, and activity of the talkative, assertive extraverts. Introverts tend to be lowkey, deliberate, and disengaged from the social world. Self-control is required to avoid being too
gregarious (e.g., Histrionic Personality Disorder) or too quiet and reserved (e.g., Avoidant Personality
Disorder). [Research in neuroscience has shown that self-control (the "Big 5" personality trait of
"extraversion") covaried with volume of medial orbitofrontal cortex, a brain region involved in processing
reward information.]

Courage(vs.Neuroticism)

Calm, Emotionally Stable (Low Neuroticism):


Unenvious, relaxed.
Anxious, Easily Upset (High Neuroticism):
Moody, jealous, tempermental, envious, touchy, fretful, emotionally negative, anxious,
vulnerable, irritable.
Human survival requires the right balance between courage and fear. Individuals with an optimal level of
courage are stable and calm; they do not emotionally over-react to stress. Individuals with too much
courage, and not enough fear, become reckless, and this usually leads to failure. Events or genetics can rob
individuals of their courage. Thus they over-react emotionally to stress, and their fear or despair usually
leads to failure. Low levels of emotional stability are seen in Anxiety Disorders and Depressive Disorders.
[Research in neuroscience has shown that low courage (the "Big 5" personality trait of "neuroticism")
covaried with volume of brain regions associated with threat, punishment, and negative affect.]
WhatMajorDimensionsofPsychopathologyAreAbnormalInParanoidPersonalityDisorder?

Paranoid Personality Disorder:


Cooperation (Critical, Quarrelsome):
Suspiciousness:
Suspects, without sufcient basis, that others are exploiting, harming, or
deceiving her
Is preoccupied with unjustied doubts about the loyalty or
trustworthiness of her friends or associates
Is reluctant to conde in others because of her unwarranted fear that the
information will be used maliciously against her
Reads hidden demeaning or threatening meanings into benign remarks or
events
Perceives attacks on her character or reputation that are not apparent to
others and is quick to react angrily or to counterattack
Has recurrent suspicions, without justication, regarding delity of her
spouse or sexual partner
Lack of Forgiveness:
Persistently bears grudges, i.e., is unforgiving of insults, injuries, or
slights

The"Big5"DimensionsofPersonalityandPersonalityDisorders
Research has shown that most human personality traits can be boiled down to ve broad dimensions of personality,
regardless of language or culture. These "Big 5" dimensions of personality are: I - Extraversion; II - Agreeableness; III
- Conscientiousness; IV - Neuroticism (the opposite of Emotional Stability); V - Intellect or Openness. There are two
free online personality tests that assess your personality in terms of the "Big 5" dimensions of personality. The
following diagram shows the relationship between the "Big 5" dimensions of personality and personality disorders.
This diagram is based on the research of Sam Gosling, Jason Rentfrow, and Bill Swann, Gerard Saucier, Colin G.
DeYoung, and Douglas Samuel and Thomas Widiger.

Enlarge Image

Enlarge Image
"Big5"PersonalityDimensionofLowAgreeableness
In personality testing, individuals with Paranoid Personality Disorder often have a low agreeableness test score.

Enlarge Image
"High Agreeableness"
The (BFAS) "Big-5" personality dimension of "high agreeableness" is associated with:
Feel others' emotions
Inquire about others' well-being
Sympathize with others' feelings
Take an interest in other people's lives
Like to do things for others
Respect authority
Hate to seem pushy
Avoid imposing my will on others
Rarely put people under pressure
"Low Agreeableness"
The (BFAS) "Big-5" personality dimension of "low agreeableness" is associated with:
Am not interested in other people's problems
Can't be bothered with other's needs
Am indifferent to the feelings of others
Take no time for others
Don't have a soft side
Believe that I am better than others
Take advantage of others
Insult people
Seek conict
Love a good ght
Am out for my own personal gain
OtherPersonalityDisordersWithLowAgreeablenessScores
Low agreeableness scores are also seen in individuals with Narcissistic or Antisocial Personality Disorders.

Cleopatra Seducing Caesar and Mark Antony


In the "low agreeableness cluster" (of Narcissistic + Paranoid + Antisocial/Psychopathic Personality Disorders), the
males tend to be like Caesar and have more antisocial/psychopathic behaviors; whereas the females tend to be like
Cleopatra and have more narcissistic behaviors. The core feature of this cluster of personality disorders is lack of
empathy. These individuals seem to be unconcerned about how their actions harm or upset others.

TheCoreFeaturesOfThe"LowAgreeablenessCluster"OfPersonalityDisorders

manipulativeness:
In the past week, did you "con" or take advantage of someone?
callousness:
In the past week, did you harm someone, but not care?
deceitfulness:
In the past week, did you lie, steal, or cheat?
hostility:
In the past week, were you actively hostile towards someone?
attention-seeking:
In the past week, did you go out of your way to be the center of attention?
grandiosity:
In the past week, did you treat others as if they were inferior to you?
TyrantsHaveADangerousCombinationofPersonalityDisorders

All of history's worst tyrants had the same combination of Narcissistic + Paranoid + Psychopathic (Antisocial)
Personality Disorders.
SocialSkillsThatAreLackingInHistory'sWorstDictators

PERSONALITY
DISORDER
Paranoid Personality

LACKING

LACKING

LACKING

Trust (had

Gratitude (had
Forgiveness (had feeling

suspiciousness) bearing grudges) victimized)

Narcissistic Personality

Humility (had
arrogance)

Antisocial/Psychopathic Respect (had


Personality
disrespect)

Cooperation or
generosity (had
being
manipulative or
greedy)
Responsibility
(had
irresponsibility)

Kindness (had
callousness)

Honesty (had
dishonesty)

Given the amount of harm that these dictators created (e.g., Hitler, Mussolini, Stalin, Mao); it could be argued that the
social skills that dictators lack are the most important of all the social skills. Thus it should come as no surprise that
all of the world's religions emphasize the importance of these social skills (e.g., trust, forgiveness, gratitude, humility,
cooperation, generosity, kindness, respect, responsibility, and honesty).
The Rise of a Tyrant
In the beginning, the tyrant's followers believe that the tyrant's narcissism represents a condent, "strong man" who
would lead their nation to greatness. The tyrant uses his own paranoia to mobilize his followers' fears and anger
toward "the enemy". Once the tyrant gains political power, his deadly psychopathic (antisocial) traits become more
apparent. After gaining political power, the tyrant centralizes all political, military and economic power around
himself and his cronies. The tyrant nally solidies his power by killing all those that oppose him.
Thus narcissistic-paranoid-psychopathic individuals should never be allowed to gain political power because of
the great danger that they will become tyrants.

The "Tyrant Triad" Combination of Narcissistic + Paranoid + Psychopathic (Antisocial) Personality Disorders

AGoodLife(HighAgreeablenessandConscientiousness)
How does one live a good life?
One approach to answering this question is to study the behavior of individuals who live troubled lives. Could the
opposite of their maladaptive personality traits dene how to live a good life?
Research has shown that academic, vocational, economic, marital and social failure - plus crime - correlate highly to
individuals having low scores on the Agreeableness and Conscientiousness personality dimensions. The personality
disorders that have the lowest scores on the Agreeableness personality dimension are the Paranoid, Narcissistic and
Antisocial Personality Disorders. The two personality disorders that have the lowest scores on the Conscientiousness
personality dimension are the Antisocial and Emotionally Unstable (Borderline) Personality Disorders.
Could the opposite of the personality traits seen in Paranoid, Narcissistic, Antisocial and Emotionally Unstable
(Borderline) Personality Disorder be a clue as to how to live a good life? If so, the right side of the following table
would dene a good life. (This table uses DSM-5 diagnostic criteria.)
The Opposite Of Paranoid Personality
Disorder
Antagonism, Suspiciousness:
Altruism, Trust:
Does not suspect, without sufcient basis, that
Suspects, without sufcient basis, that others
others are exploiting, harming, or deceiving
are exploiting, harming, or deceiving her
him or her
Is preoccupied with unjustied doubts about
Is not preoccupied with unjustied doubts
the loyalty or trustworthiness of friends or
about the loyalty or trustworthiness of her
associates
friends or associates
Is reluctant to conde in others because of
Condes in others without unwarranted fear
unwarranted fear that the information will be that the information will be used maliciously
used maliciously against him or her
against her
Reads hidden demeaning or threatening
Does not read hidden demeaning or threatening
meanings into benign remarks or events
meanings into benign remarks or events
Has recurrent suspicions, without justication, Does not doubt, without justication, the
regarding delity of spouse or sexual partner delity of her spouse or sexual partner
Perceives attacks on his or her character or
Does not perceive attacks on her character or
reputation that are not apparent to others and is
reputation that are not apparent to others
quick to react angrily or to counterattack
Lack Of Forgiveness:
Forgiveness:
Persistently bears grudges, i.e., is unforgiving Does not bear grudges, i.e., is forgiving of
Paranoid Personality Disorder

of insults, injuries, or slights

insults, injuries, or slights


The Opposite Of Narcissistic Personality
Narcissistic Personality Disorder
Disorder
False Sense Of Superiority:
Humility:
Doesn't exaggerate own achievements and
Has a grandiose sense of self-importance
talents
Has realistic goals (e.g., isn't preoccupied with
Is preoccupied with grandiose fantasies
fantasies of unlimited success, power,
brilliance, beauty, or ideal love)
Doesn't show arrogant, haughty behavior or
Shows arrogant, haughty behaviors or attitudes
attitudes
Doesn't believe that she is so "special" and
Feels special or high-status and wants to
unique that she can only be understood by, or
associate with only other high-status people
should associate with, other special or highstatus people (or institutions)
Requires excessive admiration
Doesn't require excessive admiration
Doesn't unreasonably expect especially
Has a sense of entitlement
favorable treatment or automatic compliance
with her expectations
Is often envious of others or believes that
Isn't envious of others or believe that others are
others are envious of her
envious of her
Impulsivity:
Caution:
Doesn't exploit others (e.g., doesn't take
Is interpersonally exploitative
advantage of others to achieve her own ends)
Shows empathy (e.g., respects the feelings and
Lacks empathy
needs of others)
The Opposite Of Antisocial Personality
Antisocial Personality Disorder
Disorder
Violence:
Nonviolence:
Irritable and aggressive
Good anger control
Impulsivity:
Caution:
Lacks remorse
Feels remorse when appropriate
Breaks the law
Law-abiding
Lies, uses aliases, or cons others
Honest
Impulsive or fails to plan ahead
Cautious; plans ahead
Reckless disregard for the safety of herself or Careful regard for the safety of herself and
others
others
Irresponsible at work or with money
Responsible at work and with money
Borderline (Emotionally Unstable)
The Opposite Of Borderline (Emotionally
Personality Disorder
Unstable) Personality Disorder
Emotional Instability:
Emotional Stability:
Rapidly shifting emotions
Stable emotions
Inappropriate, intense anger or difculty
Good anger control
controlling anger
Recurrent suicidal behavior, gestures, or
No suicidal behavior, gestures, or threats, or
threats, or self-mutilating behavior
self-mutilating behavior
Chronic feelings of emptiness
Has meaning and purpose to her life
Impulsivity:
Caution:
Potentially self-damaging impulsivity (e.g.,
spending, sex, substance abuse, reckless
No potentially self-damaging impulsivity
driving, binge eating)
Unstable, Intense, Chaotic Relationships:
Stable Relationships:
Stable, close, long-lasting interpersonal
Unstable and intense 'love-hate' relationships
relationships

Frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined


Can calmly cope with real or imagined
abandonment
abandonment
Markedly and persistently unstable self-image
Stable self-image; positive sense of herself
or sense of self
ABadLife(LowAgreeablenessandConscientiousness)
How does one live a bad life?
The following table summarizes the personality traits of individuals with Paranoid, Narcissistic, Antisocial and
Emotionally Unstable (Borderline) Personality Disorder. Individuals with one or more of these four personality
disorders account for most of the harm done to society. (This table uses ICD-10 diagnostic criteria.)
The Most Socially Disruptive Personality
Traits
Narcissistic Personality Traits:
Egocentricity
Self-indulgence
Continuous longing for appreciation
Lack of consideration for others
Excessive sensitivity to setbacks and rebuffs
Persistent manipulative behavior
Paranoid Personality Traits:
Excessive sensitivity to setbacks and rebuffs
Tendency to bear grudges persistently, e.g.
unforgiveness of insults, injuries or slights
Suspiciousness and a pervasive tendency to
distort experience by misconstruing the neutral
or friendly actions of others as hostile or
contemptuous
A combative and tenacious sense of personal
rights out of keeping with the actual situation
Recurrent suspicions, without justication,
regarding sexual delity of spouse or sexual
partner
Persistent self-referential attitude, associated
particularly with excessive self-importance
Preoccupation with unsubstantiated
"conspiratorial" explanations of events around
the subject or in the world at large
Antisocial Personality Traits:
Callous unconcern for the feelings of others
Gross and persistent attitude of irresponsibility
and disregard for social norms, rules, and
obligations
Incapacity to maintain enduring relationships,
though having no difculty to establish them
Very low tolerance to frustration and a low
threshold for discharge of aggression,
including violence
Incapacity to experience guilt, or to prot from
adverse experience, particularly punishment

Examples

"I am an extraordinary person." ... "Modesty


doesn't become me."
"I will never be satised until I get all that I
deserve."
"It's very important to me to stand out, and
have my achievements recognized."
"The weak deserve to be dominated by the
strong."
"I don't react well when someone offends me."
"I nd it easy to manipulate people."
"I don't react well when someone offends me."
"I've held grudges against people for years."
"I don't believe most people are fair and honest
with me."
"I ght for my rights even when it annoys
people."
"I think my spouse (or lover) is unfaithful to
me."
"People often make fun of me behind my
back."
"I'm convinced there is a conspiracy behind
many things that happen in the world."

"I will lie to or con someone if it serves my


purpose."
"At times I have refused to hold a job, even
when I was expected to."
"I haven't had close relationships that have
lasted a long time."
"I lose my temper and get into physical ghts."
"I don't usually feel bad when I hurt or mistreat
someone."

Marked proneness to blame others, or to offer


plausible rationalizations for the behavior
bringing the subject into conict with society
Emotionally Unstable (Borderline)
Personality Traits:
A marked tendency to quarrelsome behavior
and to conicts with others, especially when
impulsive acts are thwarted or criticized
A marked tendency to act unexpectedly and
without consideration of the consequences
Liability to outbursts of anger or violence, with
inability to control the resulting behavioural
explosions
Difculty in maintaining any course of action
that offers no immediate reward
Unstable and capricious mood
Disturbances in and uncertainty about selfimage, aims and internal preferences
(including sexual)
Liability to become involved in intense and
unstable relationships, often leading to
emotional crises
Excessive efforts to avoid abandonment
Recurrent threats or acts of self-harm
Chronic feelings of emptiness

"Other people have made it hard for me to stay


out of trouble."

"I argue or ght when people try to stop me


from doing what I want."
"I take chances and do reckless things."
"Sometimes I get so angry I break or smash
things."
"I don't stick with a plan if I don't get results
right away."
"I'm very moody."
"I can't decide what kind of person I want to
be."
"I get into very intense relationships that don't
last."
"I go to extremes to try to keep people from
leaving me."
"A number of times, I've threatened suicide or
injured myself on purpose."
"I often feel empty inside."

ShouldWeForgiveEveryone?
Research into modern game theory has shown that justice requires both forgiveness and punishment.
Modern game theory has proven that the best strategy in any competition is "Tit For Tat". Rules for the "Tit For Tat"
strategy are:
Cooperation: Start off cooperating with people. If people continue to cooperate with you; continue
cooperating with them.
Punishment: At some point, if people become uncooperative; stop cooperating with them.
Forgiveness: If these people go back to cooperating; return to cooperating with them.
Notice that this "Tit For Tat" strategy only works well if the other person is willing to cooperate. If the other person is
never willing to cooperate, this "Tit For Tat" strategy becomes "An Eye For An Eye" strategy of perpetual retaliation.
Thus cooperation only works if the other person is also willing to cooperate. Research into game theory shows that it
is very self-defeating to forgive or cooperate with a totally uncooperative person.
PrimateEvolution
There appears to be three different ways in which primates have evolved socially:
The chimpanzees have evolved to be socially antagonistic, competitive, callous, and manipulative.
Chimpanzees are the only primates (apart from humans) that wage organized war. Thus chimpanzee social
behavior most closely mirrors the antagonistic behavior of the antisocial-narcissistic-borderline-histrionic
cluster of personality disorders.
In contrast, the bonobos have evolved to be socially anxious, peaceful, cooperative, and loving. Thus
bonobo social behavior most closely mirrors the negative emotion (anxious) behavior of the avoidantdependent cluster of personality disorders.
Another separate evolutionary path was followed by the orangutans. They evolved to become solitary
hermits. Thus orangutan social behavior most closely mirrors the detached behavior of the paranoidschizoid-schizotypal cluster of personality disorders.

ParentalBehaviorsWhichIncreaseTheRiskOfDevelopingAPersonalityDisorder
Research has shown that genetic, environmental, and prenatal factors all play important roles in the development of personality
disorder. Recent research has also shown that low parental affection and harsh parenting increase the risk of a child later developing a
personality disorder.

"Low affection" was dened as: low parental affection, low parental time spent with the child, poor parental communication with the
child, poor home maintenance, low educational aspirations for the child, poor parental supervision, low paternal assistance to the
child's mother, and poor paternal role fulllment. "Harsh parenting" was dened as: harsh punishment, inconsistent maternal
enforcement of rules, frequent loud arguments between the parents, difculty controlling anger toward the child, possessiveness, use
of guilt to control the child, and verbal abuse.
SettingGoalsInTherapy

QuestionsToAskWhenSettingGoals

In The Past Week:


WHO: was your problem?
EVENT: what did he/she do?
RESPONSE: how did you respond to that event?
OUTCOME: did your response help?

TRIGGER: what did you do that could have triggered this problem?
GOAL: what life skill(s) do you have to work on? (from checklist)
ExampleOfSettingGoalsInInterviewingAPersonWithParanoidPersonalityDisorder

In The Past Week:


WHO: was your problem?
"My friend."
EVENT: what did he/she do?
"My friend hasn't called me in weeks. I think she's mad at me."
RESPONSE: how did you respond to that event?
"I decided that, if she didn't call me, I wouldn't call her."
OUTCOME: did your response help?
"No. she still hasn't called."
TRIGGER: what did you do that could have triggered this problem?
"We had an argument, and she said some things that really hurt me. Ever since then I stopped
calling her."
GOAL: what life skill(s) do you have to work on? (from checklist)
"I want to work on: (1) Forgiveness ("forgiving other peoples mistakes; not bearing grudges or
seeking revenge"), and (2) Sociability ("being friendly; interested in social contacts and
activities")."
DictatorsUsuallyHaveADangerousCombinationofPersonalityDisorders
All of history's worst dictators had a combination of Paranoid + Narcissistic + Antisocial/Psychopathic Personality Disorders.
SocialSkillsThatAreLackingInHistory'sWorstDictators

PERSONALITY
DISORDER

LACKING

LACKING

LACKING

Paranoid Personality

Trust (had
suspiciousness)

Gratitude (had
feeling victimized)

Narcissistic Personality

Humility (had
arrogance)

Forgiveness (had
bearing grudges)
Cooperation or
generosity (had
being manipulative
or greedy)
Responsibility (had
irresponsibility)

Antisocial/Psychopathic Respect (had


Personality
disrespect)

Kindness (had
callousness)
Honesty (had
dishonesty)

Given the amount of harm that these dictators created (e.g., Hitler, Mussolini, Stalin, Mao); it could be argued that the social skills that
dictators lack are the most important of all the social skills. Thus it should come as no surprise that all of the world's religions
emphasize the importance of these social skills (e.g., trust, forgiveness, gratitude, humility, cooperation, generosity, kindness, respect,
responsibility, and honesty).

Paranoid Personality Disorder - Google

Part 1 Paranoid personality disorder Part 1 0321 173554

This is a very honest, courageous self-description of Paranoid Personality Disorder

Brain Games: Trust Me

Paranoid Personality Disorder - Epocrates Online


Paranoid Personality Disorder - PubMed Health
Paranoid Personality Disorder - Wikipedia
Personality Disorders (In Dogs And Humans) - Internet Mental Health
A police ofcer who went undercover as a prisoner says the inmates shared this troubling trait - Why many
are so easily led by narcissistic-paranoid-psychopathic individuals
Stories

Paranoid Personality Disorder Stories


Paranoid Personality Disorder Stories - YouTube
Paranoid Personality Disorder Documentaries - YouTube
RatingScales
Paranoid Personality Disorder Rating Scales

TreatmentGuidelines
Paranoid Personality Disorder Treatment Guidelines - Google
Treatment
Paranoid Personality Disorder Treatment - Google

Paranoid Personality Disorder Self-Help - Google


Cooperation - Internet Mental Health
Courage - Internet Mental Health
Justice - Internet Mental Health
Wisdom - Internet Mental Health
Self-Control - Internet Mental Health
Morning Action Plan - Internet Mental Health
Afternoon Action Plan - Internet Mental Health
Evening Action Plan - Internet Mental Health

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River Sounds For Relaxation

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Bird Sounds For Relaxation

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Campre and Nature Sounds

ResearchTopics:
Not All Scientic Studies Are Created Equal - video
Introduction To Statistics Used In Research
We found only one-third of published psychology research is reliable - now what? Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science - Psychologists grapple with
validity of research
Cochrane Collaboration - the best evidence-based, standardized reviews available

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