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Aleatoricism

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Aleatoricismistheincorporationofchanceintotheprocessofcreation,especiallythecreationofartormedia.ThewordderivesfromtheLatinwordalea,therollingofdice.Itshouldnot
beconfusedwitheitherimprovisationorindeterminacy.[1]

Lookupaleatoryin
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dictionary.

Contents
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Literature
Art
Music
Film
Seealso
References
Furtherreading

Literature
BryanStanleyJohnson(19331973)wroteanexperimentalnovelTheUnfortunates(1969),whichwaspublishedinseparatesections,consistingofa"first"anda"last"section,withthesectionsinbetweenallowedtobe
shuffledrandomlybyareader.Thiswasanattempttoreproducetherandomnessofpersonalmemory.Theoverallnarrativeisaboutasportsjournalisttravellingtoacity,tocoverafootballgame,andrecallingeventsandpeople
fromyearsearlierwhenhehadlivedinthecity.
Poemshavebeenwrittenandpublishedsothateachsuccessivelinecanbechosenrandomlyfromagivensetoflines.Thisprocessforgeneratingarandompoemissimilartothenoveltypicturebooksforchildrenwhereeach
pageissliced,allowingthebooktobeopenedtodisplaydifferentslicesfromdifferentpages.Forexample,thetopslicemayshowtheheadofacrocodile,themiddleslicemayshowthebodyofanelephant,andthelowestslice
mayshowthetailofafish.Theresulting"crazyanimal"lookslikeafishtailedfatbodiedcrocodile.
CharlesHartmandiscussesseveralmethodsofautomaticgenerationofpoetryinhisbookTheVirtualMuse.[2]

Art
Music
ThetermaleatorymusicwasfirstcoinedbyWernerMeyerEpplerin1955todescribeacourseofsoundeventsthatis"determinedingeneralbutdependsonchanceindetail".[3]WhenhisarticlewaspublishedinEnglish,the
translatormistakenlyrenderedhisGermannounAleatorikasanadjective,andsoinadvertentlycreatedanewEnglishword,"aleatoric".[4]PierreBoulezappliedtheterminthissensetohisownpiecestodistinguishthemfrom
theindeterminatemusicofJohnCage.[1]WhileBoulezpurposefullycomposedhispiecestoallowtheperformercertainlibertieswithregardtothesequencingandrepetitionofparts,Cageoftencomposedthroughthe
applicationofchanceoperationswithoutallowingtheperformerliberties.AnotherprolificcomposerofaleatorymusicwasKarlheinzStockhausen.[1]
Aleatorictechniquesaresometimesusedincontemporaryfilmmusic.ExamplescanbefoundinJohnWilliams'sscoresaswellas,forexample,MarkSnow'smusicforXFiles:FighttheFuture.[5]

Film

Infilmmaking,thereareseveralavantgardeexamplesoneisAndyVoda'sChanceChants[6]whichfeaturesAllisonKnowles'computerpoem"HouseofDust",[7]
FredCamper'sSN(1984,firstscreening2002)[8]usescoinflippingforonesectiontodeterminewhichthreeof16possiblereelstoscreenandwhatordertheyshouldgoin(3360permutations).
FilmscholarBarrySaltdirectedthe1971filmSixReelsofFilmtoBeShowninAnyOrder,[9][10]wheretheprojectionistwasprovidedwithacustomizeddietorolltodeterminethereelorder.

Seealso
Constrainedwriting
Aleatoryvariable
Avantgarde
Biomusic
Biomusicology
Contemporarymusic
Newagemusic
Stochastic
20thcenturyclassicalmusic
Zoomusicology

References
1.SabineFeisst,"LosingControl:IndeterminacyandImprovisationinMusicSince1950",NewMusicBox(1March2002):"AleatoryPierreBoulez"(http://www.newmusicbox.org/page.nmbx?id=35tp02).
2.CharlesHartman(1996),TheVirtualMuse:ExperimentsinComputerPoetry,Hanover,NH:WesleyanUniversityPress,ISBN0819522392(seeespeciallypp.5464.)
3.WernerMeyerEppler.1957."StatisticandPsychologicProblemsofSound",translatedbyAlexanderGoehr,DieReihe1("ElectronicMusic",1957):5561originalGermanedition,1955,as"StatistischeundpsychologischeKlangprobleme",Die
Reihe1("ElektronischeMusik",1955):2228thecitationisonpp.55and22,respectively.
4.ArthurJacobs,"AdmonitoricNote",TheMusicalTimes107,no.1479(May1966):414.
5.FredKarlinandRayburnWright,OntheTrack:AGuidetoContemporaryFilmScoring,secondedition(NewYork:Routledge,2004):43036.ISBN0415941350(cloth)ISBN0415941369(pbk).
6.AndyVoda'sfilm"ChanceChants"(https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QchceC3rV2k)
7.AlisonKnowleswebsite(http://www.aknowles.com)
8.FredCamper,"SN,afilmbyFredCamper"(http://www.fredcamper.com/F/SN.html),2002.
9.SixReelsofFilmtoBeShowninAnyOrder(1971)(http://www.imdb.com/title/tt1053919/)attheInternetMovieDatabase
10.Anon.,"SixReelsofFilmtoBeShowninAnyOrder(1971)"(http://ftvdb.bfi.org.uk/sift/title/50946),BFIFilm&TVDatabase.

Furtherreading
Gignoux,AnneClaire.2003.Larcriture:formes,enjeux,valeursautourdunouveauroman.Paris:Pressesdel'UniversitdeParisSorbonne.ISBN2840502607.
Rennie,Nicholas.2005.SpeculatingontheMoment:ThePoeticsofTimeandRecurrenceinGoethe,Leopardi,andNietzsche.MnchenerUniversittsschriften:MnchenerkomparatistischeStudien8.Gttingen:
WallsteinVerlag.ISBN9783892449683.
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