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11/26/2013

Moving Bed
Technologies
by

Vincent Pinto

MBBR What is it?


MBBR = Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor

The process is based on the biofilm principle using the polyethylene


carrier elements.

The carrier elements, which are less dense than water, provide a large
protected surface for bacteria culture.

The MBBR provides advantages of Activated Sludge and Trickling Filter


systems without the disadvantages of those systems.

The MBBR is the most documented fixed film process with many
technical publications and presentations.

MBBR Brief History

Invented in 1989 by Hallvard degaard


and coworkers of Norwegian University of
Science and Technology (NTNU) in 1989.

First commercialized by Kaldnes in early


1990s in Europe

First commercialized in North America by


Hydroxyl Systems Inc. (Now Headworks Bio
Inc.)

First installation of MBBR in North America


in 2002 in Minnesota by Hydroxyl Systems

More than 1,000 installations around the


world by 2010s

Dr. Hallvard degaard

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Fixed Film Technologies


Trickling filters are a static,
air phase fixed film
treatment system.

MBBRs are dynamic, water


phase fixed film treatment
systems

Dynamic Water Phase Fixed Films

No problems with odors, snails or red-worms


as in air phase fixed films.

Easier transfer of contaminants and oxygen


to the biomass.

Thin biofilm controlled by constant


movement created by the aeration.

NO attrition of media oldest plant is 20


years old and NO replacement of media has
been required

Nutrients & O2
enter Biofilm via
Adsorption
Diffusion
mechanism

Imbedded
Particulate
Matter

Moving
Mixed
Liquor
Out Diffusion
of
Biodegradation
Products
Erosion

Biofilm

Stagnant Liquid Layer

BWT Media

Biological Growth on Media


Mixing energy controls the biological thickness

BOD

Nitrifiers

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Applications
Features:

BOD Reduction
Single pass treatment
No operational adjustments
Only equipment maintenance
Self regulating biomass

Nitrification

Small foot print


Multiple applications

Denitrification

BOD/COD Removal
High loads
Up to 6000 mg/l
Small foot print
Single pass treatment
No recycle
No operator adjustments
Biology self regulating
Low BOD effluent
50% to 80 % reduction in 30 minutes
< 10 mg/l BOD (after clarification)

Pretreatment


Roughing Reactor

Removes 50-80% of BOD prior to activated sludge.


Can increase treatment capacity with a small additional foot print.

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Nitrification
Converting ammonia to nitrates and nitrites
TKN changes to ammonia
Works best when BOD is less than 10 mg/l
Can achieve ammonia levels of < 1mg/l
No wash out of nitrifiers during storm flows

Nitrifiers mature on biofilm

Post Nitrification
Adding nitrification after existing BOD treatment will achieve new ammonia limits, such as after
activated sludge or a lagoon.

Denitrification
Pre-Denitrification

Post-Denitrification

Combination Pre & Post


Denitrification

Post treatment-Denitrification

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Pre-Denitrification
Pre-Denitrification of re-circulated nitrate rich wastewater using influent soluble BOD for carbon source.
This is good in applications where a TN of 8 mg/l is required.

Used to recover alkalinity lost during nitrification.


Reclaims some of the power used for nitrification.

Post-Denitrification
Where the incoming BOD mg/l is low.
There is a requirement for low TN levels of 5 mg/l
Influent ammonia levels are low
This requires the addition of a carbon source such as methanol, ethanol, glycol, or sugars.

Pre & Post-Denitrification





Used when there are high TN influent levels (above 40 mg/l) and low discharge limits for TN.
Reduces the chemical costs of the post-denitrification process.

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Post Treatment De-nitrification


Used to get TN levels of 3 mg/l from secondary clarified wastewater from existing systems.

Requires addition of a carbon source.

IFAS Nitrification




To enable an existing BOD plant to nitrify within the same tankage.


Can increase the flow capacity of a BOD plant up to four times the current design flow.
Stabilize annual fluxuations in load and flow.

IFAS Pre-Denitrification
Pre-Denitrification of re-circulated nitrate rich wastewater using influent soluble BOD for carbon source.
This is good in applications where a TN of 8 mg/l is required.

Used to recover alkalinity lost during nitrification.


Reclaims some of the power used for nitrification.

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IFAS Pre and Post Denitrification

Requires addition of a carbon source.

Used to get TN levels of 3 mg/l from secondary clarified wastewater.

Biological Phosphorus Removal


Decreases tank volume required for BOD and Nitrification
allowing room for Bio-P and De-nitrification.

Allows for the suspended growth sludge age to be tailored for


maximum phosphorus removal.

Nitrification biology grows on media and is not affected by low

sludge ages of suspended growth.

Foot Print Comparison


Trickling Filter vs. MBBR

EXISTING TRICKLING FILTERS


99 m 2/m 3
VOL = 3990 m 3

MBBR
548 m2/m3
VOL = 720 m3

AT EQUAL LEVELS OF BOD REMOVAL:


MBBR Provides Five times the Biofilm Surface Area in less than
Reactor Volume as Trickling Filter
Kinetics = MBBR is More Active & Efficient than Trickling Filter

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Comparison
MBBR

Activated Sludge

Single Pass Process

Requires returning the sludge back to the head


of the process

No Process Adjustments

Requires an operator experienced in measuring


and balancing the biomass concentrations
between the different process.

Smaller Foot Print

Larger volumes required for the same level of


treatment.

Not affected by washout of biology

Surges in flow can wash out the biomass losing


treatment capability

Less mechanical equipment

Requires return pumps and controls for waste


pumps

More efficient nutrient removal

Takes up to 12 weeks to develop mature


nitrifiers if they are lost or die out.

MBBR Design
Loading Rates

Loading Rate is the amount of substrate (BOD, NH3-N, NO3, etc.) applied to the surface of
the media per unit time.

Typical units are: g of substrate/m2/day.

Calculated as grams of BOD (or other pollutant) per day divided by the total surface area of
the media inside the reactor.

Grams of BOD is calculated as flow x BOD concentration.

Total surface area (m2) : Amount of media (m3) x Internal protected surface area (m2/m3).

MBBR Design
Loading Rates (LR) Example

Flow

BOD Concentration =

300 mg/l

BOD Load

2,000 x 300 =

Reactor Volume

200 m3

Media Fill Fraction

50%

Amount of Media

100 m3

Media Surface Area =

680 m2/m3 (Internal Protected)

Total Surface Area

100 x 680 =

Loading Rate

600,000 g/day / 68,000 m2

2,000 m3/day
=

300 g/m3
600,000 g/day

68,000 m2
=

8.82 g/m2/day

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MBBR Design
Removal Rate Calculations

Removal Rate is calculated as:


rA = rA-max
where,
rA
rA-max
SBODeff
Khs

* SBODeff / (SBODeff + Khs)(1)


= SBOD removal rate, g/m2/day
= Maximum SBOD removal rate at 20o C = 15 g/m2/day
= Effluent SBOD or Substrate SBOD, mg/l
= Substrate half saturation coefficient = 10 mg/l

rA = SALR [(SBODin SBODeff) / (SBODin)].(2)


where,
SALR = surface area loading rate, g/m2/day

The above two equations are used to optimize the loading and removal rates

MBBR Design
Reactor Design Guidelines

BOD Removal
Single Reactor

50 90% removal

LR :

Two Reactors

> 90% Removal

LR 1: 10 20 g/m2/day

5 - 15 g/m2/day

Effluent BOD < 5 mg/l

Three Reactors

LR2: 5 7.5 g/m2/day


LR 1: 10 20 g/m2/day
LR2: 5 7.5 g/m2/day
LR3: 1 5 g/m2/day

NH3-N Removal
Single Reactor

50 90% removal

Two Reactors

> 90% Removal

LR : 0.5 0.7 g-N/m2/day


LR 1: 1.0 1.5 g-N/m2/day
LR2: 0.25 0.75 g-N/m2/day

Alternative MBBR Design based on Pilot Tests


Case Study 1: Morehead, MN

22 MLD
Existing Pure-Ox Activated Sludge Plant Only BOD removal
New Effluent NH3-N limit < 4 mg/l
Cold Weather (6 10O C in Winter)
Separate Stage Nitrification (after Secondary Clarifier)
Proposed MBBR after Secondary Clarifier
Conducted Pilot Tests
Calculated loading rates and removal rates over few months
Plotted LR vs RR

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MBBR Design
Moorhead, MN Pilot Results
NH3-N Removal Rate vs. NH3-N Loading Rate

NH3-N Removal Rate (g N/m2/day)

3
100% Removal
7 - 10 oC
11 - 14 oC
15 - 18 oC
19 - 22 oC

2.5

1.5

0.5

0
0

0.5

1.5

2.5

NH3-N Loading Rate (g N/m2/day)

MBBR Design
Design Based on Pilot Tests

If Loading Rate is 0.5 0.6 g of NH3-N /m2/day, removal will be 99%.


If Loading Rate is 0.6 0.8 g of NH3-N /m2/day, removal will be 90%.
If Loading Rate is 0.8 1.0 g of NH3-N /m2/day, removal will be 80%.
If Loading Rate is 1.0 1.5 g of NH3-N /m2/day, removal will be 60%.

Influent Ammonia
Effluent Required
Required Removal

Reactor Design
Loading rate should be 0.6 0.8 g of NH3-N/m2/day

=
=
=

30 mg/l
4 mg/l
87%

MBBR Design
Results from Full-Scale System
70.0

Concentration (mg/L)

60.0

50.0

40.0
NH3-N Influent
NH3-N Effluent

30.0

20.0

10.0

0.0
0

30

60

90

120

150

180

210

240

270

300

330

360

Number of Days [in 2010]

10

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Alternative MBBR Design based on Pilot Tests


Case Study 2: Consolidated Recycling

Consolidated Recycling Co., Inc. (CRCI) reclaims 5 - 6 million gallons (19-23 m3) of previously used
ethylene glycol (in winter from Aircraft De-icing)
Vacuum distillation process generates ethylene glycol contaminated wastewater

Alternative MBBR Design based on Pilot Tests


Case Study 2: Consolidated Recycling

Step 1: Batch testing on pilot scale


Step 2: Continuous flow testing on pilot scale
Step 3: Full-scale installation
Wastewater Characterization

Influent flow: 15,000 GPD (57 m3/day)


Influent COD: 15,000 mg/L
Effluent SCOD: < 550 mg/L
Effluent phenol: < 2 mg/l

Alternative MBBR Design based on Pilot Tests


Results of Batch Testing

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Alternative MBBR Design based on Pilot Tests


Batch Study Conclusions

If influent SCOD is > 10,000 mg/l, we need an HRT of > 8 days.


If influent SCOD is < 10,000 mg/l, we need an HRT of 3 - 5 days

Alternative MBBR Design based on Pilot Tests


Results of Continuous Flow Testing
SCOD Influent
SCOD Effluent
Floc SCOD Effluent
HRT

10000

115
110

8000

105

95
90
4000

HRT (hours)

SCOD (mg/L)

100
6000

85
80

2000

75
0
18-Jun-05

25-Jun-05

2-Jul-05

9-Jul-05

16-Jul-05

23-Jul-05

30-Jul-05

6-Aug-05

70
13-Aug-05

Time (Days)

Alternative MBBR Design based on Pilot Tests


Continuous Flow Pilot Conclusions

Minimum HRT required is 70 - 80 hours (3 4 days).


HRT over 100 hours does not result in any more benefits.
Full-Scale Design

Influent Flow: 15,000 GPD (57 m3 /day)

Influent COD: 15,000 mg/L

Effluent SCOD: < 550 mg/L

Tank Working Volume: 95,472 gal (360 m3)

Carrier: ActiveCell 450

Carrier Fill Fraction: 31%

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Alternative MBBR Design based on Pilot Tests


Full-Scale Results - COD
Influent COD
Effluent COD

25,000

COD (mg/L)

20,000

15,000

10,000

5,000

0
19-Nov-05

27-Feb-06

7-Jun-06

15-Sep-06

24-Dec-06

3-Apr-07

Time (days)

Alternative MBBR Design based on Pilot Tests


Full-Scale Results - Phenols
14

Effluent Phenol (mg/L)

12

10

0
25-Oct-05

24-Mar-06

21-Aug-06

18-Jan-07

17-Jun-07

Time (days)

Alternative MBBR Design based on Pilot Tests


Full-Scale Loading vs. Removal 97% Removal
Full-Scale
Lab-Scale

20

y = 0.9668x
2
R = 0.999

COD Removal Rate


2
(gTCOD-FCOD/m /d)

15

10

0
0

10

12

14

16

18

20

COD Surface Loading Rate (gCOD/m /d)

13

11/26/2013

Thank You
Questions?

14