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Answers to examination-style questions

Module 1 (page 74)

ii

1 D

CO2

2 C

ideal gas

PV

3 A
4 D
5 C

7 A

9 A
10 C
11 a An oxidising agent gains electrons and the oxidation
number of its element decreases.
[2]
b i

2MnO4 + 6H+ + 5H2O2 2Mn2+ + 8H2O + 5O2 [2]

ii Oxidation number of Mn in MnO4 is +7, after it


reacts it decreases to +2.
It is reduced (and is therefore the oxidising
agent)
[2]
Oxidation number of O in H2O2 is 1, after it reacts
it increases to 0.
It is oxidised (and is therefore the reducing
agent)
[2]

c i

Allow any sort of positive deviation from


horizontalline

c i

8 B

P (atm)

6 D

I 

ii Br2(aq) + 2KX(aq) 2KBr(aq) + X2(aq)

iii Br2
Gains electrons more readily than X
Br2 + 2e 2Br 

[1]

12 a Any THREE of the assumptions below:


 The molecules are in constant random motion.
 The molecules occupy negligible volume when
compared to the volume occupied by the gas itself.
 The average kinetic energy is proportional to the
absolute temperature.
 Collisions are perfectly elastic.
 There are no intermolecular forces between the
molecules.
[3]
b i

Low temperature and high pressure


[2]
At low temperature, the kinetic energy of the
molecules decreases causing them to slow down,
providing the opportunity for intermolecular forces
of attraction to occur.
[1]
At high pressure, the molecules are pushed close
together causing the volume of the molecules to
become significant.
[1]

[1]
[1]
[1]

[1]

[1]

= 71

[1]

13 a The enthalpy change accompanying a chemical change


is independent of the route by which the chemical
change occurs.
[1]

b i
2C

[2]
[1]
[1]
[2]

[2]

Pressure = 3.4 1.01 10 = 3.434 10 Pa


Volume = 0.072 0.001 = 7.2 105m3
Temperature = 273 + (48) = 225K
PV
n = ___

RT
3.434 105 7.2 105
_____________________

n =
8.31 225
= 0.0132 mol
mass
ii Relative molecular mass = _____

mole
0.94


= _______

0.0132
5

3H2

Hf(C2H6)

2Hf(CO2) 3Hf(H2O)

C2H6
HC(C2H6)

+1560 kJ mol1
2CO2

3H2O

arrow reversed
so sign changes

[2]

ii H (C2H6) = 2
 H (CO2) + 3H (H2O)
H (C H6)

= (2 393) + (3 286) (1560)

= 84kJmol1
[2]

c i

c
2

The polystyrene is a better insulator than the


glass.

[1]

ii Any ONE assumption:


 The specific heat capacity of the solution is
equal to the specific heat capacity of water.
 The density of the solution is the same as the
density of water, 1gcm3.
 Heat is not lost or absorbed from the
environment.
[1]

Answers to exam-style questions


iii

energy kJ
Hr

iii 25cm3 contains 0.0011 mole oxalic acid


0.0011
Therefore 1000cm3 contains _______

1000

25

= 0.044moldm3

Hsolnve
endothermic

iv

NH4NO3(S)+aq


iv






NH4NO3(aq)

Hp

reaction pathway

 [4]

E = mcT
= 100 4.2 12.2
= +5124J
= +5.12kJ
16
Number of moles of ammonium nitrate = ___

80
= 0.2 mole
0.2 mole produces 5.12kJ
Therefore 1 mole produces
5.12
____
= +25.60kJmol1
0.2

14 a To ensure complete combustion of the oxalic acid


b i

[1]

[1]

C
H
O
26.67
2.22
71.11
26.67
2.22
71.11
No. of moles ______
_____
_____


12
1
16

= 2.22
= 2.22 = 4.44
2.22
2.22
4.44
Mole ratio _____

_____
_____

2.22
2.22
2.22

1
:
1
:
2
Empirical formula is CHO2
To calculate molecular formula
n(CHO2) = 90
n(45) = 90
n=2
Molecular formula is therefore C2H2O4.

[2]

Colourless to pink

[1]

c i

[ ]

b i

[2]
[1]

ii




] [ ] [ ]

[1]

[ ] [ ]

[1]

[1]
[1]

ii Number of moles of potassium manganate(vii):


1000cm3 potassium manganate(vii)
contains 0.02mol
0.02
Therefore 21.5cm3 contains _____

21.5
1000

= 0.00043 mole [1]
From the mole ratio:
2 moles potassium manganate(vii)
reacts with 5 moles oxalic acid
Therefore 0.00043 moles potassium
manganate(vii) reacts with
5 0.00043
____________


[1]

2
= 0.0011 mole
[1]

molar
molar
mass

=
concentration concentration mass
= 0.044 90
= 3.96gdm3

[1]

The first ionisation of an element is the energy


needed to convert one mole of an element in its
gaseous atoms into ions with a single positive
charge.
[1]

ii Mg(g) Mg+(g) + e

Empirical formula the simplest whole number


ratio of elements present in a compound
[1]
Molecular formula shows the actual number of
atoms of each type of element present in 1
molecule of the compound
[1]

ii
Mass in 100g

15 a i

[1]

[1]

The first ionisation energy increases across the


period.
[1]
This is as a result of the increasing effective nuclear
charge across the period. As a result of this it
makes it more difficult for the outer electrons to be
removed.
[2]
Between Mg and Al:
Electronic configuration of Mg is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2.
Electronic configuration of Al is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p1.[1]
The electron to be removed from the Al is in a
higher sub-shell, thus it requires less energy than
the electron to be removed in Mg.
[1]
Between P and S:
Electronic configuration of P is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3px1
3py1 3pz1
Electronic configuration of S is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3px2
3py1 3pz1
[1]
In P the three electrons in the 3p orbitals have the
same spin but in S the electron to be removed in
the p orbital is paired.
[1]
As a result of this there is electronelectron repulsion
and hence it makes it easier to lose this electron than
one of the electrons in the p orbital of P.
[1]

c i
ionisation energy

1 2 3 4 5 6
number of electrons
removed


[1 mark for correctly


labelled axes.
1 mark for correct
shape of graph]

ii The sudden jump in values of ionisation energy


occurs when the outer electrons have been
removed.
[1]
The first and second electrons are easy to remove
so must be in group II.
[1]
It takes a lot more energy to remove the third
electron so this electron must be in a shell closer to
the nucleus.
[1]

Answers to exam-style questions


Module 2 (page 132)

c E
cell = +0.72V
5Ag(s) + MnO4(aq) + 8H+(aq)
5Ag+(aq) + Mn2+(aq) + 4H2O(l)

1 D

2 A

d Ag(s) Ag+(aq) [MnO4(aq) + 8 H+(aq)],


[Mn2+(aq) + 4H2O(l)] Pt(s)

4 D
5 D

6 B
7 B

Cl ions from the salt bridge would react with Ag+ ions
in the anode compartment to produce a precipitate of
AgCl, which would affect ionic mobilities and therefore
the cell function.
[2]

13 a i

8 C
9 D
10 B

b i

Initial pH = 3.0
at equilibrium [H+] = 1 103, [acid]
= 0.112 1 103 = 0.111
3 2
(1 10 )
Ka = __________

= 9.0 106moldm3
0.111

ii pKa = log 9.0 106 = 5.0

[1]

ii The collision frequency would increase and


therefore the probability of effective collisions
would increase.
[2]

b i

[3]
[1]

c Equivalence volume = 27.5cm3


molarity of base = 0.102moldm3

d At the equivalence point, the conjugate base of the


weak acid exists. It dissociates in solution to produce
OH ions.
[2]

e i

[3]

pH = 3.5

[1]

ii This is the maximum amount of acid or alkali a


buffercan absorb without an appreciable change
in pH.
[2]

Yes, it is suitable since the pH range of the indicator


falls on the pH range of the equivalence point (i.e. the
vertical portion of the titration curve).
[2]

For a chemical reaction to occur the particles must


collide. For the collisions to be effective, the
particles must collide with the correct amount of
energy (energy greater than or equal to the
activation energy) and with the correct
orientation.
[2]

[reactant]

11 a Any strong monoacidic base, e.g. NaOH, KOH

[2]

e An increase in the concentration of MnO4 (aq) relative


to Mn2+(aq) and Ag+(aq) would cause the cell e.m.f. to
increase, but a decrease in the concentration of
MnO4(aq) relative to Mn2+(aq) and Ag+(aq) would
result in a decrease in cell e.m.f.
[2]

3 B

[2]

time
Draw a tangent to the curve at t = 0, then find the
gradient of the tangent.
[2]

ii From comparing Experiments 1 and 2, first order


with respect to A.
[2]
From comparing Experiments 1 and 3, second order
with respect to B.
[2]

iii Rate = k[A][B]2

[1]

12 a The electrode potential of a half cell relative to the


standard hydrogen electrode
[2]

iv Could substitute data from Experiments 1, 2 or 3 in


the rate equation,
(1.45 102moldm3 s1)
e.g. k = ________________________________

(0.125moldm3 ) (0.125moldm3 )2
[2]

= 7.42dm6mol2s1

Ag(aq)
(1 mol dm3)

Pt(s)
[cathode]

[2]

Mn2(aq)
(1 mol dm3)

Ag(s)
[anode]



v Rate = ( 7.42dm6mol2s1)(0.30moldm3)
(0.14moldm3)2

= 0.044moldm3s1

b i and ii
V

H(aq)

MnO4(aq)
(1 mol dm3)
[5]

Answers to exam-style questions


Module 3 (page 174)

7 a i

1 D
2 C

3 B

4 D

[2]

ii


Exhibits variable oxidation states.


Forms complex ions.
Forms coloured compounds.
Exhibits catalytic properties.

[4]

[Cu(H2O)6] (aq) (blue);


[CuCl4]2(aq) (yellow)

[2]
2


A metal which forms at least one ion with a
partially filled d sub-shell.

[2]

Fe [Ar] 3d . The 3d configuration of Fe represents


a more stable (energetically) arrangement than the
3d6 of Fe2+. This is due to the increased repulsion of
electrons in the sub-shell as well as the stability
present in the half filled sub-shell . Thus the reaction
of Fe2+ to Fe3+ will be favoured:
Fe2+ Fe3+ + e
3d6 3d5
[2]
2+

3+

ii In this case, Mn2+ with the configuration 3d5 will


resist conversion to the less stable configuration
3d4 of Mn3+.
[2]

c i

iii The stability constant indicates the strength of the


ligand as a Lewis base (lone pair donor).
The Cl ligand has a larger stability constant than
H2O and hence can displace it from the copper
complex.
[3]

iii Fe3+ [Ar] 3d5; Mn3+ [Ar] 3d4

b i

b i

[2]

2+

ii [Cu(H2O)6] (aq) + 4Cl (aq) [CuCl4] (aq) + 6H2O(l)



blue
yellow
[2]

6 a i

ii The species, molecules or ions, which form


coordinate bonds to the metal ion.

2+

5 A

A compound formed when a transition metal atom


ion is surrounded by species which form coordinate
bonds.
[2]

The hexaaquairon(iii) ion of iron(iii) chloride


because of the high charge density of the Fe3+ is
able to attract the water molecules strongly
thereby weakening the OH bond. The oxygen of
other water molecules are then able to remove
them as protons. The removal of three protons
from the hydrated metal ion produces the
red-brown precipitate of iron(iii) hydroxide.
[2]
ii [Fe(H2O)6]3+(aq) + 3H2O(l)
Fe(H2O)3(OH)3(s) + 3H3O+(aq)
Allow:
FeCl3(aq) + 3H2O(l) Fe(OH)3(s) + 3HCl(aq) [1]

c i

Blue solution forms a blue precipitate which


dissolves to form a deep blue solution.

[3]

ii [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2] (aq) or [Cu(NH3)4] (aq)

[1]

2+

2+

8 a CCl4 does not react with water while SiCl4 reacts


readily to produce white clouds of hydrogen chloride
due to hydrolysis. The silicon atom of the SiCl4
molecule has available d orbitals of appropriate energy
which enable bonding to occur with the oxygen atom
of the water molecules. Carbon does not have similar
available d orbitals.
SiCl4 + 2H2O SiO2 + 4HCl
Or
SiCl4 + 3H2O H2SiO3 + 4HCl
[5]
b


Ge4+(aq) + 2e Ge2+(aq) E = 1.6V


Sn4+(aq) + 2e Sn2+(aq) E = +0.15V
Pb4+(aq) + 2e Pb2+(aq) E = +1.69V
From the above electrode reactions, as the group is
descended it becomes easier for M4+ to be converted to
M2+ as seen in the increasing positive values for E.
Hence the stability of +4 oxidation state decreases in
favour of the +2 oxidation state.
[3]

c i 3Cl2(g) + 6OH (aq) ClO3(aq) + 5Cl(aq) + 3H2O(l)


Ox. 0
+5
1
No. 
[2]
ii 2OH(aq) + Cl2(g) ClO(aq) + Cl(aq) + H2O
3ClO(aq) ClO3(aq) + 2Cl(aq)
Disproportionation is a reaction in which a species
is simultaneously oxidised and reduced.
[5]

Answers to exam-style questions


9 a i

ii Group II carbonates decompose to the oxide and


carbon dioxide. The smaller oxide ion forms a much
stronger ionic bond with the metal than the
carbonate ion can and therefore is much more
stable. As the group is descended the cations get
larger. The larger Sr2+ ion has s smaller charge
density and a reduced ability to polarise the
carbonate ion thus making strontium carbonate
more resistant to decomposition.
[4]

b i

Group II metal sulphates become less soluble as the


group is descended, barium is below magnesium and
hence its sulphate is much less soluble.
[2]

Atomic size of Group II elements increase as it is


descended. The presence of additional electronic
shells positioned further away from the nuclei with
the resulting reduction in attractive force is
responsible for this trend.
[2]

ii In the case of ionic size there is a similar trend, the


loss of the valence electrons still leaves each
successive ion with an additional electronic shell
with a noble gas configuration.
[1]

c 10.46g of oxygen atoms combine with 89.54g of M


10.46/16mol of oxygen atoms combine with 89.54g
ofM
1mol of oxygen atoms combines with
16
89.54 ______

g of M = 136.96 g
10.46
Ratio of moles: M:O = 1:1, hence rel. atomic mass of M
is 137.
NO2

10 a

state
gas

Element/
symbol
F

solid

Cl
Br
I

b.pt.

density

Increasing

[2]

ii Structure: simple molecular to molecular solid


Bonding: covalently bonded molecules with
intermolecular van der Waals forces.
As group is descended the strength of van der
Waals forces increase as molecules become
largerand state changes from simple molecules
tosolid.
[4]

b i

Hydrogen bromide and carbon dioxide

[2]

ii Br , white fuming gas, reddish vapour; and H3O ,


white precipitate with calcium hydroxide
solution
[2]

iii Br(aq) + Ag+(aq) AgBr(s)


AgBr(s) + 2NH3(aq) Ag(NH3)2+(aq) + Br(aq)
c


[2]

Cl2 + 2e 2Cl
E = +1.36V
Br2 + 2e 2Br
E = +1.07V
I2 + 2e 2I
E = +0.54V
From the above electrode potentials, the ease with
which the halogen accepts electrons (oxidising agent)
decreases as the group is descended; the +ve character
of E decreases.
[3]

[1]

ii Atomic mass M = 137

[2]

iii Barium nitrate(v), Ba(NO3)2

[1]

iv Ba(OH)2(aq) + 2HNO3(aq)
Ba(NO3)2(aq) + 2H2O(l)

[2]