25/6
A SteamSoak Model for
DepletionType Reservoirs
P. J. Closmann, SPEAIME!,SheUDevelopmentCo.
N. W. Ratliff, SPEAIME,Shell DevelopmentCo.
N. E. Truitt, SPEAIME,Shell DevelopmentCo.
Introduction
The widespread application of the steamsoak processl2 has made more essential an understanding of
the basic mechanism of the process. As presently
applied, it consists of injecting an arbitraxy quantity
of steam into a formation, stopping injection and
~:e~~g ~ the weld for ~ome soak time, and then
producing oil from the injection well. Recent reports
on field applications have been given by Bowman and
Gilbert,s Adams and Khan, and de Haan and van
Lookeren.5
Theones to describe the steamsoak process have
been presented by Boberg and Lantz~ Davidson et
al.7, Martin,s Seba and Perry,g and Kuo et af.10 None
of these theones has attempted to include the detailed
distribution of the steam or the oil viscosity distribution. The present method is applicable to depletiontype reservoirs and includes the specific interval of
steam penetration as well as the viscosity distribution
resulting from heating. The method assumes that during the injection phase oil is displaced from the steam
zone until some residual value of oil saturation is attained. During the production phase oil is allowed to
flow back across the outer radius of the steam zone.
The time to resaturate this zone is calculated. Heating
of oil in adjoining strata results in a greatly increased
flow of oil through the heated layers into the well during backflow. To estimate this effect, it is necessary to
use the viscositytemperature curve for the particular
oil being considered. We hope that t.hk method will be
useful to operating personnel and that it will provide
insight into some of the essential factors of the steamsoak process.
Two types of formation are treated in the present
method. For the first case, zero vertical permeabtity
is assumed, and oil flows only horizontally. This cal: lloda.~
1. A A +011,7
culation should be applicable to eases UI
stratified reservoirs. For the second case, isotropic
permeability is assumed, and crossflow into the depleted steam zone is estimated by means of crossflow
factors developed for a range of formation tilcknesses, steamzone radii, and viscosity distributions.
In many practical cases the vertieal permeability will
be significant but still less than the horizontal permeability. Results for this situation will then be intermediate between the two extremes calculated by this
model. However, it should also be possible to compute crossflow for these cases ,as well. The model
should apply to both light and heavy oil reservoirs.
The relevant data used, such as steamzone thickness,
residual oil saturation in the steam zone, and oil viscosity, should be chosen accordingly. The effect of
steam distillation is not taken into account explicitly
but could tiect some of the data chosen.
Theory
GeneralDescription
Our general description of the steamsoak process in
a depletiontype reservoir is as follows:
A mathematical model for predicting firstcycle performance of steam stimulation in
depletiontype reservoirs agrees reasonably well with field observations. It can be applied
to both stratified and nonstratified reservoirs.
JUNE, 1970
uyr
757
When steam is injected into a formation, a steam
zone is formed, and heat flows, mostly by conduction,
: AL..... . . ... .. A...lllGUIUU1.
.na,l;.. PfimAa..+a
Inlu UK SU1l uulluul~
Vuuuhl.w.w
Al.. ...
thwc
nllt
into the formation. The steam zone is depleted of oil
to some residual saturation. If the injection well is
then put on production, the reservoir fluids expand
and flow into the well. The fluids also flow into the
steam zone, which is gradually resaturated with oil.
Most of the injected heat remains somewhere in the
vicinity of the injection well and the steam zone. It is
thk heat that causes a reduction in viscous resistance
to oil flow near the well and enables greater production rates to be obtained. The distribution of heat
changes with time. Local values of oil viscosity are
then functions of time.
Basic Mathematical Model
An exact mathematical description of the above process is quite complicated. What is desired is a theoretical description that accounts for the chief physical
factors and that at the same time is not too difficult or
timeconsuming to use. A model for computing production response can be setup to include the following assumptions (see Figs. 1 and 2):
1. Steam is injected and flows through the formation in a zone of constant thickness and uniform steam
temperature.
2. Heat is lost from the steam zone by vertical
conduction only.
3. Gravity drainage within the reservoir can be
neglected.
4. The outer radius of the heated region (numericfiy equal to the steamzone radius) remains constant
with time.
5. The temperature, and hence the oil viscosity, at
any given depth below (or above) the steam zone is
taken as constant between the wellbore and the outer
radius of the heated region (steamzone radius). The
initial temperature distribution is approximated from
the heat loss (Appendix B). Later temperature distributions are obtained by temperature decay from the
nrnfik
jni~~a~~.
~..., w~~h h~~~ flow by Conduction in the
vertical direction only (Appendix C).
6. Temperature in the steam zone is uniform with
both radial and vertical distances but declines with
time (Appendix C). The soak time constitutes an additional time increment in the temperature decay.
7. The reservoir pressure at the start of production is assumed uniform. The actual value used would
depend on previous reservoir history.
8. Effects of heat in produced fluids are neglected.
9. All effects of dip are neglected.
10. Oil flux for the crossflow case may be approximated by first calculating horizontal flow for a stratified model (no crossflow) and then multiplying this
value by a crossflow correction factor. This factor is
obtained by averaging results for an initial and a later
viscosity distribution (Appendix A). Oil produced by
crossflow appears immediately at the production well
and does not contribute to resaturation of the steam
zone.
Horizontal oil fluxes obtained in Assumption 10
,.L,...,.
..nl,,.1,,t~,lf,w. +:rn~.~.,~.~rr~v~l,,~~ mf thr=
auu v c
~i~
bcubumbtiu
LU.
LUImLL.
WA a~u
. ww.
. ..W
oil viscosity. These values are determined from the
relation
+M+w
(t, t,)
+...
(1)
where the various values pn correspond to temperatures at the various times t.after the start of production. The temperatures are calculated for timeaverage
steamzone heat capacities (Append~ C). With this
procedure the results will be tiected by the number
and size of time steps used. However, for initial time
steps of 20 days the effect is not significant. At longer
STEAM
ZONE
nw
.
BASE
00
VN
BASE
ROCK
INDICATE
(ARROWS
OIL FLOW DURING
DIRECTION
BACKFLOW
. 
OF
)
Fig. lDiagram of stratified model.
758
. . . . . ....
mLL&HJ&A:
Fig.
ROCK
,nc#. *, m.,
fit\
H&ix
r)
2Diagram of general model with crossflow.
.lOURNAL OF PETROLEUM TECHNOLOGY
times, the size of time steps may be increased, since
production rates and temperature dktribution are not
changing so rapidly.
According to Assumption 2, radial heat conduction is neglected. Thk could be important for largeinterval injection. However, the effect of heat flow
into the cooler part of the reservoir would be to
decrease flow resistance in this zone and to increase
it in the hot zone two effects that tend to offset
each other.
As formulated here, this model applies strictly to
the first steamsoak cycle only. For application to
repeated steamsoak operations, the calculations described here should be modified to include the appropriate temperature dktribution, formation pressure,
and compressibility. The latter two properties can be
estimated from knowledge of the prior reservoir history, including preceding steamsoak cycles. Knowledge of the total amount of heat injected and that
produced by the fluids should make it possible at
least to approximate the temperature dktribution.
With this knowledge the steam zone developed in later
injection cycles can be estimated and the oil production calculation can be extended to this case.
Stratified Model
In the stratified model the oilbearing regions adjacent
to the steam zone are divided into a number of horizontal layers of uniform thickness (Fig. 1), The
horizontal fluxes through the layers are determined
and added. Cumulative oil flux through each layer is
determined from a QT,. function for a composite
mediumll analogous to that for a uniform medium.~
(Relevant mathematical formulas are presented in
Ref. 11.) If N;(t) is the cumulative production per
unit thickness from the ith layer, then the total cumulative production from the oilbearing layers is
Ivo(t)=Azs
Ni(t),
(2)
where Az k the chosen interval in Z. It has been found
that sufficient accuracy is obtained by limiting the
thickness of the layers to values no greater than 13 ft.
The time required to resaturate the steam zone with
oil, tfj1I, is calculated by equating the oil volume for
resaturation to the cumulative oil production from a
uniform layer of thickness equal to the steamzone
thickness; i.e.,
= 2~h,+c,r,2 (p~ PJ Q~(ltill) ,
(4)
is the cumulative production from the
where IV,(t)
steamzone layer. The model has been set up to in1970
the initial calculated production values would be
lower and the time for resaturation of the steam zone
would be shortened. The method is described in
Appendix A. The ratio of production with crossilow
to production without crossflow has been determined
over a wide range of variations in formation thickness, steamzone radius, and viscosity distribution.
These ratios, or crossflow factors, are then used to
multiply the cumulative obtained from the stratified
model calculation. Calculations for crossflow correction factors have been made for temperature distributions immediately after steam injection and 409 days
after steam injection. The actual correction for most
cases to be considered will be intermediate between
these two sets. Most of the production times exceeded
1*D= 5,000, after which the crossflow factors did not
change as widely as at shorter times. Hence, one average value was used for a given production curve.
Furthermore, all of the crossflow factors determined
for a given range of values of oilzone thickness and
steamzone radius apply to a single total quantity of
heat injected. In the cases presented, approximately
the same total quantity of heat was used. To make
estimates of the crossflow factors in any application,
it is therefore necessary to make calculations as outlined in Appendix A for a range of the variables
(steamzone radius, oilzone thickness, and time).
This technique has been chosen as one that should
be suitable for use on a production basis.
For this method, if
F, = crossflow factor for cumulative production,
then
= F, X cumulative production from oilbearing layers in stratified model; (5)
(3)
where Q~(t~i1,) is the dimensionless Q~ function, as
defined by van Everdingen and Hurst for uniform
reservoirs, evaluated at A~1I. The outer radius r. of
the steam zone (Appendix B) is used as the well radius
in this calculation. After the steam zone has been
resaturated, it is treated as a single horizontal layer,
and the composite Q~C function calculation applies.
Then the total cumulative production becomes
JLTNE.
Crossflow Model
To determine results with crossflow of oil into the
steam zone (Fig. 2), a simplified model has been set
up. In this model the crossflow is computed for a
time interval during which the viscosity distribution
in the heated oilbearing zone is assumed to remain
~~~~fant, The model further assumes that all oil produced by crossflow appears immediately at the production well and does not contribute to resaturation
.c .5. .*.  vfime lf the laffe~ effect were permitted,
(IL u G WGaus IA.. . . . . .  .
cumulative production from oilbearing layers
z(r82 r,,) h,+tio
N(t) = NO(2)+ N*(t) ,
clude the case of an infinitely thin steam zone, as when
steam is injected into a fracture.
and
total production
= production from oilbearing layers
+ production from steam zone.
(6)
Results
Comparison with Field Data
Presented here is the application of this theory to two
wells, Wells A and B; which produce by depletion.
The reservoir properties (Table 1) chosen for these
759
cases are thought to be representative of the field. A
separate oilviscosity vs temperature curve is used for
each well. The compressibility chosen corresponds to
that of a reservoir having a small gas saturation, with
the pressure indicated. Results are not so sensitive to
the value of compressibility as they are to that of
permeability.
Results for Well A, including the effect of crossflow, are shown in Fig. 3 for cumulative oil production. Calculations were made for equal amounts of
steam injected into zone thicknesses of 10, 50, and
100 ft located at the top of the interval and also over
the full interval of 173 ft. Spinner surveys have shown
that steam enters at or near the top of the perforated
interval in most cases. The crossflow factors used for
these cases are shown below for Well A.
Average
Crossflop Factor,
Steam Zone
T%icicness
(ft)
10
50
100
5.;
3.1
2.0
Calculations of cumulative production for the 50ft
steam zone agree well with the fieid data as shown
in Fig. 3. These same cases are shown in Fig. 4 for
no crossflow. The field production is much higher
than that calculated for no crossflow.
 Reference to Fig. 3 shows that if cmssfimw U12GIUS,
steam injection into thin zones yields higher longtime cumulative production than equal steam injection into thick zones. This suggests the deslrab@ of
injecting into thin intervals wherever crossflow is
expected. However, in those cases with good crossflow (vertical and horizontal permeabilities approximately equal) the actual confinement of steam to the
interval chosen may be difficult to achieve, since
steam tends to rise to the top of the interval. If crosstlow is not expected, thickzone injection is preferable,
as can be seen from Fig. 4.
It should be noted that a considerable length of
time is required in this model to resaturate the steam
TABLE
1PROPERTIES
USED
zone with oil for example, 73.7 days for the case
of a 50ftthick steam zone in Well A. In our model
a thin steam zone produces less oil on backflow at
any given time, as its own contribution, but the adjoining oilbearing layers produce more as a result of
greater crossflow. The crossflow factor increases with
the steamzone radius for a given oilzone thickness.
And also as the oilzone thickness adjoining the steam
zone increases, the crossflow factor increases. It does
so at a constant steamzone radius, up to a certain
value, and then decreases for larger values of oilzone
thickness. For a given quantity of steam, the use of
a smaller steamzone thickness results in both a larger
steamzone radius and a greater oilzone thickness.
At very small oilzone thicknesses (about 20 ft) the
effect of crossflow tends to be reduced. This is a result
of a smaIler viscosity contrast across the oilbearing
interval. The effect of crossflow is reduced also at
small values of steamzone radius.
Additional results are shown on Figs, 5 and 6 for
Well B. The general agreement between calculated
and observed results for Well B is about the same as
that for Well A. Again, the 5Uft steam zone gives a
good fit. In this example a reasonable fit to the data
was obtained by adjusting values of the steamzone
thickness, h,. If tie value of h, prevailing during steam
injection is known, this value should be used in the
computations. There is usually enough uncertainty in
values of permeability and compressibility to permit
some adjustment of these within reasonable limits for
a good fit of theory to the observations.
These calculations emphasize the need for reliable
information on permeabfiity, compressibility, and oil
viscosity at reservoir conditions. For example, use of
a lower oil viscosity at reservoir conditions in the
calculations would yield a higher production curve.
Effect of Location of Steam Zone
Plots of temperature profles for steamzone thicknesses of 50 ft and zero ft are shown on Fig. 7. Fig. 8
shows, for a 100ft steam zone, a plot of cumulative
oil production vs time for the individual layers away
from the steam zone, Well A, for a set of constants
slightly dtierent from those in Figs. 3 and 4. In this
IN CALCULATIONS
k. =
c =
T, =
3 darcies
0.0016 psi
109.4 F
pi =
285 psig
r~=
0.1875 ft
r. = 379 ft
p, C, = 36.8 Btu/(cu ft F)
~, C, = 33.0 Btu/(cu ft F)
K = 25.1 Btu/(ft D F)
@J= 0.36
As. = 0.44
OIL VISCOSITY
Well A
A = 0.037003
B = 2,409.8
c = 100.195
Oil Viscosity at 109.4F
= 3,643 Cp
760
Well B:
A = 0.036302
B = 2,398.0
C = 103.878
Oil Viscosity at 109.4F
= 2,773 Cp
Fig. 3Cumulative
oil produtilon (for crossflow model)
as a function of time, Well A.
JOURNAL OF PETROLEUM TECHNOLOGY
140,
:1
//
o FIELO OATA
2:k
CALCULATE
~=3 darcies
c = 0.0016 pSil
+..,,. 737
100
Fig. Cumulative
oil production
300
400
500
TIME IN DAYS
(for stratified
example a change in well pressure after 63 days of
production was chosen to simulate a lower fluid level
in the well. The same change was made in the calculations for Figs. 9 through 11. Fig. 8 shows that the
oilbearing layer closest to the steam zone, being
hottest, makes the most sif@cant contribution to the
production. Ilk suggests the desirability of locating
the steam zone somewhere near the middle of the
formation so that oil can be heated by conduction
both above and below the steam zone. Results illustrating the effect of the location of a 50ft steam zone
are shown on Fig. 9 (with crossflow) and on Fig. 10
(without crossflow). The top of the steam zone is considered to be (1) at the top of the formation, (2) 25 ft
below the top of the formation, and (3) 61.5 ft below
the top (steam zone located in the middle of the interval). The presence of only 25 ft of oilbearing layer
above the steam zone increases the production 43 percent for the stratified case and 39 percent for the nonstratified case at 400 days.
model)
as a function
of time, Well A.
As mentioned previously, however, for those cases
where crossflow is important, the steam zone will tend
to rise to the top of the formation. In such cases the
injection interval could be located near the bottom
of the formation. In many cases of interest the vertical
permeability is less than the horizontal permeability.
The steam then does not rise so rapidly as expected.
The effect of heating both above and below the steam
zone will still be present. For those cases in which
steam rises rapidly to the top, because of any of
various reasons, the advantage of selective injection
is, of course, much less.
For those cases in which crossflow is not signi!ican~
Figs. 4 and 6 show that for zones located at the top
of the interval, the thicker the steam zone the greater
the production once the steam zone has been resaturated. Since location of a steam zone near the middle
of the formation yields greater production response,
it is of interest to compare production curves for steam
zones of various thicknesses located at the middle of
2,c
.
0
0
:4
Fig. 5Cumulative
as
oil production (for crossflow model)
a function of time, Well B.
$$,,,
C.
DA,.
LCULA7,
,.:,
dorcl.
Coooes(
Fig. ~umulative
oil production (for stratified
as a function of time, Well B.
model)
761
JUNE, 1970
50C
500
INJECTION
STEAM
TEMPER
RE =464
PROFILE
STEAM
20
80
400
INJECTION
40C
SOAK
TIME
= 9
DAYS
NuMBERS
ON CURVES
~EFER
To ,. .r
,., ~:y~
llm L !H
AFTER
SOAK
PROFILE
STEAM
PERl OO
400
k 300 
z
k
= 464F
AFTER
INJECTION
NOTE:
u
m
2
k
<
u
w
&
z
u
STEAM
TEMPERATURE
ORIGINAL
a
>
m
*
FORMATION
TEMPERATURE=I09.4F
200 
300
AFTER
INJECTION
NOTE
SOAK
20
=9
OAYS
ON CURVES
REFER
IN DAYS AFTER
SOAK
ORIGINAL
200
TIME
NUMBERS
TO TIME
PERIOD
TEMPER
FORMATION
ATu RE=I094F
20
80
!
,i
I00
~PROFILE
AFTER
100
STEAM
\ PROFILE
INJECTION
INJECTION
AFTER
STEAM
I
(0)STEAM
ZONE
o
olsTANCE
THICKNESS
FROM
=50
MI OPOINT
OF
FEET
I
80
I
100
STEAM
ZONE
I
60
I
40
I
20
Fig. 7Formation
(b)l
IN
FEET
NFINITELY
STEAM
distribution
ZONE
I
40
20
OISTANCE
temperature
THIN
01
o
FROM
60
MI OPOINT
80
OF
STEAM
100
ZONE
IN
FEET
for Well A.
8000
700C
STEAM
ZONE
THICKNESS
STEAM
ZONE
AT
TOP
OF
=100
DISTANCE
FEET
CENTER
FORMATION
LAYER
hO : 2 do fcies
c= OOO15
AS.
(IN
FEET)
OFT
OF OILeEARING
BELOW
OF STEAM
BOTTOM
ZONE
h
i
psi
/
=044
3.65
I00(
/
I00
300
200
TIME
Fig. 8Cumulative
oilproduction
(for stratified
IN
400
500
DAYS
model)
from individual
layers, Well A.
JOURNAL OF PETROLEUM TECHNOLOGY
tion (computed as volumetric average pressure drop,
Appendix A) for two cases shown in Table 2.
From Table 2, the greatest change from the cases
of a well perforated over the entire oil zone to one
perforated over only the steam zone is a decrease of
3.8 percent. It appears, therefore, that the special
completion techniques mentioned above may not be
necessary for the steamzone radii and oilzone thicknesses likely to be encountered. It should generally
suiiice, if vertical permeabiMy is high, to perforate
only over the zone where steam is to be injected. If,
in an actual case, production appears limited, it may
then be desirable to perforate over a wider interval.
the formation (Fig. 11) for the stratified case. The
same total amount of steam is injected in all cases.
For the cases shown, the maximum advantage occurs
for the 100ft steam zone after about 300 days. It has
produced about 20 percent more oil after 400 days
than the steam zone occupying the full formation
thickness. The 10ft zone produces more oil initially,
because it heats the oil at greater radial distances in
the reservoir. At longer times, however, the temperature of the 10ft zone falls faster than the others.
Hence, this thickness tends to become less favorable
at longer times. These results as well as those in Fig.
10 show that the greatest improvement results when
steam zones of moderate thickness are selectively
placed near the middle of the formation rather than
at the top for stratified formations.
Effect of Produced Heat
According to the mathematical model used to describe
the steamsoak process, the effect of heat. lost in the
produced fluids is not included in the calculation. This
heat loss would gradually reduce the production rate
below that calculated. In order to estimate the maximum effect of this heat loss, we have recalculated the
production curve for one case in which the injected
heat of the stratified model is reduced by the amount
of heat that would be produced in our model. This
calculation would then represent too great a correction for heat loss in produced fluids, since our production rates should be high. The curves showing the
production of Well A with and without this reduction
of heat loss are shown in Fig. 12. The difference
between the two curves after 400 diq~s is a%ut 4.??
percent. In view of the uncertainties in such quantities
as permeabdity, compressibility, steamzone thickness, and insitu oil viscosity, this difference due to
Effect of Sfze of Interval Open to Production
The foregoing results were obtained with the assumption that oil is allowed to flow into the well throughout
. .
th.~~gh
:m+~m,~lmn=n
the helgnt of the oilbearing ti..,..
.,.steam is injected over a limited interval. In the field,
ditliculties might arise in completing a well so as to
allow injection to be selective but production to be
from the entire interval. It is therefore desirable to
compare the foregoing results with some in which
horizontal flow is prevented from the oil layer directly
into the well. This last situation would correspond to
L.hatof ~ we!! whose casing was perforated only over
the interval for steam injec~ion. Modifying the boundary conditions as outlined in Appendix A so that
ap,D/& = O over the height of the oil layer, we obtained results for dimensionless cumulative produc
180,
I
160
t
.1/7
&..
STEAM
ZONE
FORMATION
THICKNESS
THICKNESS
* 50
* 173
~ **
FEET
JUNE, 1970
FEET
FROM
TOP
..@v
CHANGE
IN PRODUCING WELL PRESSURE
I
200
I 00
I
300
TIME
Fig.Cumulative
, 25
FEET
oilproduction
(for crossflow
IN
AT
63
OAYS
I
:00
OAYS
model) as a function
of time for various positions of steam zone.
763
TABLE 2COMPARISON
OF CALCULATED
RESULTS
0
\
409
\
AND WITHOUT WELL OPEN OVER ENTIRE
DimensionlessCumulativeProduction
INTERVAL
;OvJ::
Dimensionless
Production
Time,
tm
Time of
ViscosityProfile
After Steam
Inimtinn
.....
. ... .. (Dam)
,, .,
WITH
St;i:d
crossflow
: N
niff . .. .a
e,.m,w
lnlU
ilrossfhw into
SteemZone
,,,
iiLWI1l
(percent)
ZoneOnly
104
om358
0.01s4
0.0177
3.8
105
0.0143
0.0583
0.0658
3.7
104
0.0141
0.0434
0.0430
0.9
105
0.0480
0.1145
0.1141
0.3
r.frW= 441.1
r~lh
= 0.001875
STEAM
I 20 
ZONE
FORMATION
THICKNESS
THICKNESS
x 50
x 173
FEET
FEET
z
n
m
~
z
z
g
~
100
POSITION
80
~
u
>
~
1
3
x
>
0
40
F~ssRERE
OF
STEAM
ZONE
L:?LROM
~ ,ill
= 186.5
OAYS
>
20
_\/~l
0
TIME
Fig. 10Cumulative
oil production
(for stratified
IN
10
400
300
200
100
OAYS
model) as a function
of time for various
positions of steam zone.
I 40
FoRMATlo
THIcKNEss
= 175
FEET
120
=
n
.
Q
100
z
STEAM
;
:
ZONE
THICKNESS
/
IN
FEET
100
eo

z
g
50
THICK NES!
:
~
2
>
s
>
u
0
40
FSHEP:SSRE
o(FL
20
y#y
,
I
0
o
I 00
300
200
TIME
Fig. nCumulative
764
oil production
IN
400
OAYS
(for stratified model) as a function of time for various
zone located in the middle of the formation.
thicknesses
of steam
JOURNAL OF PETROLEUM TECHNOLOGY
heat loss does not appear excessive. In cases of high
WORs, however, the heat carried off by the water
could be significant.a8
Nomenclature
~: ~
Genera! cQIlclusions
A model has been developed that gives a good description of the steamsoak process in depletiontype
fields. It takes into account in an approximate manner
the effect of crossflow in reservoirs with isotropic permeability. The model may also be applied to stratified
reservoirs. For purposes of calculation it is essential
to know the thickness and vertical position of the
steam zone, as well as the reservoir permeabdity,
compressibility, and oil viscosity.
Important conclusions demonstrated by the model
are as follows:
1. For a steam zone of given size, location of the
zone somewhere near the middle of the formation
..
fin,, ~ the
enhances production of oua I.
Ue.&
. oil
 is heated
both above and below the steam zone. Thk objective
should be more easily attainable in case of limited
vertical permeability.
2. When crossflow is important, confining steam
injection to a thin interval rather than allowing it to
enter the entire interval will give a larger production
response for a given quantity of steam injected, if the
steam remains in a thin zone.
3. When crossflow is not important, thick steam
zones are preferable to thin ones for instances of toplocated steam zones.
STRATIFIED
WELL
h =
,,
h, =
H, =
k=
ko =
K=
N(t) =
Ni(t) =
No(t) =
N,(t) =
P=
compressibility, psi 1
crossflow factor for cumulative production
height of producing interval, exclusive of
steam zone, ft
steam zone thickness, ft
enthalpy of steam relative to the formation, Btu/lb
permeability, darcies
oil permeability, darcies
thermal conductivity of cap and base
rock, Btu/(ft D F)
total cumulative oil production at time
t, bbl
cumulative production per unit thickness
from the ith layer at time t, bbl
cumulative oil production at time t from
ownrc
 LJ
oiibearm~
.., b~]
cumulative production from steamzone
layer at time t,bbl
pressure, psig
pD = dimensionless pressure drop,
P(
Pf
Pw
jD = volumetric average dimensionless pressure drop
p, = original formation pressure, psig
pm = producing well pressure, psig
MOfJEL
A
TIME,
OAYS
., mm,. ,
Fig. 12Effect
of produced
heat on cumulative
oil produ&ion.
765
dimensionless pressure drop in Region 1
dimensionless pressure drop in Region 2
PI PW,psi
total heat loss, Btu
Subscripts
Q,., = oil produced by expansion of the cold
References
Qh.=a ~.
.1. .1.,..,
p,.o
p,~
Ap
Q
=
z
=
=
j~~~i, Vd ft
Q~il, = oilc:~me
to resaturate the steam zone,
Q. = dimensionless cumulative production
from uniform reservoir
nz TC= dimensionless cumulative production
from tworegion composite reservoir
r = radial variable, ft
r, = outer reservoir boundary radius, ft
rn = r/rW
r8 = steamzone radius, ft
rm = well radius, ft
reo = dimensionless outer reservoir boundary
radius = r,/r~
rSLI= dimensionless steamzone radius = r8/r10
tie = change in oil saturation of steam zone
t = time, measured from start of production,
days
td = delay or soak time, days
t,~ = dimensionless time based on Region 2
constants (6.328 kt/@Kicr,c:)
f. = nth value of time after start of production at which production is calculated,
n=0,1,2,
. . .. days
t~ = total time, t + td, days
tfi II = time for oil to resaturate steam zone, days
time
fl~vs
.taom {qi..finn
finj
Ir
T, =
T, =
Ti =
T,, =
~ =
~D =
x~D=
xsII =
z =
ZD=
a! =
y =
p =
Pi =
p. =
~,Cl =
p,C, =
p,i, =
T=
+
..
3LGU11L
11
JW..
V..
. . ...7
equivalent heating time for layers adjacent to steam zone, days
temperature in cooling steam zone, F
temperature in heated regions adjacent to
steam zone, F
original formation temperature, F
injection steam temperature, OF
vertical distance measured from center
of steam zone, ft
h r~
h re/rW
h r,V/rtO
vertical distance measured from base of
steam zone, ft ( = lxI hs/2)
z/h
thermal diffusivity of cap and base rock,
sq ft/D
4. KP,C,/h,.(P,C,), days/ [(h,(P,C,)21
od viscosity, cp
oil viscosity at original formation temperature, cp
oil viscosity corresponding to t., cp
volumetric heat capacity of steam zone,
Btu/cu ft F
volumetric heat capacity of cap and base
rock, Btu/cu ft F
mass steam injection rate, tons/D
~
porosity
tinj
1 = medium 1, hot
2 = medium 2, cold
B,: SeGQndary Recovery of Oil by Steam Injection in the United States, Proc., Third Symposium
on the Development of Petroleum Resources of Asia
and the Far East, New York (1967 ) IL
2. Bums, James: {A Review of $te~~l Soak @r~&~~~~
in California, J. Pet. Tech. (Jan., 1969) 2534.
3. Bowman, C. H. and Gilbert, S.: A Successful CYCliC
ctnm
U.W.....Tni.ction
........... Project
in
the Santa Barbara
Tech. (Dec., 1969)
Field,
15311s39.
4. Adams, R. H. and Khm,, A. M.: Cyclic Steam Injection Performance Analysls and Some Results of a Continuous Steam Displacement Pilot, J. Pet. Tech. (Jan.,
Eastern Venezuel~;, J. Pet.
1969) 95100.
5. de Haan, H. J. and van Lookeren, J.: Early Results of
the First LargeScale Steam Soak Project in the Tia
Juana Field, Western Venezuela, J. Pet. Tech. (Jan.,
1969) 101110.
6. Boberg, T. C. and Lantz, R. B.: Calculation of the
Production Rate of a Thermally Stimulated Well, J.
Pet. Tech. (Dec., 1966) 16131623.
7. Davidson, L. B., Miller, F. G. and Mueller, T. D.: A
Mathematical Model of Reservoir Response During the
Cyclic Injection of Steam, SOC. Pet. Eng. J. (June,
1967) 174188.
8. Martin, John C.: A Theoretical Analysis of Steam
Stimulation, J. Per. Tech. (March, 1967) 411418.
9. Seba, R. D., Jr., and Perry, G. E.: A Mathematical
Model of Repeated Steam Soaks of Thick Gravity
Drainage Reservoirs, J. Pet, Tech. (Jan., 1969) 8794.
10. Kuo, C. H., Shain, S. A. and Phocas, D. M.: A Gravity
Drainage Model for the SteamSoak Process, Sot. Pet.
Eng. J. (June, 1970).
11. Closmann, P. J. and Ratliff, N. W.: Calculation of
Transient Oil Production in a Radial Composite Reservoir, ~OC.Per.Errg:J: (Dec.; 1967) 355358.
12. van Everdingen, A. F. and Hurst, W.: The Application
of the Laplace Transformation
to Flow Problems in
Reservoirs, Tram., AIME ( 1949) 186, 305324.
13. Marx, J. W. and Langenheim, R. H.: Reservoir Heati#b;5Hot
Fluid Injection, Trans., AIME ( 1959) 216,
14. Closmann,
P. J.: Steam Zone Growth During MultipleLayer Steam Injection, Sot. Pet. Eng. J. (March,
1967) 110.
15. Carslaw, H. S. and Jaeger, J. C.: Conduction of Heat
2nd cd., Oxford at the Clarendon
Press
in Solids,
(1959) 60.
APPENDIX
Estimation of Crossflow Effects
An estimate of the effects of crossflow can be obtained
by comparing the numerical results of two models
shown in Figs. 13 and 14. In each of these models,
the viscosity of oil in the inner region (radius less
than or equal to steamzone radius) is assumed to be
a function of vertical distance from the steam zone,
and the viscosity of oil in the outer region is assumed
to be the oil viscosity at reservoir temperature. In the
crossflow model shown in Fig. 13, flow in the vertical
direction is allowed. The boundaries of the steam zone
(z = O, r,. < r < r,) and of the wellbore (r = rW)are
maintained at a constant unit pressure drop. Only
radial flow is permitted in the model without crossflow, with a constant unit pressure drop on the weUbore. A dimensionless cumulative production for each
of these models can be defined as the volumetric aver10T?RN
AT
OF
Pl=TRO1
FIJJ&f
TFf7HNOI.OC,Y
age dimensionless pressure drop. The cumulative
~ro@ow factors can then be obtained as the ratio
of the average pressure drop in the crossflow case to
that without crossflow at any given time.
We shall discuss in some detail the formulation and
numerical solution to the crossflow model, since the
model represented by Fig. 14 may be considered as
a special case of the crossflow model.
Model with Crossflow
Consider the system in Fig. 13 to be composed of two
regions, as follows:
Region 1 the heated region, r,. < r < 83 where
P
onxD=(),oszDsl,t2D>
p,~
0>
onzD=l,o<xDs%D,t2D
aPID
(A4)
(A5)
(A6)
(A7)
(A8)
(A9)
>0>
(J
azo
onzD=(),()sxDgx8D>r2D
ah
>05
az.
onzD=oj
x$D<xD~xeD,
t2D
>O>.
p(z).
Region 2 the cold region, r, < r < r., where
v = pi.
@2D
In Region 1, we must solve
onzD
(A1)
.,
where plD may be regarded as the flow potential (or
pressure if gravity is neglected). It is convenient to
make the following substitutions:
azD
=
1,x*D
onxD=xeD,
PID
<XD
xeD,t~D > ~ .
o<zD<l,
=
t2D>
?kD
onxD=x8D,o<zD~l,t2D
>01
(An)
and with the initial condition
plil
o
pm
on dl
Eq. A1 now becomes
,,r.a,
,,,
~2xD apl.
~ r,O
ax,,
&,,
,
___
~(:),p,j,
aih
1
azD
Pi
(A2)
In Region 2, Eq. A2 reduces to the normal twodimensional diffusion equation
~_2rD?pm
ax~
r,.
a2p2D
.. _
t?z,;
?P21)
at,,,
(A3)
Thus, we must solve Eqs. A2 and A3 subject to
the boundary conditions
STEAM
ZONE
XD,
zD;
t2D
0.
. . . (A12)
This problem was solved by use of a combination
implicitexplicit finite difference procedure. Basically,
imp!icit formulation in
the procedure consists fif
. .an. . ....
the xD direction and an explicit formulation in the ZD
direction.
The pressure drops at an advanced time tD + AtD
are computed in a twostep procedure from those at
In the first step, the finite differa known time level tl,.
ence equations representing Eq. A2 are solved for
each z~ plane with Eqs. A4 through A6 and A11
Next, the finite difference representation of Eq. A3
is solved for each zD plane with Eqs. A7 through
A10.
After the pressure drop has been computed for all
grid points, the volumetric average pressure drop (a
form of dimensionless cumulative production) is computed by a numerical integration of
BOUNOARY
c
STEAM
ZONE
BOUNDARY
o~
I
I h):
PRODUCING
INTERVAL
#
v
:+
(2)
Fig, 13Model
with crossflow.
2D
~:pi
~D
I
1
;$
I
P,o: 1
k
Fig. 14Model
dptD ~ dpzob
11_
,.
I P(ZO)d,D Hi d,~
IA
1
without crossflow.
767
(A18)
:D=~
lo
rWz
.
onxD=xeD,
JJ
X.D
PD(XDY
zD)e2Ddx~zD
PID
onxD
..
o<zD<l>f2D>
=
P2D
X8D,
()
<
P2D
ZD
<
l,t2D>0t
Alg)
(A13)
PID
The dimensiodess production rate may be obtained
by numerical dtierentiation of the cumulativevstime
results.
On~lxD,
zD;
tD=O
(A20)
q~mrficmlv
 , one space dimension appears in Eqs.
A14 and A15, the CrankNlcolson implicit
pro~a~eo~n~e~=
cedure
W=
used
h
the
soiuUOIi
Of
thk
Model Without Crossflow
tially the same computational scheme at each time
For the case of the model without flow in the vertical
step was employed as for the crossflow model. Eq.
direction, the partial diflerentid equation for Region
A14 was first solved for a given horizonti plane
1 is
with the first and second boundary conditions. Then
~zp:=
_
u aD,n
[A1A)
 .for each plane with the third
\n.r, Eq. A15 was solved
L.
.
.
.
.
e2~D
ax~ pi at2D
and fourth boundary conditions: Finally, Eq. A13
was solved by numerical integration. The Crossflow
and the equation for Region 2 is
factors calculated in this manner are plotted on Figs.
15 through 17.
e.,zD
32P2D
_
@D
(A15)
..
.
.
.
.
&
8x*
APPENDIX B
The boundary conditions applicable to this case are
Initial Tempemtire Distribution
pA~= 1
After termination of steam injection, the initial temperature distribution in the medhm adjoining the
steam zone depends upon radkl position. In order
to simplify calculations, we used a dktribution function that represents the same total amount of heat
loss from the steam zone and yet is independent of
radkd position. Such a function may be obtained in
the following mannec
If tilection heat equals 2,000 pSi8HStinj, then totid
heat lo~s ~Uds
(A16)
onxD=o,o<zD<l?f2D>
1
0?
@lD
.1
@2D
pi
ihD
\
i
IL(ZD)
onxD
8P2D
axD
X8D,0 < ZD <
1, 2D > Y
A17)
ihD
)2
~,
11
Q = 2000f%i8H,ti.j iTr,2&&(~8
08L
LAYER
,.,c..~=
IN
,00
. . . . . . . . ..
200
~ET
r, = 12.616
,./,.
.
202
I 3
,s/,
. 441
..
p8i,H,h,plClv(7)
[ (T. 7i) Kp2c2
(B2)
where
The steam zone radius r, is obtained, for a given
steamzone t.lickness h. > 0, from Marx and Langenheims formula13 for steamzone growth:
20
\\
~i)
(B1)
,\
),
,,,
,..
\t\
:5
1.
o,,.
L,,
E.
T(c NNESS
.
W,w
z+
IN FEET
!00
.200
. 202
I 3
<
*,/, W . 2060
%
.
:3
.
s
r,
:2
 _tyJJ

g
.
__ 

1.0


~
:,
1
l
t
I
1!11!1
0,02
Fig.
..
I , I , II
S,ON LESS
TIME
I,,.
! , I
,o~
,04
.,,
N5Curnulative
,0,
1,1!11
O,oz
1 111111
II
IILI
w
IO*
lo~
D,.
C.5,01+
LESS
TIME
19,,
crossflow factors for Wells A and B.
Fig. 16Cumulative
JOURNI+L
crossflow factors for Wells A and B.
OF PETROLEUM
TECHNOLOGY
V(T)=
eefic V~
where the temperature was assumed to have the onedimensional error function distribution.
1+2
(B3)
From these equations it is found that
and
7 =y~inj,
...
irc .
,
4cr2
(B4)
with
(B1O)
where
4K&,
y = ~,z (Plc,)z
(B5)
(ti.j = steam injection time). In.this calculation i! is
assumed that the thermal properties of the odbeafmg
Iavers adjacent to the steam zone and of the cap and
b~se
rock are equal.
For the case of h. = O, then r, can be obtained
from
?4tinj% .
p,i,H,
r~ = 18.952
1
[ (T, Ti) ~=
. . . . (B6)
. . . .
= erfc
APPENDIX
z=lx\h*/2
and
B9)
T,(z) = Ti + (T. Ti) erfc &
4rrr
(Bn)
1X1
(B12)
hs/2
c&
After steam injection ceases, the temperature distribution may be represented, for purposes of computation,
by the result of Appendix B. Then> during he ~~1
period and later, the temperature dlstrlbutlon
change with time as heat leaks away from the system.
To represent this changing temperature distribution, the following assumptions are made:
1. Temperature within the resaturating steam zone
remains uniform across the height of the zone but
declines with time.
2. Heat loss occurs in the vertical direction only.
These conditions may be restated as follows:
(B8)
General Temperature Distr~bution
Subsequent To Steam Injection
(B7)
where
The initial dimensionless temperature distribution can
then be represented by
Let Q be distributed such tha:
Q = 2p2C,~r,2 ~ [T,(z) Td dz,
Let
h, = steamzone
T,
thickness,
steamzone temperature.
If
Iz=t+
td,
32T,
1.?L
axz
~m
()<lx\<*@,
. . . . .
;
~,
:
(c1)
tT>o;
.
(c2)
then
~,,,,l,i,,
,,,,,,
,,
T,
()
h,
= T,(t,),
~,tT
O~!x+~t
. .
. . . .
h,?JT, =_K
plcl =j~
,,,
,;
(0
Fig. 17Cumulative
m~o,McN~,
oNLE,,
,,ME
,0
,(20)0
crossflow factors for Wells A and B.
()
T>O
(c3)
. . .
.
~
&y ICI=+
(c4)
The solutions for T, and T, were obtained by means
The temperature T,(t) in the
of Laplace transforms.
steam zone is as follows:
769
;(t)_T~{
= @(f+ d) erfc
+ td)
~y(t
;$::,~,(z,+$)e+(t+td)
+ +1
erfc
2~a,
t(i) dz ,
Vy(t
(t + td)
.
(c5)
As with the calculations in Appendix B, it is assumed that the thermal properties of the oilbearing
layers adjacent to the steam zone and of the cap and
base rock are equal.
Since the value of the heat capacity P,CI of the
depleted (but resaturating) zone is changing because
of resaturation with oil, a time average value of plC1
has been used in Eqs. C5, C5a, and C6 above. This
value was computed for each time tas follows.
Before fillup of steam zone,
where
tfill
(plcl)av
4Kp2c,
y = h,z(plcl) o .
t)
Ti
2v.a;t+
(22)2
[e
4a2(t+$.i)
2~a*(t
pc
,J(z+
o
dz,
td)
f(z
2+2
[ 2~~,(t + td)
.
plc,. . (C8)
(plcl)w
P~C~(t
tfi]])
tfill
(plcl)
.
1
(c9)
If expansion of the cold layer adjoining the steam zone
is insutiicient to resaturate the steam zone, then
e+l(~+td)
1
+
pLhs
After fillup of steam zone,
+)
z
[
(2+2)2
4a*(t+f,j)
erfc
tfill
T, T,
P2C2
(C5a)
and f(z + h,/2) is the initial dktribution obtained
from Appendix B.
Temperature T,(z, t) in the adjacent oilbearing
layers can be obtained from
T,(z,
~y(t
td)
~)
xc,
~y(t+td)
+~y(t
+1
td)
(clo)
Q~i,l = oil volume to resatumte the steam zone
= ~(rs rW2)#h,AS~ ,
dz ,
where
2(2 +.2) pzcl
(C6)
(C11)
Q,,, = oil produced by expansion of the cold
layer
where z = lxi h2/z.
For the case h, = O, Eq. C6 becomes
T,(z,
t)
Ti
T, T,
2~7raz(t
co
(z_z,
td)
Original
manuscript
received in Society of Petroleum
Engineers
office June 30, 1969. Revieed
manuscript
received
Feb. 9, 1970.
Paper (SPE 2516) was presented
at SPE 44th Annual Fall Meeting,
held in Denver,
Colo., Sept.
28Ott.
L 1969. 0 copyright
1970
American
Intiitute
of Mining,
Metallurgical,
and
petroleum
EnInc.
gineers,
(7+*,)2
)2
_
j(z)
4a2(+
d+
e
4a2(+
d) dz
1
o
.:.
(c7)
This paper will
will cover 1970.
be
printed
JOURNAL
in
Transactions
OF PETROLEUM
volume
249,
which
TECHNOLOGY