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Artist'sbook

FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Artists'booksareworksofartthatutilizetheformofthebook.Theyareoftenpublishedinsmalleditions,thoughtheyaresometimesproducedasoneofakindobjects.

Contents
1 Overview
2 Earlyhistory
2.1 Originsoftheform:WilliamBlake
3 Avantgardeproduction19091937
3.1 RussianFuturism,19101917
3.2 DadaandSurrealism
4 AfterWorldWarIIpostmodernismandpopart
4.1 Regroupingtheavantgarde
4.2 DieterRothandEdRuscha
4.3 FluxusandtheMultiple
4.4 Conceptualart
4.5 Proliferationandreintegrationintothemainstream
5 Criticalreception
6 Criticalissuesanddebate
7 Photogallery
8 Seealso
9 References
10 Furtherreading
11 Externallinks

TwentysixGasolineStations,
1963byEdRuscha.

Overview
Artists'bookshaveemployedawiderangeofforms,includingscrolls,foldouts,concertinasorlooseitemscontainedinabox.Artistshavebeenactiveinprintingandbookproductionforcenturies,buttheartist'sbookis
primarilyalate20thcenturyformwithrootsinearlieravantgardemovements,suchasDada,Constructivism,Futurism,andFluxus.
"Artists'booksarebooksorbooklikeobjectsoverthefinalappearanceofwhichanartisthashadahighdegreeofcontrolwherethebookisintendedasaworkofartinitself."StephenBury[1]
Artists'booksaremadeforavarietyofreasons.Theyareoftencreatedtomakeartthatisinteractive,portable,movableandeasilyshared.Manyartistsbookschallengetheconventionalbookformatandbecomesculptural
objects.Theymaybecreatedinordertomakeartaccessibletopeopleoutsideoftheformalcontextsofgalleriesormuseums.[2]

Earlyhistory
Originsoftheform:WilliamBlake
WhilstartistshavebeeninvolvedintheproductionofbooksinEuropesincetheearlymedievalperiod(suchastheBookofKellsandtheTrsRichesHeuresduDucdeBerry),mostwritersonthesubjectcitetheEnglish
visionaryartistandpoetWilliamBlake(17571827)astheearliestdirectantecedent[4][5]

BookssuchasSongsofInnocenceandofExperiencewerewritten,illustrated,printed,colouredandboundbyBlakeandhiswifeCatherine,andthemergingofhandwrittentextsandimages
createdintenselyvivid,hermeticworkswithoutanyobviousprecedents.Theseworkswouldsetthetoneforlaterartists'books,connectingselfpublishingandselfdistributionwiththeintegration
oftext,imageandform.Allofthesefactorshaveremainedkeyconceptsinartists'booksuptothepresentday.

Avantgardeproduction19091937
AsEuropeplungedheadlongtowardsWorldWarI,variousgroupsofavantgardeartistsacrossthecontinentstartedtofocusonpamphlets,posters,manifestosand
books.Thiswaspartiallyasawaytogainpublicitywithinanincreasingprintdominatedworld,butalsoasastrategytobypasstraditionalgallerysystems,disseminate
ideasandtocreateaffordableworkthatmight(theoretically)beseenbypeoplewhowouldnototherwiseenterartgalleries.
ThismovetowardradicalismwasexemplifiedbytheItalianFuturists,andbyFilippoMarinetti(18761944)inparticular.Thepublicationofthe"FuturistManifesto",
1909,onthefrontcoveroftheFrenchdailynewspaperLeFigarowasanaudaciouscoupdethtrethatresultedininternationalnotoriety.[6]Marinettiusedtheensuing
fametotourEurope,kickstartingmovementsacrossthecontinentthatallveeredtowardsbookmakingandpamphleteering.

ZangTumbTumb,
1914,byMarinetti

InLondon,forinstance,Marinetti'svisitdirectlyprecipitatedWyndhamLewis'foundingoftheVorticistmovement,whoseliterarymagazineBLASTisanearlyexample
ofamodernistperiodical,whileDavidBomberg'sRussianBallet(book)(1919),withitsinterspersingofasinglecarefullyspacedtextinterspersedwithabstractcolour
lithographs,isalandmarkinthehistoryofEnglishlanguageartists'books.WithregardstothecreationofArtists'books,themostinfluentialoffshootoffuturist
principles,however,occurredinRussia.Marinettivisitedin1914,proselytizingonbehalfofFuturistprinciplesofspeed,dangerandcacophony.[7][8]

RussianFuturism,19101917

CentredinMoscow,aroundtheGileiaGroupofTransrational(zaum)poetsDavidandNikolaiBurliuk,ElenaGuro,VasiliKamenskiandVelimirKhlebnikov,theRussianfuturistscreateda
sustainedseriesofartists'booksthatchallengedeveryassumptionoforthodoxbookproduction.Whilstsomeofthebookscreatedbythisgroupwouldberelativelystraightforwardtypeseteditions
ofpoetry,manyothersplayedwithform,structure,materialsandcontentthatstillseemscontemporary.

Blake'shandpainted
frontispieceforSongsof
Innocenceandof
Experience.Thisversionof
thefrontispieceisfromCopy
Zcurrentlyheldbythe
LibraryofCongress. [3]

KeyworkssuchasWorldbackwards(1912),byKhlebnikovandKruchenykh,NataliaGoncharova,LarionovRogovinandTatlin,TransrationalBoog(1915)byAliagrovandKruchenykh&Olga
RozanovaandUniversalWar(1916)byKruchenykhusedhandwrittentext,integratedwithexpressivelithographsandcollageelements,creatingsmalleditionswithdramaticdifferencesbetween
individualcopies.Othertitlesexperimentedwithmaterialssuchaswallpaper,printingmethodsincludingcarboncopyingandhectographs,andbindingmethodsincludingtherandomsequencingof
pages,ensuringnotwobookswouldhavethesamecontextualmeaning.[9]
RussianfuturismgraduallyevolvedintoConstructivismaftertheRussianRevolution,centredonthekeyfiguresofMalevichandTatlin.Attemptingtocreateanewproletarianartforanew
communistepoch,constructivistbookswouldalsohaveahugeimpactonotherEuropeanavantgardes,withdesignandtextbasedworkssuchasElLissitsky'sForTheVoice(1922)havingadirect
impactongroupsinspiredordirectlylinkedtocommunism.DadainZurichandBerlin,theBauhausinWeimarandDeStijlintheNetherlandsallprintednumerousbooks,periodicalsand
theoreticaltractswithinthenewlyemergingInternationalModerniststyle.Artist'sbooksfromthiseraincludeKurtSchwitter'sandKateSteinitz'sbookTheScarecrow(1925),andTheovan
Doesburg'speriodicalDeStijl.

TransrationalBoog,1914,
byOlgaRozanova

DadaandSurrealism
DadawasinitiallystartedattheCabaretVoltaire(Zrich),byagroupofexiledartistsinneutralSwitzerlandduringWorldWarI.OriginallyinfluencedbythesoundpoetryofWassilyKandinsky,andtheBlaueReiterAlmanac
thatKandinskyhadeditedwithMarc,artists'books,periodicals,manifestoesandabsurdisttheatrewerecentraltoeachofDada'smainincarnations.BerlinDadainparticular,startedbyRichardHuelsenbeckafterleavingZurich
in1917,wouldpublishanumberofincendiaryartists'books,suchasGeorgeGrosz'sTheFaceOfTheDominantClass(1921),aseriesofpoliticallymotivatedsatiricallithographsabouttheGermanbourgeoisie.
Whilstconcernedmainlywithpoetryandtheory,SurrealismcreatedanumberofworksthatcontinuedintheFrenchtraditionoftheLivred'Artiste,whilstsimultaneouslysubvertingit.MaxErnst'sUneSemainedeBont
(1934),collagingfoundimagesfromVictorianbooks,isafamousexample,asisMarcelDuchamp'scoverforLeSurralisme'(1947)featuringatactilethreedimensionalpinkbreastmadeofrubber.[10]
OneimportantRussianwriter/artistwhocreatedartistbookswasAlexeiRemizov.[11]DrawingonmedievalRussianliterature,hecreativelycombineddreams,reality,andpurewhimsyinhisartistbooks.

AfterWorldWarIIpostmodernismandpopart
Regroupingtheavantgarde
AfterWorldWarII,manyartistsinEuropeattemptedtorebuildlinksbeyondnationalistboundaries,andusedtheartist'sbookasawayofexperimentingwithform,disseminatingideasandforginglinkswithlikemindedgroups
inothercountries.
"InthefiftiesartistsinEuropedevelopedaninterestinthebook,undertheinfluenceofmodernisttheoryandintheattempttorebuildpositionsdestroyedbythewar."DieterSchwarz[12]
Afterthewar,anumberofleadingartistsandpoetsstartedtoexplorethefunctionsandformsofthebook'inaseriousway'[13]ConcretepoetsinBrazilsuchasAugustoandHaroldodeCampos,CobraartistsintheNetherlands
andDenmarkandtheFrenchLettristsallbegantosystematicallydeconstructthebook.AfineexampleofthelatterisIsidoreIsou'sLeGrandDsordre,(1960),aworkthatchallengestheviewertoreassemblethecontentsofan
envelopebackintoasemblanceofnarrative.Twootherexamplesofpoetartistswhoseworkprovidedmodelsforartists'booksincludeMarcelBroodthaersandIanHamiltonFinlay.[14]
YvesKleininFrancewassimilarlychallengingModernistintegritywithaseriesofworkssuchasYves:Peintures(1954)andDimanche(1960)whichturnedonissuesofidentityandduplicity.[15]Otherexamplesfromthisera
includeGuyDebordandAsgerJorn'stwocollaborations,FindeCopenhague(1957)andMmoires'(1959),twoworksofPsychogeographycreatedfromfoundmagazinesofCopenhagenandParisrespectively,collagedand
thenprintedoverinunrelatedcolours.[16]

DieterRothandEdRuscha
Oftencreditedwithdefiningthemodernartist'sbook,[17]DieterRoth(193098)producedaseriesofworkswhichsystematicallydeconstructedtheformofthebookthroughoutthefiftiesandsixties.Thesedisruptedthecodex's
authoritybycreatingbookswithholesin(e.g.PictureBook,1957),allowingtheviewertoseemorethanonepageatthesametime.Rothwasalsothefirstartisttoreusefoundbookscomicbooks,printer'sendpapersand
newspapers(suchasDailyMirror,1961,[18]andAC,1964).[19]AlthoughoriginallyproducedinIcelandinextremelysmalleditions,Roth'sbookswouldbeproducedinincreasinglylargeruns,throughnumerouspublishersin
EuropeandNorthAmerica,andwouldultimatelybereprintedtogetherbytheGermanpublisherHansjrgMayerinthe1970s,makingthemmorewidelyavailableinthelasthalfcenturythantheworkofanyothercomparable
artist.
AlmostcontemporaneouslyintheUSA,EdRuscha(1937present)printedhisfirstbook,TwentysixGasolineStations,in1963inaneditionof400,buthadprintedalmost4000copiesbytheendofthedecade.[20]Thebookis
directlyrelatedtoAmericanphotographictravelogues,suchasRobertFranksTheAmericans'(1965),butdealswithabanaljourneyonroute66betweenRuscha'shomeinLosAngelesandhisparents'inOklahoma.[21]Inone
ofthedefininginnovationsofthegenre,Ruschachosetodistributetheoriginaleditioninthegasolinestationsthathe'dphotographed,therebycompletelybypassingtraditionalmeansofdisseminationwithintheartworld.Like
Roth,Ruschacreatedaseriesofhomogenousbooksthroughoutthesixties,includingEveryBuildingontheSunsetStrip,1966,andRoyalRoadTest,1967.
ASwissartistworthmentioningisWarjaHoneggerLavater,whocreatedartists'bookscontemporaneouslywithDieterRothandEdRuscha.

FluxusandtheMultiple
GrowingoutofJohnCage'sExperimentalCompositionclassesfrom1957to1959attheNewSchoolforSocialResearch,FluxuswasaloosecollectiveofartistsfromNorthAmericaandEuropethatcentredonGeorge
Maciunas(193178),whowasborninLithuania.MaciunassetuptheAGGalleryinNewYork,1961,withtheintentionofputtingoneventsandsellingbooksandmultiplesbyartistsheliked.Thegalleryclosedwithinayear,
apparentlyhavingfailedtosellasingleitem.[22]Thecollectivesurvived,andfeaturedaneverchangingrosteroflikemindedartistsincludingGeorgeBrecht,JosephBeuys,DaviDetHompson,DanielSpoerri,YokoOno,
EmmettWilliamsandNamJunePaik.[23][24]
Artists'books(suchasAnAnthologyofChanceOperations)andmultiples[25](aswellashappenings),werecentraltoFluxus'ethosdisdaininggalleriesandinstitutions,replacingthemwith'artinthecommunity',andthe
definitionofwhatwasandwasn'tabookbecameincreasinglyelasticthroughoutthedecadeasthetwoformscollided.ManyoftheFluxuseditionssharecharacteristicswithbothGeorgeBrecht'sWaterYam(1963),for
instance,involvesaseriesofscorescollectedinabox,whilstsimilarscoresarecollectedtogetherinaboundbookinYokoOno'sGrapefruit(1964).AnotherfamousexampleisLiteratureSausagebyDieterRoth,oneofmany

artiststobeaffiliatedtofluxusatoneorotherpointinitshistoryeachonewasmadefromapulpedbookmixedwithonionsandspicesandstuffedintosausageskin.Literallyabook,bututterlyunreadable.LitsaSpathiand
RundJansenoftheFluxusHeidelbergCenterintheNetherlandshaveanonlinearchiveoffluxuspublicationsandfluxuswebslinks.[26]
"Artists'booksbegantoproliferateinthesixtiesandseventiesintheprevailingclimateofsocialandpoliticalactivism.Inexpensive,disposableeditionswereonemanifestationofthedematerializationoftheart
objectandthenewemphasisonprocess....Itwasatthistimetoothatanumberofartistcontrolledalternativesbegantodeveloptoprovideaforumandvenueformanyartistsdeniedaccesstothetraditionalgallery
andmuseumstructure.Independentartpublishingwasoneofthesealternatives,andartists'booksbecamepartofthefermentofexperimentalforms.'JoanLyons.[27]

Conceptualart
Theartist'sbookprovedcentraltothedevelopmentofconceptualart.LawrenceWeiner,BruceNaumanandSolLeWittinNorthAmerica,Art&LanguageintheUnitedKingdomandJaroslawKozlowskiinPolandallusedthe
artist'sbookasacentralpartoftheirartpractice.Anearlyexample,theexhibitionJanuary531,1969organisedinrentedofficespaceinNewYorkbySethSiegelaub,featurednothingexceptastackofartists'books,also
calledJanuary531,1969andfeaturingpredominantlytextbasedworkbyLawrenceWeiner,DouglasHueblerJosephKosuthandRobertBarry.SolLeWitt'sBrickWall,(1977),forinstance,simplychronicledshadowsasthey
passedacrossabrickwall,whilstKozlowski'sReality(1972)tookasectionofKant'sCritiqueofPureReason,removingallofthetext,leavingonlythepunctuationbehind.AnotherexampleistheEinbetoniertesBuch,[28]1971
(bookinconcrete)byWolfVostell.
LouiseOdesNeaderland,thefounderandDirectorofthenonprofitgroupInternationalSocietyofCopierArtists(I.S.C.A.)helpedtoestablishelectrostaticartasalegitimateartform,andtoofferameansofdistributionand
exhibitiontoXeroxbookArtists.Volume1,#1ofTheI.S.C.A.QuarterlywasissuedinApril1982inafolioof50eightbyeleveninchunboundprintsinblackandwhiteorcolorXerography.Eachcontributingartistsworkof
XeroxartwasnumberedintheTableofContentsandthecorrespondingnumberwasstampedonthebackofeachartistswork."TheformatchangedovertheyearsandeventuallyincludedanAnnualBookworksEdition,which
containedaboxofsmallhandmadebooksfromtheI.S.C.A.contributors."Aftertheadventofhomecomputersandprintersmadeiteasierforartiststodowhatthecopymachineformerlydid,Volume21,#4inJune2003was
thefinalissue."The21yearsofTheI.S.C.A.Quarterliesrepresentedavisualrecordofartistsresponsestotimelysocialandpoliticalissues,"aswellastopersonalexperiences.[29]ThecompleteI.S.C.Aquarterlycollectionis
housedandcataloguedattheJaffeCenterforBookArtsattheFloridaAtlanticUniversitylibrary.[30]

Proliferationandreintegrationintothemainstream
Astheformhasexpanded,manyoftheoriginaldistinctiveelementsofartists'bookshavebeenlost,blurredortransgressed.ArtistssuchasCyTwombly,AnselmKieferandPINKdeThierry,withherseriesEncyclopaedia
Arcadia,[31]routinelymakeunique,handcraftedbooksinadeliberatereactiontothesmallmassproducededitionsofpreviousgenerationsAlbertOehlen,forinstance,whilststillkeepingartists'bookscentraltohispractice,
hascreatedaseriesofworksthathavemoreincommonwithVictoriansketchbooks.Areturntothecheapmassproducedaesthetichasbeenevidencedsincetheearly90s,withartistssuchasMarkPawsonandKarenReimer
makingcheapmassproductioncentraltotheirpractice.
Contemporaryandpostconceptualartistsalsomadeartist'sbooksanimportantaspectoftheirpractice,notablyWilliamWegman,BobCobbing,MartinKippenberger,RaymondPettibon,FreddyFloresKnistoffandSuze
Rotolo.InnovativebookartistsinpopupbooksandotherthreedimensionaloneofakindbookssuchasBruceSchnabel,CarolBarton,HediKyle,andSusanJoySharehavetaughtandsharedtheirartinworkshopsatcenters
suchastheCenterforBookArts[32]inNewYorkCity,andtheVisualArtsStudio,theVirginiaMuseumofFineArtsStudioSchool,theVirginiaMuseumofFineArtsStatewideOutreachProgram,andthenolongerextant
RichmondPrintmakingWorkshop,allinRichmond,Virginia.OtherinstitutionsdevotedtotheartformincludeSanFranciscoCenterfortheBookandWomen'sStudioWorkshopinRosendale,NY.

Criticalreception
Intheearly1970stheartist'sbookbegantoberecognizedasadistinctgenre,andwiththisrecognitioncamethebeginningsofcriticalappreciationofanddebateonthesubject.Institutionsdevotedtothestudyandteachingof
theformwerefounded(TheCenterforBookArtsinNewYork,forexample)libraryandartmuseumcollectionsbegantocreatenewrubricswithwhichtoclassifyandcatalogartists'booksandalsoactivelybegantoexpand
theirfledglingcollectionsnewcollectionswerefounded(suchasFranklinFurnaceinNewYork)andnumerousgroupexhibitionsofartist'sbookswereorganizedinEuropeandAmerica(notablyoneatMooreCollegeofArt
inPhiladelphiain1973,thecatalogofwhich,accordingtoStefanKlima'sArtistsBooks:ACriticalSurveyoftheLiterature,isthefirstplacetheterm"Artist'sBook"wasused).Bookstoresspecializinginartists'bookswere
founded,usuallybyartists,includingEcartin1968(Geneva),OtherBooksandSoin1975(Amsterdam),ArtMetropolein1974(Toronto)andPrintedMatterinNewYork(1976).Allofthesealsohadpublishingprogrammes
overtheyears,andthelattertwoarestillactivetoday.

Inthe1980sthisconsolidationofthefieldintensified,withanincreasingnumberofpractitioners,greatercommercialization,andalsotheappearanceofanumberofcriticalpublicationsdevotedtotheform.In1983,for
example,CathyCourtneybeganaregularcolumnfortheLondonbasedArtMonthly(Courtneycontributedarticlesfor17years,andthisfeaturecontinuestodaywithdifferentcontributors).TheLibraryofCongressadoptedthe
termartistsbooksin1980initslistofestablishedsubjects,andmaintainsanactivecollectioninitsRareBookandSpecialCollectionsDivision.
Inthe1980sand1990s,BA,MAandMFAprogramsinBookArtwerefounded,somenotableexamplesofwhicharetheBAatMillsCollegeinCalifornia,theMFAattheUniversityoftheArtsinPhiladelphia,theMAat
CamberwellCollegeofArtinLondon,andtheBAattheCollegeofCreativeStudiesattheUniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara.TheJournalofArtists'Books(JAB)wasfoundedin1994to"raisethelevelofcriticalinquiry
aboutartists'books."
In1994,aNationalBookArtExhibition,[33]Artexlibris,[34]washeldatArtspaceGalleryinRichmond,Virginia,andtheVirginiaCommissionfortheArtsawardedatechnicalassistancegrantforvideotapingtheexhibition.
AdditionalfundingandassistancewasgiventotheexhibitionbytheRichmondArtistsAssociationandVirginiaCommonwealthUniversity'sCabellLibrary.Amongtheartistswhosebooksorbookrelatedartwereincludedin
theArtexlibrisexhibitionandvideowereJimLee,DeniseMullen,SallyMcKay,MaryleBytheriver,CarolBarton,LouiseOdesNeaderland,IsotaEpes,AnneIott,JohnField,JoAnnaPoehlmann,CliffordEdwards,Grafiche
G.V.,ClaudiaJemmott,HenriettaNear,JenniferYane,HelmutEppich,ISCA,IrenePerry,JoniMabe,MariaEpes,DavidFreed,SusanK.Gaylord,ScottMcCarney,CarylBurtner,AnneSavedge,BenoitJacques,EllenLanyon,
GregSpaid,RichardMcClintock,JoyceCutlerShaw,SharonGilbert,RobertHumphreys,MeganO'Connell,JulyenNorman,TriciaPearsall,PhilipSmith,CenterforBookArt,DeborahRoth,RoomyPak,GordonFluke,David
Cole,MarilynRosenberg,BuckDowns,HomerSpringer,JaniceMcMurray,JacquesClipsham,MarianHollowell,BeverlyNichols,JeanBeuescher,JackieWall,EdnaLazaron,RobertBrinkerhoff,AlyssaSalomon,Ken
Winebrenner,AmieOliver,PeterSramek,JeanBeuescher,andDaviDetHompson[35](akaDavidE.Thompson).[36]AsecondvideorecordingportionsoftheArtexLibrisbookartforum,HowVirginiaWoolfBroughtMeUp,
wasbasedonthememoriesofkeynotespeakerIsotaEpesandproducedbygallerycuratorMitziHumphrey.[37]
In1995,excerptsfromArtexLibris:TheNationalBookArtInvitationalatArtspacevideodocumentarywereshownintheFrancesandArmandHammerAuditoriumatthe4thBiannualBookArtsFairsponsoredbyPyramid
AtlanticattheCorcoranGalleryofArt.In1996,theArtexLibrisdocumentarywasincludedinanauctionatSwannGalleriestobenefittheCenterforBookArtsinNewYorkCity.ManyofthebooksexhibitedinArtexLibris
atArtspaceGalleryandArtexMachinaat1708GalleryarenowintheSacknerArchiveofConcreteandVisualPoetryinMiami,Florida.
Inrecentdecadestheartist'sbookhasbeendeveloped,bywayoftheArtists'recordalbumconceptpioneeredbyLaurieAndersonintonewmediaformsincludingtheartist'sCDROMandtheartist'sDVDROM.Beginningin
2007,theCodexFoundationbeganitsBookFairandSymposium,[38]abiennial4dayeventintheSanFranciscoBayAreaattendedbycollectorsandproducersofartistbooksaswellaslaypeopleandacademicsinterestedin
themedium.

Criticalissuesanddebate
Anumberofissuesaroundtheartist'sbookhavebeenvigorouslydebated.Someofthemajorthemesunderexaminationhavebeen:
1.Definitionoftheartist'sbook:distinguishingbetweentheterms'artist'sbook','bookart','bookworks','livred'artiste',finepressbooks,etc.
2.Wheretheartist'sbook"should"besituatedinrelationtoCraftandFineArttraditions.
3.Wheretoputtheapostrophe.
4.Whenisamagazineabook?Someexamplesof"artists'books"providedonthispage(suchasTheovanDoesburg'sDeStijl)aremagazinesandnotbooksatall.

Photogallery

Legendary,Lexical,
Catformedfrom
LoquaciousLoveby
foldedpagesofabook
EveRhymer(Karen
Reimer),1996,an
alphabeticalre
orderingofthetextina
romancenovel

Contemporaryartist's
bookbyCheriGaulke

sculpturalartistbook

Seealso
Artdiary
Alteredbook
Listofbookartscenters
Asemicwriting
Bookbinding
Finepress
Illuminatedmanuscript
Letterpressprinting
Miniaturebook
Zine

References
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InnocenceandofExperience,copyZ,object1(Bentley1,Erdman1,
Keynes1)"GeneralTitlePage" ".WilliamBlakeArchive.Retrieved
September26,2013.
4.TheCenturyofArtists'Books.GranaryBooks.2004.p.21.
5.Miller,GwendolynJan,Master'sThesis,AdvertisingDesign,Syracuse
University(2000).DiscoveringArtists'Books(PDF).Cachedcopyretrieved
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6.ForanEnglishtranslationMarinetti,F.T.(1909)."TheFuturist
Manifesto".cscs.umich.edu.Archivedfromtheoriginalon26November
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7.Althoughhisvisitdidn'tgoparticularlywell,withkeymembersofCubo
Futurismfeelingdistinctlypatronisedbyhispronouncements.See
CollaboratingontheparadigmofthefuturebyMargaritaTupitsyn"?".
8.TheRussianAvantGardeBook,Rowell&Wye,MOMA,2002,p11
9.TheRussianAvantGardeBook,Rowell&Wye,MOMA,2002
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Breton'sLeSurralismeetlaPeinture(1945)byThomasGirst".
toutfait.com.Retrieved24November2010.
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SyntheticArt,NorthwesternUniversityPress,2010.
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p120
13.TheCenturyofArtists'Books,Drucker,GranaryBooks,p12
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MoeglinDelcroix,Esthtiquedulivredartiste,19601980(Paris:Jean

MichelPlaceBiliothquenationaledeFrance,1997),6095.
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Stations,1962photographer".Artforum.Retrieved24November2010.
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25.ThetermMultiplehadfirstbeenusedbyDanielSpoerritodescribehis
EditionMAT'massproducedsculpturesin1959
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Furtherreading
Bringhurst,Robert,andPeterRutledgeKoch(http://www.peterkochprinters.com).(2011)TheArtoftheBookinCalifornia:FiveContemporaryPressesStanford:StanfordUniversityLibraries,ISBN9780911221466
Jury,David(http://www.davidjury.com),ed.(2007)BookArtObjectBerkeley:CodexFoundation(http://www.codexfoundation.org),ISBN9780981791401
Jury,David(http://www.davidjury.com),andPeterRutledgeKoch(http://www.peterkochprinters.com),eds.(2013)BookArtObject2Berkeley:CodexFoundation(http://www.codexfoundation.org)andStanford:
StanfordUniversityLibraries,ISBN9780911221503
ViolaHildebrandSchat,StefanSoltek:ArtbytheBook(German),ed.byKlingsporMuseumOffenbach,Lindlar2013.DieNeueSachlichkeit,ISBN9783942139328
Celant,Germano,translatedfromtheItalianbyCorineLotz(1972)BookasArtwork,196072
Lippard,Lucy(1973)Sixyears:TheDematerializationoftheArtObjectfrom1966to1972
Celant,GermanoandTimGuest(1981)BooksbyArtists
Lyons,Joan,ed.(1985)Artists'Books:ACriticalAnthologyandSourcebook
Abt,Jeffrey(1986)TheBookMadeArt:ASelectionofContemporaryArtists'Books
Smith,Keith(1989)StructureoftheVisualBook
Bleus,Guy(1990)ArtisBooks
Castleman,Riva(1994)ACenturyofArtistsBooks
Alexander,Charles,ed.(1995)TalkingtheBoundlessBook:Art,Language,andtheBookArts
Bury,Stephen(1995)Artists'Books:TheBookAsaWorkofArt,19631995
JohannaDrucker,(1995)TheCenturyofArtists'Books
MoeglinDelcroix,Anne.(1997)Esthtiquedulivredartiste,19601980.Paris:JeanMichelPlaceBiliothquenationaledeFrance.
JohannaDrucker,(1998)FiguringtheWord:EssaysonBooks,Writing,andVisualPoetics
Klima,Stefan(1998)ArtistsBooks:ACriticalSurveyoftheLiterature
Lauf,CorneliaandClivePhillpot(1998)Artist/Author:ContemporaryArtists'Books
Hubert,RenneRiese,andJuddD.Hubert(1999)TheCuttingEdgeofReading:Artists'Books
Khalfa,Jean(2001)TheDialoguebetweenPaintingandPoetry:Livresd'Artistes18741999,BlackApolloPress
Perre,Rob(2002)CovertoCover:TheArtist'sBookinPerspective
Bright,Betty(2005)NoLongerInnocent:BookArtinAmerica,19601980
Fusco,MariaandIanHunt(2006)PutAbout:ACriticalAnthologyonIndependentPublishing
Friedman,Julia(http://www.juliafriedman.net/).BeyondSymbolismandSurrealism:AlexeiRemizov'sSyntheticArt,NorthwesternUniversityPress,2010.ISBN0810126176(http://www.nupress.northwestern.edu/Title/
tabid/68/ISBN/0810126176/Default.aspx)(TradeCloth)
FirshingBrown,Ellen."BeyondwordsArtists'BooksinModernismMagazine(2008)".publishing.yudu.com.Retrieved24November2010.
BernhardCella(2012)CollectingBooks:AselectionofrecentArtandArtists'BooksproducedinAustria[1](http://salonfuerkunstbuch.at/collectingbooks.html)[2](http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J3HE93j33WQ),a
YouTubeVideothatispartoftheproject.
Umbrella(http://umbrellaeditions.com/),foundedandeditedbyJudithHoffberg,isoneoftheoldestonlineperiodicalscoveringartistsbooksandothermultipleeditions.Availableonlinefortheyears19782005through
theDigitalCollectionsoftheIUPUIUniversityLibrary.
Brown,Kathryn,ed.(2013),TheArtBookTraditioninTwentiethCenturyEurope:PicturingLanguage.

Externallinks
OffBook:BookArt(http://video.pbs.org/video/2178721014)documentaryproducedbyOffBook
BookArts(https://www.dmoz.org/Arts/Crafts/Book_Arts)atDMOZ

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