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1) What is the endocrine system?

The endocrine system, it influences almost every cell, organ function of our bodies. The endocrine system plays a role in regulating mood, growth and development, tissue function, metabolism, and sexual function and reproductive processes. In general, this system is in charge of body processes that happen slowly, such as cell growth.

2) Explain, how is the endocrine system organized?

The endocrine system is organized by three parts, the glands, the hormones and the effector organs. The hormones are chemical messengers that have the function of communicate cells with each other. The simple definition of a hormone as an intercellular Messenger is much more inclusive than the original one, which limited the hormones to substances produced by specialized multicellular organs, the glands, and then the secreted hormones circulate in the blood until arrive and act on distant target organs

3) What is a gland?

A gland is a group of cells that produces and secretes, or gives off chemical. A gland selects and removes materials from the blood, processes them, and secretes the finished chemical product for use somewhere in the body. Some types of glands release their secretions in specific area are the exocrine glands and endocrine glands.

4) What are exocrine glands? Give examples

Exocrine glands are glands that produce and secrete substances (hormones) onto a epithelial surface by way of a duct. Examples of exocrine glands include sweat, salivary, mammary, ceruminous, lacrimal, sebaceous and mucous.

5) What are endocrine glands? Give examples

The endocrine gland secretes products (hormones) into bloodstream. Examples of exocrine glands are pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, and pineal. And other organs secrete hormones as a second function, for example the hypothalamus, thymus, pancreas, ovaries, testes, kidneys, stomach, liver, small intestine, skin, heart and placenta.

6) In a diagram, identify the main glands of a man and woman body and their location

6) In a diagram, identify the main glands of a man and woman body and their

7) What are hormones?

Hormones are chemical messengers that secreted directly into the blood, which carries them to organs and tissues of the body to exert their function. There are many types of hormones that act on different aspects of bodily functions and processes. Some of these include:

-Development and growth -Metabolism of food items -Sexual function and reproductive growth and health -Cognitive function and mood -Maintenance of body temperature and thirst.

8) What are target or Diana cells and what are their function?

Is a term applied to any cell in which a hormone binds to its receptor, can be determined or not by a biochemical or physiological response. Cells where hormones exert their effect are capable and appropriate target cell; when this happens, the hormone in the target cells fits like a key in a lock, and the cell is driven to perform a specific action.

9) Which are the hormones functions?

Different hormones perform specific roles inside of your body. Some of these hormones work quickly to start or stop a process, and some will continually work over the course of a long period of time to perform their necessary jobs. Some of the jobs include the body’s growth and development, metabolism (or production of energy), sexual function and reproduction.

10) Name hormones according to its chemical nature and in which glands are they produced?

Chemical nature

Hormone

Gland

Aminoacid

Melatonin

Pineal gland

Thyroxine

Thyroid gland

Protein

Insulin

pancreas

Growth hormone

Luteinizing hormone

Follicle-stimulating hormone

Thryroid stimulating hormone

Fatty acid (eicosanoids)

Archinodic acid

lipoxins

prostaglandins

Steroids

Estradiol

Ovary, testes

Testosterone (cortisol)

testes

11) What are trophic hormones and where they are produced?

It is a hormone that acts upon non-endocrine organs and tissues for the purposes of promoting cellular growth, differentiation, and survival. Often confused with tropic hormones.

Hormones

secreted

by

the

adenohypophysis

(anterior

lobe

of

pituitary

gland)

that

s

timulate

target

organs.

 

12) Name the tropic hormones and indicate to what glands do they stimulate?

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH or thyrotropin) – stimulates the thyroid

gland increasing the size and number of cells.

stimulates the

then

<a href=gland increasing the size and number of cells. stimulates the then thyroid gland to produce triiodothyronine Is a pituitary hormone that thyroxine (T ), and (T ) which stimulates the metabolism of almost every tissue in " id="pdf-obj-4-16" src="pdf-obj-4-16.jpg">

gland to produce

<a href=gland increasing the size and number of cells. stimulates the then thyroid gland to produce triiodothyronine Is a pituitary hormone that thyroxine (T ), and (T ) which stimulates the metabolism of almost every tissue in " id="pdf-obj-4-22" src="pdf-obj-4-22.jpg">

Is a pituitary hormone that

(T 4 ), and

(T 3 ) which stimulates the metabolism of almost every tissue in

the body

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH or corticotropin) – stimulates the adrenal

cortex increasing the size and number of cells, also known as

a

produced and secreted by the

<a href=Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH or thyrotropin) – stimulates the thyroid gland increasing the size and number of cells. stimulates the then thyroid gland to produce triiodothyronine Is a pituitary hormone that thyroxine (T ), and (T ) which stimulates the metabolism of almost every tissue in the body Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH or corticotropin) – stimulates the adrenal cortex increasing the size and number of cells, also known as a polypeptide tropic hormone produced and secreted by the corticotropin , is anterior pituitary gland . It is an important component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and is often produced in response to biological stress (along with its precursor corticotropin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus ). 13) What are no trophic glands? Where do they work? Where are they produces? They are hormones that directly stimulate target cells to induce effects. This differs from the tropic hormones , which act on another endocrine gland . Non-tropic hormones are those that act directly on targeted tissues or cells, and not on other endocrine gland to stimulate release of other hormones. Many hormones act in a chain reaction The reaction begins in the hypothalamus with a release of corticotropin-releasing hormone / factor ( CRH/F; tropic ) . This stimulates the anterior pituitar y and causes it to release Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; tropic) to the adrenal glands 14) What does negative feedback consists in? Negative feedback or mechanism is occurs when some function of the output of a system, process, fed back in a manner that tends to reduce the fluctuations in the output, whether caused by changes in the input or by other disturbances. A good example of a negative feedback mechanism is a home thermostat (heating system). The thermostat contains the receptor (thermometer) and control center. If the heating system is set at 70 degrees Fahrenheit, the heat (effector) is turned on if the temperature drops below 70 degrees Fahrenheit. After the heater heats the house to 70 degrees Fahrenheit, it shuts off effectively maintaining the ideal temperature. 15) What does positive feedback consists in? " id="pdf-obj-4-54" src="pdf-obj-4-54.jpg">

corticotropin

, is

gland. It is an important component of the

and

is often produced in response to biological stress (along with its

13) What are no trophic glands? Where do they work? Where are they produces?

They are hormones that directly stimulate target cells to induce effects. This differs

from the

tropic hormones, which act on another

endocrine gland. Non-tropic

hormones are those that act directly on targeted tissues or cells, and not on

other

to stimulate release of other hormones. Many hormones act

in a chain reaction

The reaction begins in the <a href=hypothalamus with a release " id="pdf-obj-4-106" src="pdf-obj-4-106.jpg">

The reaction begins in the

with a release

of

corticotropin-releasing hormone/factor (CRH/F; tropic). This stimulates the

anterior pituitary and causes it to release Adrenocorticotropic hormone

(ACTH;

tropic) to the

14) What does negative feedback consists in?

Negative feedback

or mechanism is

<a href=Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH or thyrotropin) – stimulates the thyroid gland increasing the size and number of cells. stimulates the then thyroid gland to produce triiodothyronine Is a pituitary hormone that thyroxine (T ), and (T ) which stimulates the metabolism of almost every tissue in the body Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH or corticotropin) – stimulates the adrenal cortex increasing the size and number of cells, also known as a polypeptide tropic hormone produced and secreted by the corticotropin , is anterior pituitary gland . It is an important component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and is often produced in response to biological stress (along with its precursor corticotropin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus ). 13) What are no trophic glands? Where do they work? Where are they produces? They are hormones that directly stimulate target cells to induce effects. This differs from the tropic hormones , which act on another endocrine gland . Non-tropic hormones are those that act directly on targeted tissues or cells, and not on other endocrine gland to stimulate release of other hormones. Many hormones act in a chain reaction The reaction begins in the hypothalamus with a release of corticotropin-releasing hormone / factor ( CRH/F; tropic ) . This stimulates the anterior pituitar y and causes it to release Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; tropic) to the adrenal glands 14) What does negative feedback consists in? Negative feedback or mechanism is occurs when some function of the output of a system, process, fed back in a manner that tends to reduce the fluctuations in the output, whether caused by changes in the input or by other disturbances. A good example of a negative feedback mechanism is a home thermostat (heating system). The thermostat contains the receptor (thermometer) and control center. If the heating system is set at 70 degrees Fahrenheit, the heat (effector) is turned on if the temperature drops below 70 degrees Fahrenheit. After the heater heats the house to 70 degrees Fahrenheit, it shuts off effectively maintaining the ideal temperature. 15) What does positive feedback consists in? " id="pdf-obj-4-146" src="pdf-obj-4-146.jpg">

occurs when some

of the output of a system, process,

in a manner that tends to reduce the fluctuations in the

output, whether caused by changes in the input or by other disturbances. A good

example of a negative feedback mechanism is a home thermostat (heating

system).

The thermostat contains the receptor (thermometer) and control center. If

the heating system is set at 70 degrees Fahrenheit, the heat (effector) is turned on if the temperature drops below 70 degrees Fahrenheit. After the heater heats the house to 70 degrees Fahrenheit, it shuts off effectively maintaining the ideal temperature.

15) What does positive feedback consists in?

A positive feedback mechanism is the exact opposite of a negative feedback mechanism. With negative feedback, the output reduces the original effect of the stimulus. In a positive feedback system, the output enhances the original stimulus. A good example of a positive feedback system is child birth. During labor, a hormone called oxytocin is released that intensifies and speeds up contractions. The increase in contractions causes more oxytocin to be released and the cycle goes on until the baby is born. The birth ends the release of oxytocin and ends the positive feedback mechanism.

16) What is hypothalamus?

The hypothalamus is a section of the brain responsible for the production of many of the body’s essential hormones, chemical substances that help control different cells and organs. The hormones from the hypothalamus govern physiologic functions such as temperature regulation, thirst, hunger, sleep, mood, sex drive, and the release of other hormones within the body. This area of the brain houses the pituitary gland and other glands in the body.

17) Number hypothalamus functions

The hypothalamus has a central

function, most notably by its

control of the and organs.

A positive feedback mechanism is the exact opposite of a negative feedback mechanism. With negative feedback,neuroendocrine function, most notably by its control of the and organs. anterior pituitary , which in turn regulates various endocrine glands Releasing hormones (also called releasing factors ) are produced in h y pothalamic nuclei then transported along axons to either the median eminence or the posterior pituitary , where they are stored and released as needed. 18) Name the hormones that comes from hypothalamus and which are their functions Anterior pituitary Secreted hormone Abbreviation Effect Thyrotropin-releasing hormone TRH, TRF, or Stimulate thyroid-stimulating hormone (Prolactin-releasing PRH (TSH) release from anterior pituitary (primarily) hormone) Stimulate prolactin release from anterior pituitary " id="pdf-obj-5-18" src="pdf-obj-5-18.jpg">

anterior pituitary, which in turn regulates various endocrine glands

(also called releasing factors) are produced in

hypothalamic nuclei then transported along

axons to either the median

eminence or the

posterior pituitary, where they are stored and released as needed.

18) Name the hormones that comes from hypothalamus and which are their functions

Anterior pituitary

Secreted hormone

Abbreviation

Effect

   

TRH, TRF, or

(Prolactin-releasing

PRH

(TSH) release from anterior pituitary (primarily)

hormone)

Stimulate prolactin release from anterior pituitary

 

CRH or CRF

   

(Prolactin-inhibiting

DA or PIH

Inhibit prolactin release from anterior pituitary

hormone)

 

Stimulate growth-hormone (GH) release

GHRH

   

GnRH or

LHRH

 

Inhibit growth-hormone (GH) release from anterior

(growth-hormone-

inhibiting hormone)

SS, GHIH, or SRIF

Inhibit (moderately) thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) release from anterior pituitary

Posterior pituitary

Secreted

Abbreviatio

hormone

n

Effect

<a href=Corticotropin- Stimulate adrenocorticotropic hormone releasing hormone CRH or CRF (ACTH) release from anterior pituitary Dopamine (Prolactin-inhibiting DA or PIH Inhibit prolactin release from anterior pituitary hormone) Growth-hormone- Stimulate growth-hormone (GH) release releasing hormone GHRH from anterior pituitary Stimulate follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) release Gonadotropin- GnRH or from anterior pituitary releasing hormone LHRH Stimulate luteinizing hormone (LH) release from anterior pituitary Somatostatin Inhibit growth-hormone (GH) release from anterior (growth-hormone- pituitary inhibiting hormone) SS, GHIH, or SRIF Inhibit (moderately) thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) release from anterior pituitary Posterior pituitary Secreted Abbreviatio hormone n Effect " id="pdf-obj-6-137" src="pdf-obj-6-137.jpg">
 

OXY or

OXT

ADH or

Increase in the permeability to water of the cells of distal

(antidiuretic

AVP

tubule and collecting duct in the kidney and thus allows

hormone)

water reabsorption and excretion of concentrated urine

19) What is hypophysis? How is it formed?

The pituitary gland is a small gland located in the middle of the base of the brain. It consists of two parts, the anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis) and the posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis), and is not only connected to but also functionally

related to the hypothalamus. These two organs work together and regulate

almost

all metabolic processes

in the body by means of various hormones and other

chemical messengers. Many of them have a direct influence on the heart, liver and

kidneys, whilst others regulate the hormone production in other glands, e.g.

the thyroid.

20) Draw the hypophysis and label its three parts.

OXY or <a href=Uterine contraction Oxytocin OXT Lactation (letdown reflex) Vasopressin ADH or Increase in the permeability to water of the cells of distal (antidiuretic AVP tubule and collecting duct in the kidney and thus allows hormone) water reabsorption and excretion of concentrated urine 19) What is hypophysis? How is it formed? The pituitary gland is a small gland located in the middle of the base of the brain. It consists of two parts, the anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis) and the posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis), and is not only connected to but also functionally related to the hypothalamus. These two organs work together and regulate almost all metabolic processes in the body by means of various hormones and other chemical messengers. Many of them have a direct influence on the heart, liver and kidne y s, whilst others regulate the hormone production in other glands, e.g. the thyroid . 20) Draw the hypophysis and label its three parts. 21) number the hormones produced by adenohypophysis. Six hormones are produced by the adenohypophysis. These are: 1 .Somatotrophic hormone (STH) or Growth hormone (GH) 2. Adenocarticotrophic hormone (ACTH) " id="pdf-obj-7-70" src="pdf-obj-7-70.jpg">

21) number the hormones produced by adenohypophysis.

Six hormones are produced by the adenohypophysis. These are:

1 .Somatotrophic hormone (STH) or Growth hormone (GH) 2. Adenocarticotrophic hormone (ACTH)

3.

Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

3. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
  • 4. Prolactin or Lactogenic hormone (LTH)

  • 5. Gonadotropic hormone (GTH)

a. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)

b. Luteinizing hormone (LH)

22) number the hormones produced by the neurohypophysis.

1.-Oxytocin (OT)

2.-Vassopresin (VP)

23) name the hormone produced by the intermediate hypophysis.

1.-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)

24) what is the function, origin and location of the following hormones.

Thyroxine is the main hormone secreted into the bloodstream by the thyroid gland. Thyroid hormones play vital roles in regulating the body’s metabolic rate,

heart and digestive functions, muscle control, brain development and maintenance of bones.

Insulin is a hormone made by an organ located behind the stomach called

the

3. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) 4. Prolactin or Lactogenic hormone (LTH) 5. Gonadotropic hormone (GTH) a.y roxine is the main hormone secreted into the bloodstream b y the thyroid gland . Thyroid hormones play vital roles in regulating the body’s metabolic rate , heart and digestive functions, muscle control, brain development and maintenance of bones. Insulin is a hormone made by an organ located behind the stomach called the pancreas . Insulin is released from the pancreas into the bloodstream. It is a hormone essential for us to live and has many effects on the whole body, mainly in controlling how the body uses carboh y drate and fat found in food. Insulin allows cells in the muscles, liver and fat ( adipose tissue ) to take up sugar (glucose) that has been absorbed into the bloodstream from food. Glucagon is secreted to maintain glucose levels in the bloodstream when fasting and to raise very low glucose levels. it acts on the liver in several ways: glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis and reduces glucose consumption by the liver so that as much glucose as possible can be secreted into the bloodstream to maintain blood glucose levels. Glucagon also acts on adipose tissue to stimulate the breakdown of fat stores into the bloodstream. Adrenaline is a hormone released from the adrenal glands and its major action, together with noradrenaline, is to prepare the body for fight or flight, response in times of stress, ie, for vigorous and/or sudden action. It is produced in the medulla of the adrenal glands and in some neurons of the central nervous system. " id="pdf-obj-8-51" src="pdf-obj-8-51.jpg">

Insulin is released from the pancreas into the bloodstream. It is a

hormone essential for us to live and has many effects on the whole body, mainly in controlling how the body uses carbohydrate and fat found in food. Insulin allows cells in the muscles, liver and fat (adipose tissue) to take up sugar (glucose) that has been absorbed into the bloodstream from food.

Glucagon is secreted to maintain glucose levels in the bloodstream when fasting and to raise very low glucose levels. it acts on the liver in several ways:

glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis and reduces glucose consumption by the liver so that as much glucose as possible can be secreted into the bloodstream to maintain

blood glucose levels. Glucagon also acts on

to stimulate the

breakdown of fat stores into the bloodstream.

Adrenaline is a hormone released from the adrenal glands and its major action, together with noradrenaline, is to prepare the body for fight or flight, response in

times of stress, ie, for vigorous and/or sudden action. It is produced in the medulla

of the adrenal glands and in some neurons

of the central nervous system.

Cortisol is a steroid hormone which regulates a wide range of processes

throughout the body including metabolism and the immune response. It also has a

very important role in helping the body respond to stress.

known as a glucocorticoid,

Cortisol is a steroid hormone which regulates a wide range of processes throughout the body includingadrenal glands and then released into the blood which transports it all round the body. Aldosterone is a steroid hormone. Its main role is to regulate salt and water in the body, thus having an effect on blood pressure. Hormone produced in the outer section (cortex) of the adrenal glands , which sit above the kidneys . Testosterone is a hormone which is responsible for many of the physical characteristics specific to adult males.It plays a key role in reproduction and the maintenance of bone and muscle strength. gonads (by the Leydig cells in testes It is an androgen produced by the ovaries in women), in men and by the although small quantities are also produced by the adrenal glands in both sexes. Estrogens are hormones that are important for sexual and reproductive development, mainly in women. They are also referred to as female sex hormones. is produced mainly in the ovaries, but it is also produced by fat cells and the adrenal gland. Estrogen is involved in the onset of puberty, playing a role in the development of so-called secondary sex characteristics, such as breasts, and pubic and armpit hair. Estrogen also helps regulate the menstrual cycle , controlling the growth of the uterine lining during the first part of the cycle. Progesterone is a hormone released by the corpus luteum in the ovary. It plays important roles in the menstrual cycle and in maintaining the early stages of pregnancy. It may also be involved in the g rowth of certain cancers. It is mainly secreted by the corpus luteum cycle. in the ovary during the second half of the menstrual Gastrin is a hormone that is produced by ‘G’ cells in the lining of the stomach and upper small intestine. During a meal, gastrin stimulates the stomach to release gastric acid. This allows the stomach to break down proteins swallowed as food and absorb certain vitamins. It also acts as a disinfectan. Gastrin also stimulates growth of the stomach lining and increases the muscle contractions of the gut to aid digestion. Secretin hormone, contents agnosticaid formed from the in the by the epithelial cells of stomach, which incites diagnosis of pancreatic the secretion exocrine duodenum of pancreatic disease under the juice; as an stimulus used of as a in acid obt and adjunt di aining desquamated pancreatic cells for cytologic examination. " id="pdf-obj-9-11" src="pdf-obj-9-11.jpg">

It is a steroid hormone,

made in the cortex of the adrenal glands and then

released into the blood which transports it all round the body.

Aldosterone is a steroid hormone. Its main role is to regulate salt and water in the body, thus having an effect on blood pressure. Hormone produced in the outer

section (cortex) of the

adrenal glands, which sit above the kidneys.

Testosterone is a hormone which is responsible for many of the physical

characteristics specific to adult males.It plays a key role in reproduction and the

maintenance of bone and muscle strength.

gonads (by the Leydig cells in

Cortisol is a steroid hormone which regulates a wide range of processes throughout the body includingadrenal glands and then released into the blood which transports it all round the body. Aldosterone is a steroid hormone. Its main role is to regulate salt and water in the body, thus having an effect on blood pressure. Hormone produced in the outer section (cortex) of the adrenal glands , which sit above the kidneys . Testosterone is a hormone which is responsible for many of the physical characteristics specific to adult males.It plays a key role in reproduction and the maintenance of bone and muscle strength. gonads (by the Leydig cells in testes It is an androgen produced by the ovaries in women), in men and by the although small quantities are also produced by the adrenal glands in both sexes. Estrogens are hormones that are important for sexual and reproductive development, mainly in women. They are also referred to as female sex hormones. is produced mainly in the ovaries, but it is also produced by fat cells and the adrenal gland. Estrogen is involved in the onset of puberty, playing a role in the development of so-called secondary sex characteristics, such as breasts, and pubic and armpit hair. Estrogen also helps regulate the menstrual cycle , controlling the growth of the uterine lining during the first part of the cycle. Progesterone is a hormone released by the corpus luteum in the ovary. It plays important roles in the menstrual cycle and in maintaining the early stages of pregnancy. It may also be involved in the g rowth of certain cancers. It is mainly secreted by the corpus luteum cycle. in the ovary during the second half of the menstrual Gastrin is a hormone that is produced by ‘G’ cells in the lining of the stomach and upper small intestine. During a meal, gastrin stimulates the stomach to release gastric acid. This allows the stomach to break down proteins swallowed as food and absorb certain vitamins. It also acts as a disinfectan. Gastrin also stimulates growth of the stomach lining and increases the muscle contractions of the gut to aid digestion. Secretin hormone, contents agnosticaid formed from the in the by the epithelial cells of stomach, which incites diagnosis of pancreatic the secretion exocrine duodenum of pancreatic disease under the juice; as an stimulus used of as a in acid obt and adjunt di aining desquamated pancreatic cells for cytologic examination. " id="pdf-obj-9-42" src="pdf-obj-9-42.jpg">

It is an androgen produced by the

Cortisol is a steroid hormone which regulates a wide range of processes throughout the body includingadrenal glands and then released into the blood which transports it all round the body. Aldosterone is a steroid hormone. Its main role is to regulate salt and water in the body, thus having an effect on blood pressure. Hormone produced in the outer section (cortex) of the adrenal glands , which sit above the kidneys . Testosterone is a hormone which is responsible for many of the physical characteristics specific to adult males.It plays a key role in reproduction and the maintenance of bone and muscle strength. gonads (by the Leydig cells in testes It is an androgen produced by the ovaries in women), in men and by the although small quantities are also produced by the adrenal glands in both sexes. Estrogens are hormones that are important for sexual and reproductive development, mainly in women. They are also referred to as female sex hormones. is produced mainly in the ovaries, but it is also produced by fat cells and the adrenal gland. Estrogen is involved in the onset of puberty, playing a role in the development of so-called secondary sex characteristics, such as breasts, and pubic and armpit hair. Estrogen also helps regulate the menstrual cycle , controlling the growth of the uterine lining during the first part of the cycle. Progesterone is a hormone released by the corpus luteum in the ovary. It plays important roles in the menstrual cycle and in maintaining the early stages of pregnancy. It may also be involved in the g rowth of certain cancers. It is mainly secreted by the corpus luteum cycle. in the ovary during the second half of the menstrual Gastrin is a hormone that is produced by ‘G’ cells in the lining of the stomach and upper small intestine. During a meal, gastrin stimulates the stomach to release gastric acid. This allows the stomach to break down proteins swallowed as food and absorb certain vitamins. It also acts as a disinfectan. Gastrin also stimulates growth of the stomach lining and increases the muscle contractions of the gut to aid digestion. Secretin hormone, contents agnosticaid formed from the in the by the epithelial cells of stomach, which incites diagnosis of pancreatic the secretion exocrine duodenum of pancreatic disease under the juice; as an stimulus used of as a in acid obt and adjunt di aining desquamated pancreatic cells for cytologic examination. " id="pdf-obj-9-48" src="pdf-obj-9-48.jpg">

in women),

in men and by the

although small quantities are also produced by the

in both sexes.

Estrogens are hormones that are important for sexual and reproductive

development, mainly in women. They are also referred to as female sex

hormones.

is produced mainly in the ovaries, but it is also produced by fat cells and

the adrenal gland. Estrogen is involved in the onset of puberty, playing a role in the development of so-called secondary sex characteristics, such as breasts, and pubic and armpit hair. Estrogen also helps regulate the menstrual cycle, controlling the growth of the uterine lining during the first part of the cycle.

Progesterone is a hormone released by the corpus luteum in the ovary. It plays important roles in the menstrual cycle and in maintaining the early stages of

pregnancy. It may also be involved in the growth of certain cancers.

It is mainly

secreted by thecorpus luteum cycle.

in the ovary

during the second half of the menstrual

Gastrin is a hormone that is produced by ‘G’ cells in the lining of the stomach and

upper small intestine.

During a meal, gastrin stimulates the stomach to release

gastric acid.

This allows the stomach to break down proteins swallowed as food

and absorb certain vitamins. It also acts as a disinfectan. Gastrin also stimulates growth of the stomach lining and increases the muscle contractions of the gut to aid digestion.

Secretin

hormone,

contents

agnosticaid

formed

from

the

in

the

by

the

epithelial

cells

of

stomach,

which

incites

diagnosis

of

pancreatic

the

secretion

exocrine

duodenum

of

pancreatic

disease

under

the juice; as an
the
juice;
as
an

stimulus

used

of as a in
of
as
a
in

acid

obt

and

adjunt

di

aining desquamated

pancreatic

cells

for

cytologic

examination.

 

Cholecystokinin is a gut hormone released after a meal, which helps digestion and reduces appetite. Cholecystokinin is produced by I-cells in the lining of the duodenum and is also released by some neurons in the brain.

Triiodothyronine is a thyroid hormone that plays vital roles in the body’s metabolic rate, heart and digestive functions, muscle control, brain development and the maintenance of bones. Approximately 20% of triiodothyronine is secreted into the

bloodstream directly by the

Cholecystokinin is a gut hormone released after a meal, which helps digestion and reduces appetite. Cholecystokininthyroid gland . The remaining 80% is produced from conversion of thyroxine by organs such as the liver and kidneys . 25) Indicate the origin of the following diseases -acromegaly, gigantism, dwarfism Acromegaly is a condition that develops due to overproduction of growth hormone usually caused by a benign tumor of the pituitary gland. It leads to an increase in size of the hands and feet, and a change in the appearance of the face. Gigantism is a rare condition of accelerated growth and increased height as a result of too much growth hormone secretion during childhood or adolescence. It is almost always the result of a growth hormone secreting pituitary tumor. Dwarfism when an individual person or animal is short in stature resulting from a medical condition caused by slow growth. Extreme shortness in humans with proportional body parts usually has a hormonal cause, such as growth-hormone deficiency , once called pituitary dwarfism . -insipidus and mellitus diabetes Diabetes insipidus ( water diabetes) is caused by a reduction in, or failure to respond to, anti-diuretic hormone. This results in passing too much dilute urine and increased thirst. Diabetes mellitus is a condition in which the body does not produce enough of the hormone insulin, resulting in high levels of sugar in the bloodstream. There are many different types of diabetes; the most common are type 1 and type 2 diabetes. -goitre and cretinism Goiter: The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped gland found in the neck. A normal thyroid is usually not felt if finger pressure is applied to the neck. Any increase in size of the thyroid gland is called goiter " id="pdf-obj-10-10" src="pdf-obj-10-10.jpg">

The remaining 80% is produced from

conversion of thyroxine by organs such as the liver and

25) Indicate the origin of the following diseases

-acromegaly, gigantism, dwarfism

Acromegaly is a condition that develops due to overproduction of growth hormone usually caused by a benign tumor of the pituitary gland. It leads to an increase in size of the hands and feet, and a change in the appearance of the face.

Gigantism is a rare condition of accelerated growth and increased height as a result of too much growth hormone secretion during childhood or adolescence. It is almost always the result of a growth hormone secreting pituitary tumor.

Dwarfism

when an individual person or animal is short in stature resulting from a

medical condition caused by slow growth. Extreme shortness in humans with

proportional body parts usually has a hormonal cause, such as

deficiency, once called

pituitary dwarfism.

-insipidus and mellitus diabetes

Diabetes insipidus (water diabetes) is caused by a reduction in, or failure to respond to, anti-diuretic hormone. This results in passing too much dilute urine and increased thirst.

Diabetes mellitus is a condition in which the body does not produce enough of the

hormone insulin, resulting in high levels of sugar in the bloodstream.

There are

many different types of diabetes; the most common are type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

-goitre and cretinism

Goiter: The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped gland found in the neck. A normal thyroid is usually not felt if finger pressure is applied to the neck. Any increase in size of the thyroid gland is called goiter

Cretinism: Disease characterized by a permanent deficit in physical and mental development and is accompanied by body deformities and stunted intelligence; It is due to lack or destruction of the thyroid gland during the fetal stage.

-Disease of graves- basedow

The Graves' disease is an autoimmune thyroiditis, which stimulates the thyroid gland and is the most common cause of thyrotoxicosis. It is characterized by diffuse hyperplasia of the thyroid gland resulting in goitre and overactive gland or hyperthyroidism.

-hypothyroidism is a common

in which

the

does not produce enough

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in the

diet is the most common cause of hypothyroidism. Less common causes include

the following: previous treatment with

radioactive iodine, injury to

 
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the

or the

gland, certain medications,

-Cushing syndrome and Addison’s disease

Cushing’s syndrome is the name of a disorder that occurs when the body is

exposed to an excess of steroids such as the hormone versions.

or similar synthetic

Addison's disease is caused by damage to the adrenal glands, which make hormones to control the body’s response to stress, and balance body salt and water. Treatment is with tablets and some lifestyle adaptations to ensure patients remain well.

-hyperparathyroidism and hypoparathyroidism

Hyperparathyroidism is an excess of parathyroid hormone in the bloodstream due to over activity of one or more of the body's four parathyroid glands. These glands are about the size of a grain of rice and are located in your neck. Two types of hyperparathyroidism exist, primary hyperparathyroidism and secondary hyperparathyroidism.

Hypoparathyroidism is a rare condition in which not enough parathyroid hormone is produced by the parathyroid glands resulting in low calcium levels in the bloodstream. Hypoparathyroidism is caused by damage to parathyroid glands during neck surgery. The commonest non-surgical cause is destruction of the parathyroid glands by the body’s immune system. In very rare cases, the parathyroid glands are destroyed by irradiation, usually as a result of treatment of a

tumor, or rare diseases that attack the parathyroid glands. Some people are born with hypoparathyroidism (congenital) and sometimes the cause is unknown (idiopathic).