Segementation using ANN for brain tumour analysis

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Segementation using ANN for brain tumour analysis

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coefficient images using self-organizing maps

C. Vijayakumar a, , Gharpure Damayanti b , R. Pant a , C.M. Sreedhar a

a

Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Armed Forces Medical College, Pune, India

b Department of Electronic Science, University of Pune, Pune, India

Received 5 May 2006; received in revised form 17 April 2007; accepted 25 April 2007

Abstract

An accurate computer-assisted method to perform segmentation of brain tumor on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) images and evaluate

its grade (malignancy state) has been designed using a mixture of unsupervised artificial neural networks (ANN) and hierarchical multiresolution

wavelet. Firstly, the ADC images are decomposed by multiresolution wavelets, which are subsequently selectively reconstructed to form wavelet

filtered images. These wavelet filtered images along with FLAIR and T2 weighted images have been utilized as the features to unsupervised neural

network self organizing maps (SOM) to segment the tumor, edema, necrosis, CSF and normal tissue and grade the malignant state of the tumor.

A novel segmentation algorithm based on the number of hits experienced by Best Matching Units (BMU) on SOM maps is proposed. The results

shows that the SOM performs well in differentiating the tumor, edema, necrosis, CSF and normal tissue pattern vectors on ADC images. Using

the trained SOM and proposed segmentation algorithm, we are able to identify high or low grade tumor, edema, necrosis, CSF and normal tissue.

The results are validated against manually segmented images and sensitivity and the specificity are observed to be 0.86 and 0.93, respectively.

2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Self-organizing maps; Artificial neural networks; Multiresolution analysis; Apparent diffusion coefficients; Brain tumors; Image segmentation; Tumor

grading; Magnetic resonance imaging

1. Introduction

The diagnosis of brain tumors is an important application for

various medical imaging techniques. Magnetic resonance imaging is the preferred technique for detecting and characterizing

brain tumors in medical imaging. Correct identification of tumor

grade decides the subsequent treatment.

Several approaches have been proposed to effectively segment and grade brain tumors. Fletcher-heath et al. [1] proposed

an automatic segmentation technique which separates non

enhancing brain tumor using an unsupervised fuzzy clustering

method. Clark et al. [2,3] reported a knowledge-based technique

for brain tumor segmentation. In their method, conventional MR

images (T1-weighted, proton density, and T2-weighted) were

utilized in a system that integrated knowledge-based techniques

with multispectral analysis. Liu et al. [4] proposed a system

based on fuzzy connectedness method for quantifying high grade

E-mail address: vijayafmc@gmail.com (C. Vijayakumar).

with Gadolinium enhancement have been utilized to gather

information about different aspects of the tumor and its vicinity. Time and Axel [5] reported a novel method to evaluate the

malignancy state of breast tumors by an unsupervised method

self organizing maps using the Dynamic contrast enhanced

magnetic resonance imaging. SOM technique has been extensively utilized to handle extremely complex data and cluster

them but very little attention has been given to utilizing it for

segmentation. Reddick et al. [6] developed a pixel-based twostage approach where a SOM is trained to segment multispectral

MR images which are subsequently classified into white matter,

gray matter, etc., by a feed-forward ANN. Hierarchical network

architecture has been developed for optical character recognition

[7] and for segmentation of range images [8].

In spite of the above cited activities in research, a unique

technique to segment and grade brain tumors has not yet been

reported. In this study, a method based on SOM has been

proposed to segment and grade brain tumors using magnetic

resonance images. The reason for choosing the unsupervised

technique SOM for this work is its ability to cluster extremely

0895-6111/$ see front matter 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.compmedimag.2007.04.004

Please cite this article in press as: Vijayakumar C, et al., Segmentation and grading of brain tumors on apparent diffusion coefficient images

using self-organizing maps, Comput Med Imaging Graphics (2007), doi:10.1016/j.compmedimag.2007.04.004

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complex data [9]. It creates a set of prototype vectors representing the data set and carries out a topology preserving projection

of the prototypes from the high dimensional input space onto a

low-dimensional grid. This ordered grid can be used as a convenient visualization surface for showing different patterns of the

SOM and thus of the data.

Conventionally, magnetic resonance images such as T1, T2

and FLAIR weighted images have been used in evaluating brain

tumors. Nevertheless, evaluation of the tumors solely on the

basis of T1, T2 and FLAIR weighted images is not successful in every case [1012]. Recent advances in medical imaging

suggest that values obtained from apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps of diffusion-weighted images may play a

role in the evaluation of tumors [1315]. Diffusion-weighted

magnetic resonance imaging provides image contrast through

measurement of the diffusion properties of water within tissues.

Application of diffusion sensitizing gradients to the MR pulse

sequence allows water molecular displacement over distances

of 120 m to be recognized. Combining images obtained with

different amounts of diffusion weighting provides an apparent

diffusion coefficient (ADC) map. In brain tumor imaging, ADC

maps have been successfully used to distinguish brain tumors

from oedema. They are also increasingly exploited to differentiate low grade and high grade region where increased cellularity

of high grade lesions restricts water motion in a reduced extracellular space. Thus, characterization of tumors by ADC maps

may not only help to differentiate tumors based on cellularity,

but also to demarcate tumors from surrounding tissue and to

grade the malignancy.

In this study, we sought to determine whether SOM is capable

of segmenting and grading brain tumors using the information

provided by ADC maps, wavelet filtered images of ADC maps,

along with conventional images such as FLAIR and T2 weighted

images. The cellularity of tissues represented in ADC maps is

resolved by employing a multiresolution wavelet technique. The

wavelet is a promising technique for medical image segmentation task [1618] due to its ability to provide information at

the different resolution levels. The multiresolution approach of

wavelet has been identified as the ideal tool for extracting local

textural features from the images [19,20].

2. Methods

2.1. Data acquisition

Using a 1.5-T MR unit, we obtained axial T2 weighted images

with imaging parameters of 4200/99 (TR/TE), a slice thickness

of 5 mm, FLAIR images with imaging parameters of 8200/114

(TR/TE), a slice thickness of 5 mm and DWIs with imaging

parameters of 3800/107 (TR/TE), a slice thickness of 5 mm.

The DWIs were acquired with b values of 0, 1000 in three perpendicular directions by using the echo-planar imaging (EPI).

Number of slices acquired in every protocol was six and number

of averages employed was two. Analysis of diffusion changes

was performed by calculating the ADC values as the negative

slope of the linear regression line best fitting the points for b

versus ln(SI), where SI is the signal intensity from the diffusion

been carried out at the MR work station and the ADC maps

have been constructed for every slice. These ADC map is the

average map of three map constructed from all three direction.

2.2. Preprocessing

As a preliminary step in the preprocessing, the registration

of all the images has been carried out to ensure the pixel-topixel correlation. All the images have been registered by bring

them all to a common matrix size of 256 256 with the field of

view of 23 cm 23 cm. Subsequently all the images has been

standardized to have normalized pixel values. This standardization has been implemented to overcome the variation exist in

the pixel values of images of different patients and bring all the

images to have common pixel levels [21]. Then, cranium has

been removed in the standardized images by employing the histogram threshold method. This has been specifically employed at

the peripheral side of the images to avoid the removal of regions

having similar pixel values of cranium in the intracranial region.

2.3. Wavelet decomposition and selective reconstruction

In wavelet transform, a basis filter known as a mother filter, is dilated and translated to provide frequency information

as a function of time or location [2224]. Eq. (1) shows how

the wavelet coefficients are obtained given a wavelet basis filter

that is scaled and translated by factors of 2. In this equation, a

dot product is formed between f(x), representing the function

to encode, and representing the mother wavelet. The parameter j is the scaling factor, k is the translation factor, and the

multiplication factor normalizes the dot product:

1

xk

W(j, k) = j f (x),

(1)

2

2j

In order to process the image, each of either the scaling function or wavelet filter is applied in several different orientations.

These orientations are constructed by multiplying a 1D scaling functions and the corresponding wavelet . As provided

below, Eq. (2) responds to variations in the vertical directions.

Eq. (3) responds to variations in the horizontal direction. Eq. (4)

responds to variations along diagonals. Finally, Eq. (5) describes

the scaling function, which is used to generate the approximation

coefficients:

1 (x, y) = (x) (y)

(2)

2 (x, y) = (x)(y)

(3)

(4)

(x, y) = (x)(y)

(5)

image is decimated by half in each coordinate. As a result, four

different images containing the mentioned coefficients are generated, each being 1/4 the size of the original images. Since every

wavelet coefficient carries unique information, each has been

preserved separately by selective reconstruction method. This

Please cite this article in press as: Vijayakumar C, et al., Segmentation and grading of brain tumors on apparent diffusion coefficient images

using self-organizing maps, Comput Med Imaging Graphics (2007), doi:10.1016/j.compmedimag.2007.04.004

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has been implemented by reconstructing every wavelet coefficient with others set to be zero. This results in four reconstructed

images for wavelet decomposition of level one.

2.4. Self-organizing maps

2.4.1. The self-organizing map model

A self-organizing map (SOM) is a neural network [25] model

developed in 1980 by Teuvo Kohonen. In contrast with other

neural network models, it has a strong physiological inspiration, as it is based on the topological map that exists in the brain

cortex. The cortex is organized so that topologically closer neurons tend to produce answers to the same kind of stimulus; this

is one of the reasons why it is largely employed in visual pattern

recognition.

2.4.2. SOM training

The self-organizing map training method is based on competitive learning, which is a type of neural network unsupervised

learning. It consists of a regular, usually 2D grid of map units

(also called neurons) which are defined as H = {wij ; 1 i

L, 1 j M} where L, M are number of rows and columns

and wij is the weights (also called as prototype vector) assigned

to the (i,j)th unit of SOM architecture. The weights of the units

is defined as wij = [v1 vd ], where d is the dimension of the

weight and v1 , v2 . . . are components of the weight vector. In

this study, the components of the weight vector has been initialized with random numbers and subsequently updated during the

training stage of SOM and the dimension of the weight vector

chosen is seven.

Training pattern vectors used for the SOM training is defined

as T = {bm , 1 m n}, where bm is the mth training pattern vector and n is the number of training pattern vectors.

In this study, total number of training pattern vectors chosen

was 700. The individual training pattern vector (bm ) is defined

as bm = [f1 , f2 , . . ., fd ], where f1 , f2 , . . . are components of the

training pattern vector (bm ) are wavelet filtered values of ADC

image, pixel values of ADC images, FLAIR and T2 weighted

images.

During the training stage, the SOM is searches to find the

unit in its architecture whose weight would be nearer to training

pattern vector (bm ). The similarity criterion [26,27] chosen is

the Euclidean distance. The unit in the SOM architecture whose

weight is similar to training pattern vector (bm ) is called as best

matching unit (BMU) of that training pattern vector (bm ) and

denoted as wm . The BMU of bm is determined as

||bm wm || = min{||bm wij ||}

ij

(6)

updated with step t, and become better representative of the bm ,

as Eq. (7) shows:

wij (t + 1) = wij (t) + (t)hbij (t)(bm wij (t)),

wij (t + 1) = wij (t),

otherwise

(7)

In the above expression, (t) is the learning rate and hbij (t) is

the neighborhood function centered on BMU:

||rb rij ||2

(8)

hbij (t) = exp

2 2 (t)

where rb and rij are positions of best matching unit and (i,j)th

unit in SOM map, respectively. The function (t) is allowed to

decrease monotonically with time. Fig. 1 shows the schematic

display of hexagonal grid SOM utilized for training.

After the complete training, the best matching unit set

(Wbmu ) of training pattern vectors on SOM map, which consist

of BMUs of every training pattern vector has been determined along with its class label set (C). Thus, Wbmu =

{w1 , w2 , . . . , wm , . . . , wn }, where wm is the BMU correspond-

Fig. 1. The training pattern vector (bm ) consist of wavelet filtered images, FLAIR and T2 weighted images The BMU (wm ) of training pattern vector (bm ) is shown

in squared shade on self-organizing map of hexagonal grid. The first and second neighborhood units of wm has been shown in black and gray shades, respectively.

The weights of the individual units (w11 , w1M , wL1 , wLM ) are also be seen on SOM map.

Please cite this article in press as: Vijayakumar C, et al., Segmentation and grading of brain tumors on apparent diffusion coefficient images

using self-organizing maps, Comput Med Imaging Graphics (2007), doi:10.1016/j.compmedimag.2007.04.004

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each element in the set Wbmu to form a class label set C = {c1 ,

c2 , . . ., cm , . . ., cn }where cm is the class associated with the BMU

wm and pattern vector bm .

Subsequently, Wbmu and C has been utilized to determine the

class index Cij of every unit in the SOM maps as

cm if wij = wm Wbmu

(9)

Cij =

0

otherwise

where wij is the weight of (i,j)th neural unit.

2.4.3. SOM visualization

An initial idea of the number of clusters in the SOM, as well as

their spatial relationships, is usually acquired by visual inspection of the map. The most widely used methods for visualizing

the cluster structure of the SOM are distance matrix techniques,

especially the unified distance matrix (U-matrix) [2829]. In our

study, the hexagonal SOM structure has been utilized and hence

U-matrix has been defined on hexagonal planar map space. The

U-matrix provides the values of U-heights which are the distances between weight vectors of neighboring map units on

SOM maps. The U height value (uh(wij )) associated with wij is

calculated as follows:

uh(wij ) =

distance(wij , wkl ); k, l N(wij )

k,l

map. A single U-height value represents local distance structure.

U-matrix is usually visualized using gray shade. The U-matrix

has become the standard tool for the display of the distance

structures of SOM.

2.4.4. SOM segmentation

Fig. 2 shows the overview of segmentation method based on

the self-organizing map implemented in this study in differentiating pathology regions from tumor. The segmentation has been

carried out by fully trained SOM. Initially, testing pattern vector

) consisting of selectively reconstructed wavelet coefficients

(bm

of ADC image, pixel values of ADC image, FLAIR and T2

weighted images has been organized. Subsequently, the testing

pattern vectors are fed in to the trained self-organizing map to

identify their respective best matching units (wij ).

belongs is determined by the nature

The class (Cfeat ) that bm

of wij . If wij Wbmu , the respective class label of class index

. If w

Cij has been considered as the class of bm

ij / Wbmu , then

Cfeat has been determined from the nature of the neighborhood

has

units around wij in SOM map. Thus, the class (Cfeat ) of bm

determined as

if wij Wbmu

Cij

Cfeat =

(10)

max() otherwise

where = {1 , 2 , . . . , r , . . . , h } is the set of probable

. Here h represents the total number of

class labels of bm

classes. In our study, there are seven classes and they are low

grade tumor, edema, cystic tumor, normal tissue, CSF, necrosis, high grade tumor. Hence, the components of would

be {low grade , edema , cyst , nt , csf , nec , high grade }. The com to belong to every

ponents of represent probability of bm

class; for example, r is the component represents the proba to be belongs to rth class. Thus, they have been

bility of bm

determined as

n

m

s

r =

(11)

st rt , 1 r h

s=1

t=1

generally taken as five. For each s, t ranges from 1 to ns , where ns

is the number of units of the sth neighbor of wij . st is the number

of hits experienced by tth unit of sth neighbor of wij . The Hit is

basically the number of times that particular unit in SOM map

has been selected as BMU during the determination of Cij after

the training phase. The parameter n determines whether the unit

t belong to the class r or not. If the unit (t) on the SOM map has

been identified as a BMU of the class r during the training phase

then n returns one otherwise zero. Thus, the probable class label

using self-organizing maps, Comput Med Imaging Graphics (2007), doi:10.1016/j.compmedimag.2007.04.004

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Fig. 3. The registered images of high grade tumors: (a, d and g) apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) images; (b, e and h) T2 weighted images; (c, f and i) FLAIR

images.

). Then, finally, class represented by

testing pattern vectors (bm

the element l = max() would be selected as the class of the

).

testing pattern vectors (bm

3. Results and discussions

To qualitatively evaluate the segmentation result, several

measurements has been applied which are based on Receiver

Operating Characteristics (ROC) analysis [30] and the similarity

of segmented regions. Let GT denote the segmented volume pro-

GTc its complement and Seg the segmented region obtained

by the self-organizing map approach. The considered measurements are:

The measures inspired by ROC analysis:

The True Positive Fraction (TPF), which gives a measure

of the sensitivity of the method, corresponding to the probability of detection:

Seg GT

TPF = sensitivity =

GT

Fig. 4. The registered images of low grade tumor: (a) apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) image; (b) T2 weighted image; (c) FLAIR image.

using self-organizing maps, Comput Med Imaging Graphics (2007), doi:10.1016/j.compmedimag.2007.04.004

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probability of false alarm and give a measure of specificity

(specificity = 1 FPF):

FPF =

|Seg GT|

GTc

of 10 patients (6 high grade + 4 low grade) who were diagnosed

as having brain tumors. The original images of both high and

low grade brain tumors are registered to have pixel to pixel

correlation. This has been achieved by bringing all the images

images of both high and low grade brain tumors. The cranium

has been subsequently removed by the method described in

Section 2.2. Fig. 5 shows the images after the removal of the

cranium.

In this study, Daubechies db2 wavelet basis was used as

the basis for the wavelet decomposition. The method proposed in this paper, like most other wavelet-based methods,

does not use the wavelet decomposition explicitly. Rather, it

directly manipulates the two-dimensional wavelet coefficients.

The manipulation was carried out by performing reconstruction

Fig. 5. The images after removing the cranium. High grade tumors: (a, d and g) apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) images; (b, e and h) T2 weighted images; (c, f

and i) FLAIR images. Low grade tumor: (j) apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) image; (k) T2 weighted image; (l) FLAIR image.

using self-organizing maps, Comput Med Imaging Graphics (2007), doi:10.1016/j.compmedimag.2007.04.004

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resolution coefficients. This approach resulted in forming four

reconstructed images which contain the information of every

wavelet coefficient. Fig. 6 shows the selectively reconstructed

wavelet images of high grade and low grade tumor.

The training pattern vector comprising of the above mentioned reconstructed wavelet images along with ADC, FLAIR

and T2 weighted images has been used to train the selforganizing maps. After the removal of the cranium, the images

with brain tumors have been assumed to have seven different

Fig. 6. Selectively reconstructed wavelet images. High grade tumor: (a) diagonal; (b) horizontal; (c) vertical; (d) low resolution. Low grade tumor: (e) diagonal; (f)

horizontal; (g) vertical; (h) low resolution.

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Fig. 8. Illustration of best matching units of training pattern vectors. Light red: low grade tumor, dark red: high grade tumor, green: cystic tumor, violet: edema, dark

blue: necrosis, yellow: normal tissue (white + gray matter), light blue: CSF. (For interpretation of the references to colour in this figure legend, the reader is referred

to the web version of the article.)

cystic region of the tumor, necrosis, edema, CSF and normal

tissue (white + gray matter). Thus the training pattern vectors of

those seven classes have been chosen carefully from MR images

of different patients. Totally 700 such pattern vectors (100 of

every class) have been collected.

As with the SOM, the initial weights of the network are critical and in this study, small random values between 0 and 1

have been set as the initial weight values. The map is a two

dimensional hexagonal grid with a 20 20 neuron matrix. The

number of neurons is chosen to be 400. Table 1 summarizes

the parameters used in this study. The number of training steps

equals 10,000. During the training, the function defined in Eq.

Table 1

Summarizes the parameters and their values used in this study

SOM parameters

Values

Training steps

Initial (t)

Final (t)

Weight vector dimension

Pattern vector dimension

Training pattern size

20 20

10,000

0.1

0.01

7

7

700

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(8) has been utilized as the neighborhood function hbij (t) centered on BMU. The value of (t) has been chosen such that

neighborhood function should be able to cover the entire SOM

map in the initial 2000 iterations of the training and then slowly

allowed to narrows down to BMU as training progresses. The

initial value of learning rate (t) has been chosen as 0.1. As the

training progressed, the value of (t) has been annealed to 0.01.

The training is repeated several times using the same number

of training steps to get the better results as explained in Section

2.4.2. After achieving the best clusters in the training, the training pattern vector has been presented once in a cyclic way to the

trained SOM to evaluate the final BMU set (Wbmu ), class label

set (C), class index (Cij ) and the number of hits ( st ) encountered

by each best matching unit.

The U-matrix visualization of the SOM cluster results are

shown in Fig. 7. As explained in Section 2.4.3, the U-matrix

and thus shows the cluster structure of the map. This distance

between neighboring units in SOM map has been varying from

0.27380 to 0.00586. Since the U-matrix visualizes these distances through gray scale maps, the high values of the U-matrix

(higher distance) indicate a cluster border (white region), uniform areas of low values (lower distance) indicate clusters

themselves (gray and black regions). The patterns of the classes

such as cystic tumor, CSF, normal tissue and necrosis has formed

strong clusters and the inter cluster distance between them is

found to be high. But others such as high grade tumor, low

grade tumor and edema formed clusters with short inter cluster

distance. Fig. 8 illustrates the best matching units of training

pattern vectors on the SOM hexagonal grid. The units which

have not been hit by any training pattern vectors that are not

part of Wbmu are not shown for the better visualization of BMUs

Fig. 9. Number of hits of training pattern vector on fully trained SOM: (a) low grade tumor; (b) cystic part of tumor; (c) necrosis; (d) normal tissue (white + gray

matter); (e) CSF; (f) edema; (g) high grade tumor.

using self-organizing maps, Comput Med Imaging Graphics (2007), doi:10.1016/j.compmedimag.2007.04.004

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Fig. 10. The segmentation results of SOM: (ac) high grade tumor; (d) low grade tumor. Dark red: high grade tumor, light red: low grade tumor, light green: cystic

part of tumor, violet: edema, blue: necrosis, dark green: normal tissue (white + gray matter), white: CSF. (For interpretation of the references to colour in this figure

legend, the reader is referred to the web version of the article.)

of training pattern vectors. The BMUs of classes such as cystic tumor, CSF, normal tissue and necrosis formed distinct

isolated clusters. On the other hand, BMUs of the classes

such as high grade tumor, edema and low grade tumor formed

mixed clusters. Fig. 9 represents the number of hits encountered by each BMU on fully trained SOM. The number of hits

of BMUs of every class has been shown separately with the

color code varying from yellow to red where red represents

the maximum number of hits and yellow represents the minimum number (one) of hit. The units which are not part of the

BMUs of any class are shown as red circle. As it is clearly

evident in the above figures, the BMUs of cystic tumor, low

grade tumor, high grade tumor and normal tissue forms well

definite shaped cloud on SOM maps and number of hits experienced by each BMUs were found be around certain specific

BMUs within their cloud. On the other hand, the number of hits

experienced by the BMUs of edema, CSF and necrosis were

totally distributed equally with in their BMU clouds on SOM

maps.

method proposed in Section 2.4.4. The normal tissues and CSF

were assigned dark green and white color respectively for the

better visualization from other pathological regions. To validate

these results, the sensitivity and the specificity of the SOM were

determined against the manually segmented regions. Two experienced MR specialist segmented the images manually and taken

as the ground truth. Table 2 summarizes the sensitivity and specificity values of proposed SOM method. The overall sensitivity

and specificity of the proposed method has been observed as

0.86 and 0.93, respectively. The tumors (low grade, high grade,

cystic) have been observed to have higher sensitivity and specificity in comparison with other pathological regions. The over

all segmentation of normal tissue, CSF has been found to have

good sensitivity and specificity values; however the false prediction of some normal tissue as CSF in the boundary regions

has also be seen in the segmentation images. The necrosis has

been identified to have least sensitivity values due to its frequent

misclassification with CSF.

using self-organizing maps, Comput Med Imaging Graphics (2007), doi:10.1016/j.compmedimag.2007.04.004

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Table 2

Summarizes the sensitivity (true positive factor) and specificity (1 false positive factor) values of self-organizing maps

Patterns

Sensitivity

Specificity

Cystic tumor

Necrosis

Normal tissue

CSF

Edema

High grade tumor

0.88

0.87

0.79

0.83

0.82

0.94

0.87

0.98

0.95

0.94

0.89

0.93

0.91

0.93

4. Conclusion

Self-organizing map is an unsupervised competitive neural

network that uses the neighborhood interaction set to approximate lateral neural interaction and discovers the topological

structure hidden in the pattern vector for visual display in one or

two dimensional space. The results of our study shows that the

self organizing maps might be used to segment tumor, necrosis, cysts, and edema, and normal tissue and grade the tumors

simultaneously on the ADC images, its wavelet filtered images

along with FLAIR and T2 weighted images. However the sample size of our study is very small and need a larger sample size

to evaluate the full strength of the proposed method. Since ADC

values have been correlated with the degree of cellularity, the

segmentation and grading of tumors based on the ADC images

and its wavelet images might have strongly dependence on the

cellularity of the region. However, further studies are being carried out to evaluate usefulness of perfusion weighted images

[31,32] along with ADC coefficient maps to segment and grade

the tumors in magnetic resonance images.

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C. Vijayakumar was born in Coimbatore, India, in 1979. He received the Masters in Physics degree from Bharathiyar University, Coimbatore, India in 2001.

In 2002, he joined Defense Research and Development organization (DRDO)

as Scientist and currently working in Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Armed Forces Medical College, Pune, India. His research interests are

artificial neural networks, image segmentation, image vision, multiresolution

analysis.

Gharpure Damayanti received the MSc and PhD degrees from Pune University in 1984 and 1992, respectively. She joined the Department of Electronic

Science, University of Pune, India in 1988. Since then she has worked on a

number of research projects and consultancy projects related to machine vision

applications, design of embedded E-nose, hardware implementation of Automatic trajectory tracking system, etc. Her current research interests include

using self-organizing maps, Comput Med Imaging Graphics (2007), doi:10.1016/j.compmedimag.2007.04.004

+Model

CMIG-774;

12

No. of Pages 12

ARTICLE IN PRESS

C. Vijayakumar et al. / Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics xxx (2007) xxxxxx

segmentation, odor analysis and embedded system design.

Rochan Pant was born in Dhanbad, India, in 1966. He completed his Bachelors

Degree in Medicine (MBBS) in 1988 from the Armed Forces Medical College,

Pune, India. He was commissioned into the Indian Navy. He completed his

postgraduate studies and received a Masters Degree (MD) in Radiodiagnosis in

1995 from the Armed Forces Medical College, Pune, India. He completed a 2year fellowship in Interventional Radiology at the Bombay Institute of Medical

Sciences, Mumbai, India. He is at present Associate Professor at the Department

of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Armed Forces Medical College, Pune, India.

His research interests are neurovascular interventions, cerebral perfusion studies,

and renovascular disease.

C.M. Sreedhar was born in Coimbatore, India, in 1965. He completed his Bachelors Degree in Medicine (MBBS) in 1986 from the Armed Forces Medical

College, Pune, India. He was commissioned into the Indian Army. He completed

his postgraduate studies and received a Masters Degree (MD) in Radiodiagnosis in 1993 from the Armed Forces Medical College, Pune, India. He received

a years training in MRI and CT techniques at Calcutta, India. He is at present

Associate Professor at the Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Armed

Forces Medical College, Pune, India. His research interests are Imaging of Cerebral Tumours, Diffusion and Perfusion imaging in the brain, Imaging of CNS

infections in AIDS, MRI in congenital heart disease, and peripheral vascular

imaging.

using self-organizing maps, Comput Med Imaging Graphics (2007), doi:10.1016/j.compmedimag.2007.04.004

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