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Physical Constants of Various Polyamides:

Poly[imino(I -oxohexamethylene)],
(Polyamide 6)
Poly(iminoadipoyl-iminohexamethylene),
(Polyamide 66)
Poly(iminohexamethylene-iminosebacoyl),
(Polyamide 610)
Poly[imino(I -oxododecamethylene)],
(Polyamide 12)
Rakesh H. Mehta
E.I. DuPont de Nemours & Co., DuPont Nylon, Chattanooga, Tennessee, USA

Property

Polyamide 6

Polyamide 66

Polyamide

610

Polyamide 12

See Wear Resistance

Abrasion

Ref.
13

Absorption (%)

Water, moldings 20-90C saturation


Ethanol, moldings 20C saturation
Butanol, moldings 20C saturation
Glycol, moldings 2oC, saturation
Methanol, moldings 2oC, saturation
Propanol, moldings 20C saturation
Adhesive Bond Strength,

9.5 f 0.5
9-17
5-9
6-13
12-16
9-13

nI
nl

3.3 * 0.3
8-13
8-12
2-4
16
10

1.6ztO.2
9
-

8S
-

tensile (MPa) = (N/mm)

PA-aluminium
PA-steel
PA-copper
Birefringence,

8.5 It 0.5
9-12
4-8
2-10
9-14
9-12

68
70
76

39
39
39

1.582
1.519

51
51
55

(A .)
1.580
1.530

* This table includes data compiled by R. Pfltiger for the third edition of Polymer Handbook.
v/121

PHYSICAL

v/122

CONSTANTS

OF

VARIOUS

POLYAMIDES

Brittleness Temperature, ASTM D746 (C)


PA-6
DAM
-

57-59
PA-610

PA-66

SO%RH
-

PA-12

DAM

SO%RH

DAM

50%RH

-80
- 100

- 65 [M, = 18000]
- 8 5 [M = 340001

- 90
-

- 62
-

Bulk Modulus B (N/mm *)


(Crystalline rods, dry)

4400

3300

DAM

5O%RH

2300

4000

Chemical Resistance of Nylons at 23 C


Acetic acid (10%)
Acetaldehyde (40%)
Acetone (100%)
Butanol (100%)
Carbon tetrachloride (100%)
Diesel oil (100%)
Ethanol (96%)
Formic acid (3%)
(10%)

3O
2
1
1
1
1
1
:d

3
2
1
I
1
1
1
3
4

2b
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
-

Gasoline unleaded (100%)


Heptane (100%)
Hydrogen peroxide (2%)
Dichloromethane
(100%)
Perchloroethylene
(100%)
Phenol (75%)
Potassium hydroxide (10%)
Sulfuric acid (10%)
Toluene (100%)
Transformer oil (100%)

1
1
4
2
1
3
1
4
1
1

1
1
4
2
1
3
1
4
1
1

1
1
2
3
2
3
1
2
1
1

57,59

Considerable absorption and/or attack; limited product life.


Limited resistance, absorption causing dimensional changes and slight reduction in properties.
Resistant, little or no absorption.
Material is soluble or decomposes in short time.

Coefficient of Friction (dry)


(a) Average depth of roughness R z in (pm) *
0.1
0.5
1.0
2.0
4.0
6.0

0.35
0.33
0.32
0.32
0.36
0.43

(b) Average surface pressure in (MPa) = (N/mm)


R, Optimal
R, 1.5-3pm
0.02
0.40
0.05
0.36
0.1
0.35
0.15
0.38
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
1.0
0.43
1.2
5.0
0.48
15.0
0.48
R, ~0.3 urn
Stick-slip-motion
Average surface pressure 0.1 MPa;

surface temperature <4OC.

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (K-l) ( x 104)

0.5
0.43
0.38
0.35
0.38
0.46

0.55
0.45
0.38
0.35
0.37
0.40

R, 1.5-3pm
0.40
0.36
0.35
0.38

R, 0.5-l pm
0.40
0.36
0.35
0.38

0.44
0.50
0.51
Stick-slip-motion

0.4
0.32
0.29
0.26
0.24
0.23
0.22
0.21
0.19
0.18

13

13

0.44
0.50
0.51
Stick-slip-motion

13

Physical
Coefficient of linear Thermal Expansion,
PA-6
DAM

5O%RH

DAM

5O%RH

DAM

8.1

V/l23

Polyamides

cLb
a

PA-12
DAM

5O%RH

5O%RH

14.9

7-10
10-14
6.2
23.4
- 4.5

CLC

7-10
10-14

8-10

11
20-23
52

2.1
22.0

CCC

(b) Volume, 20C tryst. (K-t) ( x 104)


Energy

Various

57.59
PA-610

(a) Linear crystalline 20C


100C
Monoclinic cx a

Cohesive

of

ASTM D696 (lo- mrn/mmC)

PA-66

Triclinic CL

Constants

2.7

52

2.8

3.8

See Solubility Parameter

2.9

55

51

(MPa)
(a) Dependence on temperature and pressure (talc.
20 (C)
50 (MPa)
100
150
300
120
50
100
150
300
200
>lOO

Compressibility

(b) Dependence on water content


< 1.5%
>-2%
melt

335 x 10-6

62 x 1O-6 (50)
58
54
50
125
115
95
75
- >300 (17)

200 x 10-6

137 x 1Om6 (48)


226 x 1O-6 (48)
280 x 1O-6

200 x 10-6

320 x 1O-6

650 x 1O-6

(MPa) = (N/mm *)

Compressive Strength
Compressive Stress,

from PV7)

1% Deformation, ASTM D695 (MPa)

Temperature 20C
(molded; 2.5% H20)

strain:
strain:
strain:
strain:

Compressive Modulus,

ASTM D695 (MPa)

Compressive Yield Stress,

57-59
20

34
14
28
56
70

21

2410

2830

2070

91

73

1%
2%
4%
6%

13

58

1% Offset, ASTM D695 (MPa)

58
83

Data See also Unit Cell Dimension


Effect of Crystallinity on Solvent Absorption (% Weight Gain)
Crysfa//ographic

59

PA-6
Agent

Water
Methanol
Ethanol
Benzene
Toluene
Acetone
Benzoyl alcohol
Dichloromethane
Chloroform

11
19
17
1
1
4
55
20
34

b:
c:

low

crystalline

PA-66

PA-610

9
3
3
0
0
3
11
8
19

10
14
12
1
1
2
38
16
27

7.5
9
3
0
1
1
3
10
5

4
16
13
1
3
5
40
24
40

PA-12
C

3
9
8
1
1
1
11
13
21

material.

high crystalline material.


References page V- 132

PHYSICAL CONSTANTS OF VARIOUS POLYAMIDES

v/124

Property

Polyamide 6

Crystallization
Crystalline Density, X-ray (g/cm3)
Max. linear growth rate of crystals
Vmax @*m/S)
Activation energy E,(kJ/mol)
Density (Mg/m3) = (g/cin3)
Crystalline c1, monoclinic
y, hexagonal
y, monoclinic
y, pseudohexagonal
cx, triclinic
cz, triclinic

66

Polyamide

1.23
3.3

1.24
20

1.16

56.5

64.5

53.6

610

Polyamide

1.220 (47)
1.24
1.248
0.989
1.09
1.13-1.145

1040
density

a=950-

Deformation Under Load, ASTM D621 (%)


1 4 MPa
28 MPa

Ref.
65
51
51

1.034 (9)

0.960
1.09
1.12-1.14

crystallinity

12

1.24 (53)
1.13
1.17
1.155 (42)

Melt 270 0 C!l?iiinic


Moldings,
amorphous
crystalline
Correlation with
(moldings)

Polyamide

1.156 (8)

0.913
1.05
1.09

0.840
1.01
1.04 (15)

36
36

830- 900
density

1.6
1.8

36

1.4
1.5

58.59

Dielectric Constant e, Dielectric Loss, tan 6 ( x 1 04)

Frequency (s-l)
PA

104

105

106

8,

tans

E,

tan&

E,

140
120
65
840
2900
1450

3.1
3.2
3.5
4.6
11.5
7.3

100
120
100
600
1650
1400

3.0
3.2
3.4
4.2
8.8
5.6

100
140
140
520
1500
1450

3.0
3.2
3.4
3.8
7.1
4.5

160
170
190
540
1900
1300

3.0 200
3.1
220
3.3
240
3.6
550
5.7 2100
3.8
920

66 -30
3.1
120
0
3.3
110
30
3.6
85
60
5.0
810
90
10
2000
23/50%RH* 7 . 5 1 1 0 0

3.1
3.3
3.5
4.6
8.9
5.9

105
120
125
590
1450
1020

3.1
3.2
3.4
4.3
7.6
4.8

105
135
180
460
1300
1000

3.0
3.2
3.4
4.0
6.2
4.1

130
160
215
390
1450
900

610 -30
120
3.0
0
3.0
130
3.2
100
+30
+60
4.6
900
f90
13
2500
20/65%RH* 6 . 5 2 0 0 0

3.0
3.0
3.2
4.2
10.5
5.4

110
130
150
650
1700
1500

3.0
3.0
3.1
3.9
8.5
4.5

100
130
170
570
1700
1300

3.0
3.0
3.0
3.5
6.5
4.0

110
140
200
540
1900
1000

12

3.0
3.1
3.5
8.5
15

160
200
500
2000
2000

2.9
3.0
3.3
6
13

100
190
450
2300
1600

2.9
3.0
3.1
4.5
10

50
130
350
1300
2600

- 30
0
30
60
90
23/50%

-30
0
30
60
90

.sr

103

tan8

(C)

102

3.1
3.2
3.5
5.2
15.9
RH* 10.9

30
170
3.1
200
4.0
700
11.5
2300
>20
>5000

tans

tan&

100
40
60

120
40
80

tan S

Ed

3.0
180
3.1
230
3.2
300
3.4
550
4.4 1900
3.5
550

3.0
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.7
3.3

120
160
300
480
1250
320

3.0
3.0
3.1
3.2
3.4
3.2

55
100
200
260
550
190

3.0
165
3.1
200
3.2
250
3.7
370
5.0 1600
3.7 700

3.0
160
3.0
200
3.1
255
3.5
360
4.0 1300
3.4
450

3.0
3.0
3.1
3.3
3.4
3.3

100
160
220
320
810
280

3.0
3.0
3.0
3.1
3.2
3.2

49
81
135
240
440
170

3.0
3.0
3.0
3.4
5.2
3.5

3.0
130
3.0
190
3.0
210
3.3
500
4.0 1500
3.2
550

3.0
3.0
3.0
3.1
3.5
3.1

80
160
170
360
800
350

3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.1
3.0

55
100
130
250
350
200

a Ref. 5.
b Saturated
Dielectric Strength (V/cm) ( x 10 -4)
(VDE 0303, part 2; IEC-243, electrode K2O/P50)
DV
Dry 100C
Moist ISO- 1110

109

tans

150
170
210
540
1900
800

Ed

108
e,

E,

tan8

10

100
60

90
25

Physical

Property

Polyamide

Polyamide 6

Diffusion See also table Permeability Constants in this Handbook


Coefficient D H20, 20C
0.4
(cmh) x lo8 60C
5.5
100C
55
Activation energy Hz0
46
E&J/mol)
Elongation (IS0 R527) ultimate (%)
Molded (s = 3 mm), dry
Molded (s = 3 mm), moist
ISO-1110
Molded at yield
Dry film, NK 23/50, s = 25 pm
Longitudinal
Transverse
Biaxially oriented
Longitudinal
Transverse

66

Constants

Polyamide

of

610

Various

Polyamides

Polyamide 12

0.2
3.5
35
58

0.1
1.5
30
65

0.3 (16)
7 (16)
85 (16)
71 (16)

>50
>50

40
>50

>50
>50

>50
>50

10

v/125

Ref.

300
330
70
50

fnthdpy (H/kg)

Temperature T (C) (Ref. to 20C)


60
100
200
250
300
Pressure (MPa) = (N/mm2)
(T= 25C)
100

60
135
380
585
750

85
170
420
590
850

:T= 150C)
0
100
200
Entropy of

80
160
400
580
700

80
165
500
650
800

70
140

17
17

250
340
420

17
17
17

Fusion (J/mol/K)

Crystalline
(melt)
(p + r)(2)-- w) = RTIM, r (bar)
w (cm3/g)
M!A

44-47.5

83-86

110-114

2040 (27), 2890 (18)


0.817 (27), 0.778 (18)
1 0 5 (U), 59 (18)

4590 (18)
0.735 (18)
35.4 (18)

540 (5 1)
0.77 (51)

51

Equation of State*

F/exura/

Strength,

3640 (18)
0.837 (18)
35.3 (18)

51

ASTM D790 (MPa)

57,59

PA-6

PA-66

Temp. (C)

DAM

5O%RH

-40
- 30
23
24
80

145
113
23-20

40
-

*Spencer and Gilmore;

R = 82.06 (cm3bar/mol/K);

DAM
117
-

PA-610
SO%RH

DAM

42
-

PA-12
50%RH

DAM

5O%RH

86
55-57
17
-

37-44
-

u = specific volume (cm3/g) (51).


References page V-132

V/126

PHYSICAL CONSTANTS OF VARIOUS POLYAMIDES

57-59,61-63,67-69

Glass Transition Temperature, Ts (C)

DAM

PA-6
PA-66
PA-610

PA-12

56
82
56
29

65,67
6567
46.50
25,32

5O%RH
C

59,65,75
66,78,80
65,67,70
54,62,-

41.60
46,48
42,5 1
42,-

20
35
40
-

loo%RH
D
3
16
-

-22
- 15
10
42

-32
- 37
-

A: Estimated from melting temperature: T, = 2/3 x T,,,; 9,lO.


B: Calculated from group contribution, 9.10.
C: Dynamic measurements with torsion pendulum; 9,10,11,12.
D: Static Measurement: DSC inflexion point of mechanical property versus temperature or method not identified; 9- 18.
Griheisen Parameter yg
Hardness
Rockwell Hardness,

0.49

0.58

0.45

0.64

51,55

ASTM D785

57-59
PA-66

PA-6
DAM
R116-119

PA-610

PA-12

SO%RH

DAM

5O%RH

DAM

5O%RH

R97-101

R118-121

R108

RllO-111

Dry, 23C

Ml00

Moist ISO- 110, 23C

M 70

Ball Indentation Hardness H358/30


Dry, 23C
Dry, nucleated, 23C
Moist ISO- 110, 23C

(MPa) = (N/mm2)

M 105
M95

R 75

5O%RH

R106-110

R 110

M 60

(DIN 53 456). (ISO-2039)


150
160
160
170
70
100-110

See also corresponding table in this Handbook


20C crystalline (J/mol/K)
204

DAM

120

98

80

Heat Capacity

374

55

- 31.400
-54

- 31.400
- 46.5

Heat of Combustion &J/kg)


Heat of Crystallization (W/kg)

354

502

51
25

Heat Distortion Temperature

ASTM D648 (C)


Load
MPa

57,59
PA-66

PA-6
DAM

0.5
1.8

5O%RH
-

55-75

(ISO-R 75) (C)


Molded, dry, 0.45(N/mm2)
Molded, dry, 1.8(N/mm2)
Heat of Formation

= (MPa) method B
method A

PA-610

DAM

5O%RH

DAM

235
90

175
66

PA-12
5O%IW
160
60

DAM

5O%RH
250

120
50

>160
55-90

>200
100-110

>160
65-85

150
55

190 (25)
230-278
240-260 (24)
45

196 (25)

215

95 (15)

See Enthalpy

Heat of Fusion (kJ/kg)

Crystalline from AH,


Crystalline from AH,,, for a-structure
Amorphous, annealed 8 h at 50C
Heat of Sorption

H20 c 150C
Melt

(J/mol)

-45.6 x lo3 (43)


- 76.8 x lo3 (14)

45 (15)

- 58.5 x 103 (37)

** To = (d?V,/C, (55) where (Y is the coefficient of expansion (K-l), B is the bulk modulus (N/mm2),
specific heat capacity (mJ/K/mol).

V, is the molar volume (cm3/mol),

C, is the

Physical

Property

Polyamide 6

lgnifion Temperatures (ASTM D1929-1977)


Flash-ignition
temperature
Self-ignition
temperature

Polyamide

66

Constants

of

Various

Polyamide 610

Polyamide

12

400
440

390

415

57-59.62-64

PA-6
DAM

-40
23

48
53

PA-66
5O%RH

DAM

267

Tensile Impact Strength, ASTM Dt822

43
53

DAM

107

PA-12
5O%RH

43
53

DAM

5O%RH

55
60

64

85

(KJ/m2)

57-59
PA-66

50%RH

Short 147-250
Long

PA-610
5O%RH

PA-6
DAM

Ref.

(C)

/mpact Strength, Izod, notched, ASTM D256 (J/m)


Temp.
(Cl

v/127

Polyamides

Not broken

DAM

PA-12

5O%RH

DAM

5O%RH

DAM

5O%RH

231

168-200

1470

158
[hi,, = 180001
504
[M, = 180001
535
Not
[M, = 340001

Notched, Charpy, DIN 53453 (MPa)


DAM (20C)
Conditioned 4 months, 20C and 65% RH
Izod (ISO-180, method 1A) (J/m)
Dry, 23C
Dry, - 40C
Moist, ISO- 1110, 23C
Infrared Spectrum See Ref. 21 and DIN
Magnetic Susceptibility (cm/g) ( x 106)

PA-610

broken

57-59
3-6
Not broken

2-3
12-30

4-10
13-15

50-100
30-50
120

40-60
30-50
110

50
35
75

50-200
-

53746 (draft)
0.7610.63

loss, tan 6 (IS0 537)


(y=O.l-10Hz) dry 20
dry 40
dry 60
dry 80
dry 100
(< lo4 Hz) dry 23
(lo3 Hz) 0.72% HZ0
(lo3 Hz) 120

51

Mechanical

0.016
0.048
0.175
0.127
0.064

0.016
0.026
0.083
0.127
0.064
io.02 (68)
0.12 (68)
0.2 (68)

0.016
0.10
0.17
0.10
0.055

0.01
0.048
0.16
0.08
0.048

220
231 (32)
260
See Ref. (27)

262

220

178
187 (15)

270
See Ref. (45)

60
9.5 x lo-l4 (250C)

60
7.2 x lo-l4 (280C)

60

60

Melting Point (IS0 3 146, method C) (moldings) (C)


Equilibrium melting point
a-Crystalline
Pressure dependence

57,59

M e / f Viscosity

Flow activation energy* Ee (kJ/mol)


Coefficient K of zero-shear-ratemelt viscosity ** (Pa s)

31
31

*v=vo(To) exp[-%(+-A)]
**7jo(Mw)

= K f&' 34
(
>

References page V- 132

PHYSICAL CONSTANTS OF VARIOUS POLYAMIDES

V/128

Property

Polyamide 6

Polyamide

Modulus (MPa) m (N/mm)


Bulk modulus - See Compressibility and Bulk Modulus B
Loss modulus G See Mechanical Loss
Elasticity modulus (Young) (ISO-R527)
23, dry
3000
23, moist ISO- 110
1500
loo, dry
500

66

Polyamide

3300
1700
600

610

Polyamide 12

2400
1500
400

1400
1200
200

Plexural modulus, ASTM D790 (MPa)

57-59

PA-6
Temp.
(C)

DAM 50% RH

-40
23
77

3010
2720
520

PA-66

3650
410
240

Shear modulus G (IS0 537)


Dry, 23C
Dry, nucleated
Dry, 100C
Dry, 200C
Apparent creep modulus (ISO-899)
Ec/1000/20 (23C, 50% RI-I)
Nucleated
Shrinkage, (ASTM-D955) (%)
(mold temp. 60C; 80 x 10 x 4mm)

Mold

Moisture Absorption See Absorption


Molecular Weight, (repeat unit)
Oxygen Index

3240
2830
690

3450
1210
570

480
-

DAM 50% RH
2240
1970
480

2520
1100
-

PA-12
100% RH
690
-

DAM 50% RH 100% RH


1790
1410

1030
-

1100
1500
200
80

1300
1700
300
150

800

500

120

100

230
440

400
450

400

300

1.4

1.6

1.2

1.1

113.2

226.3

282.4

197.3

25-27

28-29

24

26

0.3-0.4

0.3-0.4

0.3-0.4

(ASTM-D2863) (%)

DV
Permeability

PA-610

100% RH DAM 50% RH 100% RH

3650
970
340

Ref.

See table Permeability Coefficients in this Handbook

Poisson Ratio

(a) Moldings, 20C


(b) Extruded rod; room temp.
compressive axial strain 0.1
0.2
0.4
0.6

0.33

0.1-0.25
0.3-0.36
0.40-0.44
0.43-0.45
0.38

(c) Power factor at lo3 Hz, dry


0.02-0.06
(d) vs. temperature: 100C
0.46
Melt
0.50
(e) Limiting pressure velocity of nylon against steel &Pa x 0.5 m/s)
70

29

29
29
29
51

0.04
0.44 (51)
0.50

0.02
0.47
0.50

85

70

I
!

64

0.50
60

:
I

Refractive Index, q.

Single crystals
u, talc.
p, talc.
y. obs.
Moldings
Resistance

to

Method CT1
CTI-M

Tracking

1.53

1.475 (8)
1.565 (8)
1.58 (8)
1.53

1.475
1.525
1.565
1.53

CT1 600
Cl-I-M 600

CT1 600
CTI-M 600

CT1 600
CTI-M 600

(IEC-Publ. 112)
CT1 600

Physical

Various

Polyamides

DAM

PA-66
SO%RH

59

V/129
57-59

PA-6
DAM

PA-610
5O%RH

66

DAM

57

58

PA-12
5O%RH
-

DAM

5O%RH

34

See Mold Shrinkage

Shrinkage

So/ubi/ify Parameter

(J/cm 3, I2
27.8

Amorphous, 25C
So/vents See table Solvents-Nonsolvents
Sonic Velocity, 20C (m/s)
Heat

(J/g-K)

Specific Volume,

at varying pressures (MPa)

At 25C
Atm
50
100
200
At 100C
Atm
50
100
200
At 200C
Atm
50
100
200
At 300C
Atm
50
100
200
Tension,

51

26

1.7

1.7

1.7

1.26

1.38
1.67
1.97
2.30
2.68
-

1.30
1.55
1.97
2.30
2.68
2.72
2.76
3.35
11.51
3.14

1.38
1.76
2.13
2.22
2.47
2.89
8.16
3.10
2.64
2.68

and temperatures (cm3/g)

58,59

61

0.875
0.865
0.860
0.850

0.880
0.875
0.865
0.855

1.005
0.985
0.970
0.950

0.985
0.975
0.960
0.945

0.895
0.885
0.875
0.860

0.905
0.890
0.880
0.865

1.045
1.020
1.000
0.970

1.020
1.oOO
0.985
0.960

0.945
0.925
0.910
0.890

0.950
0.935
0.920
0.895

1.125
1.085
1.060
1.020

1.130
1.095
1.070
1.030

1.055
1.020
0.995
0.960

1.050
1.020
0.995
0.955

1.210
1.150
1.110
1.060

1.210
1.150
1.110
1.070

40-47; 43
36

40; 44
36

37

31
25

D1044 (mg loss/1OOO

5-6

cycles); CS-17 wheel, 1OOOg


5
-

load
7 [M, = 18000]
4 [M = 340001

38,5 1
22
57.59

57,59

Temperature Index/Thermal Endurance Profile: Typical Values (C)

Not stabilized
5000h
20000 h
Heat stabilized
5000
20000

57,59

critical @N/m)

23C
Melt, 265C
Taber Abrasion,

27.8

in this Handbook
1400-2300 (fibers)(26) 2770 (mouldings) (40)

Effect of temperature (C)


0
40
80
120
160
200
220
240
260
280

Surface

of

ASTM D732 (MPa)

Shear Strength,

Specific

Constants

85
70

85
70

130
120

130
120

100

References page V- 132

v/130

PHYSICAL CONSTANTS OF VARIOUS POLYAMIDES

57-59

Tensile Strength

PA-6
Temp.
(C)

DAM

PA-610

PA-66
SO%RH

DAM

SO%RH

DAM

PA-12
50%RH

DAM

SO%RH

ASTM D638 (MPa)


-40
120
23
81
69
II
68
59
Tensile Strength at Yield, ASTM D638 (MPa)
-40
120
119
23
81
50
77
30
28

108
83
62

103
77
41

83
59
37

83
49
37

55
-

52
-

108
83
62

103
59
41

83
59
29

83
49
-

79
52
24

41
-

Tensile Elongation at Yield, ASTM D638 (%)


-40
23
9
77
-

4
5
30

6
20
30

10
10
30

13
30
-

10
-

20
-

Tensile Elongation at Break ASTM D638 (%)


-40
8
4
23
150
300
II
310
325

20
60
340

20
>200
350

20
100
300

30
220
-

250
-

250
-

(ISO-R 527) (MPa) F (N/mm)


Dry, 23C
Dry, 100C
Moist, 23C (% water)
Moist, 23C (saturated in H20)
Monofilaments 23C 50% RH
draw ratio 4.3 : 1
5.0: 1
Thermal Conductivity (W/m/K)
Moldings
Crystalline (moist) 30C
Amorphous (moist) 30C
Melt 250C
25C dependence on pressure

80, 90 (nucleated)
30
50 (2%)
22

90
40
60 (2%)
35

475-550
675 -775

575-600
650-850

0.23
0.43
0.36
0.21 (33)
1.89

0.23
0.43
0.36
0.15
1.83

70
20
50 (1%)

50
30 (0.9%)

0.23

0.25

11

19
19
12
2

0.35
1.90

2.03

X (25 kbar)
X0

Relative thermal index for 3 mm thickness

57-59

Not stabilized

Electrical
Mechanical
with impact
without impact

125

125

65

75
85

75
85

65
65

130

130

110

105
110

105
110

75
95

1.8 x 1O-3
1.4 x 10-s
0.65 x 10m3

1.4 x 10-s

Heat stabilized

Electrical
Mechanical
with impact
without impact
Thermal Diffusivity

(cm*/s)

100C
Melt 250C

12

Unit Cell Dimensions

Unit cell parameters (A)


PA

Crystal

system

cc-Monoclinic
cL-Monoclinic
n-Monoclinic
P-Monoclinic

Space
group
c;
G

a
9.56
4.81
9.65
4.8

b
8.01
7.61
8.11
3.6-4.1

17.24
17.1
17.2

Angles
a

Y
67.5
79.5
66.3

Units in
Density
cell
(Mg/m 3, E (g/cm3) Refs.
8
4

1.23
1.21

20

41

Physical

Unit cell parameters (A)


PA

66
610
12

Crystal

Space
group

system

y-Monoclinic
a-Triclinic
P-Triclinic
Pseudohexagonal
a-Triclinic
b-Triclinic
Monoclinic
(Pseudohexagonal)

p21/c

9.14
4.9
4.9

4.84
5.4
8.0

16.68
17.2
17.2

4.95
4.9
4.79

5.4
8.0
31.9
(fiber axis)

22.4
22.4
9.58

Constants

of

Various

Polyamides

Angles
a

48.5
90

77
77

49
90
120

Y
121
63.5
67.5
60
63.5
67.5
4

76.5
77

Melt Viscosity Coefficient K of Zero Shear Rate Melt-Viscosity (Pas) Q,(M,) = K(M,/g mol)3.4
7.2 x 1O-4 (280C)
9.5 x 1O-4 (250C)

Units in
Density
cell
(Mg/m 3, E (g/cm 3, Refs.
4
1

1.188
1.24
1.248

(> l&C)
1
2
1.034

1.157

PA-6

PA-6,6

PA-6,lO
PA-12

24
8,lO
8
7,44
8
8

70,71
-

71-75

Viscosity - Molecular- Weight Relationships

Nylon

v/131

Solvent

K ( x 103) (mol/g)

M (x 104)

Refs.

HCOOH (88% vol.)


H2S04 (40% vol.)
Trifluoroethanol
m-cresol
HCOOH (90% vol.)
H2S04 (96% vol.)
o-Chlorophenol

22.6
59.2
53.6
240.0
35.3
115.0
168.0
13.5
46.3
69.4

0.820
0.690
0.750
0.610
0.786
0.670
0.620
0.960
0.750
0.640

0.6- 12.0
0.3-1.3
1.3-10.0
1.4-5.0
0.6-6.5
1.4-5.0
1.4-5.0
0.8-2.4
1.3-13.0
1.0-13.0

1
1
1
0
0
0
0
3
2
2

m-cresol

m-cresol
H2S04 (96% vol.)

Polyamide viscosity: 9 = K x Ma; see Melt Viscosity, and corresponding table in this Handbook,
Volume, Specific (cm3/g)
2OC, Amorphous
27oC, Melt
20C
Change on melting
Melt, 27oC, 1 bar
Volume, Molar (cm 3/mol)
2oC, Crystalline (rods)
2oC, Amorphous
2oC, Amorphous, calcd. from
group contribution
Volume Resistivity (Ohm cm)
Relative humidity 0% (dry)
Saturated at 50% RH, 20C
20C (saturated) 100% RH
Temperature 6oC, dry
Dry, 100C
Dry, 150C
At 50% RH, 100C
Wear Resistance (&km)
R, (pm) average roughness

0.1
0.5
1.0
2.0
4.0
6.0
P (N/mm)
0.02
0.05
0.10
0.25

0.917
1.032
0.8 13 cr-monoclinic
0.02-0.03
1.040

0.917
1.018
0.82 (47) a-triclinic
0.02-0.03
1.010

0.95
1.095
0.865 (8)
0.02-0.03

100
103
104.2

198
207.5
208.3

260
271

195
199.5

x
x
x
x
x

105
104
103
107
109

1 x
2x
4x
8x
3x

105
10
108
10
109

1 x 105
3 x 10
1 x 109
6 x 10
3 x 109
1079
4 x 10

1
2
3
5
5

105
102
100
10
108

0.99

36

0.966 (9) y-monoclinic


0.03
1.19
55
36

height a

0.30
0.28
0.32
0.30
0.35
0.35
0.57
0.48
0.80
0.52
1.00
0.55
average surface pressure (R, optimum, see also Coefficient of Friction)
0.10
0.11
0.24
0.29
0.57
0.48
1.40
1.20

0.20
0.25
0.60
1.00
2.50
3.90

13

0.12
0.30
0.60
1.50

13

References page V- 132

V/l32

PHYSICAL CONSTANTS OF VARIOUS POLYAMIDES

Property

Polyamide 6

Polyamide 66

1 .oo
5.00
15.00

5.70
28.00
86.00

4.80
24.00
72.00

Polyamide 610

Polyamide

12

Ref.

6.00
30.00
90.00

a Average surface pressure: 0.1 N/mm ; surface temperature: < 40C

REFERENCES

1. As long as no other specific reference is cited, the values for


varying polyamides were selected on the basis of the information from the technical manuals of the corresponding
suppliers:
PA66: sMaranyl Al00 (ICI), @Zytel 101 (DuPont). !%Jltramid A3K (BASF). Designation: ISO-1874-PA66,
MR(H),
14-030.
PA6: %apron 8200 (Allied Chemical), &Durethan B31F
(Bayer), @Ultramid B3K (BASF). Designation: ISO-1874PA6. MRH, 14-030.
PA610: @Ultramid S3K (BASF). Designation: ISO-1874PA610, MRH, 14-020.
PA12: aGrilamid L20 (Ems-Chemie). %estamid L1901
(Hiils). Designation: ISO-1874-PA12.
G, 18-010.
Preparation of test specimens and determination of properties according to ISO-1874-2 (1987) and ISO-DP294.
Further property values were taken from the VDWDEWerkstoffblatt, No. 2479, Blatt 1 (1978). VDI-Verlag,
D-4000 Dusseldorf (F. R. Germany) Polyamid-Formstoffe,
a paper which was produced in cooperation
unverstarkt,
with the above named suppliers. This leaflet contains also
further approved values for other homopolyamides such as
PA1 1, PA612 and PA6-3-T.
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